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日本語訳を! 2-(1)

お願いします。  If you had an important story to tell, but most of your audience couldn't read, you might tell the story by drawing it in pictures. If you wanted the story to last a very long time, you might draw those pictures in stone. That's what an Egyptian storyteller did, and his work has lasted more than 5,000 years. It's the story of the first king of Egypt. And the stone is called the Palette of Narmer.  Long before the first king, before there were people of great power, before there were towns to lead, before there were villages with headsmen, the people of Egypt lived like all prehistoric peoples. They lived in small groups on the move. They followed the food.  Ten thousand years ago the area around the Nile hadn't dried up into desert yet. Rain fell more often and fields of grass grew. Elephants plodded about, flapping their ears in the heat. Giraffes nibbled on thorny trees. Vultures rode the warm air currents in search of something dead to eat. The people of Egypt hunted gazelle and dug root vegetables.  By 6,000 years ago, the people of Egypt had begun to herd cattle. When the Nile swelled and flowed over its banks, the people would follow their cattle away from the river. Extended families sometimes joined other groups while the cattle munched in the grasslands. By the end of summer, the heat and the lack of rain shriveled the grass, and the herderr brought the cattle back to the edge of the floodplain―back to the Nile. They planted seeds and grew an early form of wheat called emmer. They grew peas, barley, and melons.  Small villages began to crop up along the Nile, just out of reach of the floodwaters. When the people argued, someone from the group would step in to solve the problem. Pretty soon they would look to that person to solve all of the problems. Power was born.


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 あなたに語るべき大切な物語があり、それなのに、大部分のあなたの聴衆が、読むことができないとすれば、あなたは、絵にそれを描くことによって物語を語るかもしれません。 その物語が、非常に長い期間持ちこたえることを望むならば、あなたは、石にそれらの絵を描くかもしれません。 それが、エジプトの語り部が、行ったことです、そして、彼の作品は、5,000年以上持ちこたえました。 それは、エジプトの最初の王の物語です。 そして、その石は、ナルメルのパレットと呼ばれています。 http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html  最初の王のずっと前、巨大な権力者が登場する前、統率すべき町々が現れる前、酋長のいる村々が登場する前、エジプトの人々は、すべての有史以前の民族と同じような暮らしをしていました。 彼らは、移動する小集団の中で暮らしていました。 彼らは、食物を追い求めました。  1万年前、ナイル川の周辺の地域は、まだ、乾燥して砂漠になっていませんでした。 雨が、より頻繁に降りました、そして、草原が、育っていました。 象たちが、あたりを重い足取りで歩き、熱さの中で彼らの耳をはためかせていました。 キリンは、とげの多い木を、かじっていました。 ハゲワシは、食べるための死体を捜して、暖かい気流に乗って飛んでいました。 エジプトの人々は、ガゼルを狩り、根菜を掘っていました。  6,000年前までには、エジプトの人々は、牛の世話を始めていました。 ナイル川の水かさが増して、その土手からあふれたとき、人々は、彼らの牛を追いたてて、川から離れました。 牛が大草原で草を食んでいる間、大家族は、他の集団に時々加わりました。夏の終わりまでには、暑さと雨不足は、草を枯らしました、そして、遊牧民は、牛を氾濫によって出来た平原の端に連れ帰りました ― ナイル川へ戻ったのです。 彼らは、種をまき、エマーと呼ばれる小麦の初期の品種を育てました。 彼らは、エンドウ、大麦、メロンも栽培しました。 小さな村々が、ナイル川沿いの、ちょうど洪水の水が来ないところに、生じ始めました。 人々が口論したとき、集団の誰かが、介入して、問題を解決しました。 かなりすぐに、彼らは、問題の全てを解決するために、その人を頼るようになりました。 権力が、生まれました。





  • 日本語訳を! 1-(2)

    お願いします。  Without the Nile you wouldn't have much of a kingdom to rule. Strutting might seem a bit silly. Egypt would be home to nothing more than a few wandering bands of nomads passing through the red land, dusty and dragging from the relentless heat, in search of the rare oasis. The Nile, however, the glorious Nile, brought a narrow band of life to Egypt. It carried rich, black dirt and spread it over the floodplains, creating fields for the Egyptians to plant their seeds. The Egyptians called it khemet―the black land. The change from red land to black land was so abrupt you could straddle the border, standing with one foot in red earth and the other in black.  The ancient Egyptians knew tha without the Great River they would have no villages, no fields of wheat, and no cattle. To them the water was sacred. They believed it flowed from paradise and could heal the sick. They wrote songs to the Nike―praising its life-giving force. The Hymn to the Nile began "Hail to thee O, Nile!" and praised the Great River for coming "to give life to Egypt." It may seem as if the ancients got carried away with their praise when they sang, "If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish." But if the Nile did "cease its toil," the people would starve. Maybe they weren't so carried away after all.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(3)

    お願いします。  Life in Egypt revolved around the Great River. Our seasons come and go, marked by weather changes, but not so in Egypt, where the sun always shines. In Egypt the seasoms were marked by changes in the Nile. The first of the three seasons began in July. Egyptians called it akhet. During akhet, heavy rain in Ethiopia poured down from the highlands, swelling streams that fed the Nile. The banks of the Nile overflowed. Flooding may not sound like a good thing, but to the Egyptians it was a very good thing. Those floods left behind that black earth for planting. During the floods, farmlands were covered with water. Everyone uneasily watched the water rise. Would there be enough water? Would the Nile bring enough of that rich, black earth for farmers to plant their seeds? Or would there be too much water? Would whole villages be washed away? It was a delicate balance. If you were the supreme ruler, it would be your job to work it out with the gods so that things went well. You worked with Hapi, the god of the Great River, and more importantly, with the god in charge of the floods, the one with the ram's head―Khnemu. It was your job to be sure there was ma'at, or balance―not too much, not too little.  The Egyptians watched the flood levels obsessively. They measured the water and recorded it. They compared their measurements to the good years. They compared their measurements to the bad years. Everywhere you went, people would have had an opinion on this year's flood level. People talked in the market place. People talked along the roads, over dinner, while washing clothes at the riverbank. Would this be a good year? Would the granaries be full? Or would this be a bad year? Would they suffer the anguish they sang about in The Hymn to the Nile?

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(1)

    お願いします。  Imagine you are the king of Egypt. Strut about a bit, you can. After all, you're the supreme ruler―the Pharaoh, the Great One. You command armies. If you say fight, they fight to the death. You have thousands of servants―a few just to fan you with ostrich feathers when you're feeling a tad overheated. Your brothers and sisters, parents, teachers, and friends have to do what you order. YOU have inherited the right to make laws and dole out punishments. They had better behave. When you walk by, people fall to their knees and press their noses into the dirt. Some tremble when you pass―who knows what you might say to the gods the next time you speak to them? The crops grow because you say so. The Great River flows because you convince the gods it must. Now imagine wielding all that power when you are only six years old. That's how old you would be if you were the Pharaoh Pepi II in Egypt 4,000 years ago.  If you were Pepi II, your kingdom would have looked a lot like the barren, red landscape of Mars if it weren't for one thing―the Great River, a river we now call the Nile. Flowing north, the Nile cuts throtgh the deshret, or the red land. Limestone cliffs rise above the river like castle walls. The ancient Egyptians said the gods put those cliffs there to protect them. In fact, your entire kingdom is surrounded by natural barriers that protect it. To the east and west, the desert keeps out invaders. To the north, before the Nile dumps into the sea, it branches out into a triangle of marshland we call the Delta (it would be hard for your enemies to march through a swamp). And to the south the Nile protects your kingdom again, this time with a series of rocky rapids called the Cataracts.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(3)

    お願いします。  There are challenges to living in a country that is mostly desert. By the time the Old Kingdom rolled around, about 2700 BCE, Egyptians were up to meeting those challenges―the most obvious would concern water. Although the derert continually tried to push in on the farmland along the edge of the Nile, the Egyptians had learned how to push back. They coaxed the waters of the Nile inland, filling the buckets of their shadufs and emptying them into channels they had dug through their gardens. Not only were they irrigating their farmlands, they were expanding them. Farmers grew more food than the people could possibly eat. The king's granaries filled. The government organized and financed massive irrigation projects. When you grow more food than you can possibly eat you are left with something to trade with other nations―grain. What Egyptians didn't have they could now get through trade.  A challenge less obvious to those nnt used to surviving in a desert environment is the lack of wood. There are no tall trees in a desert. Actually, there are no trees at all, with the exception of what grew right along the edge of the Nile and in the occasional oasis. Egyptians needed wood―a lot of wood―especially for boats and coffins. They had their eye on the cedar that grew to the northeast, in the land that we now call Lebanon. It was ideal for both boats and coffins because cedar resists rot, and a rotting boat or a rotting coffin can be a problem. And so it began―we've got grain, we need wood, you've got wood, you need grain, let's trade. It was not much different, in principle, from trading baseball cards.

  • 日本語訳を! 2-(2)

    お願いします。  Five thousand years ago some villages grew very large, and their headsmen grew very powerful. Two villages in particular had grown so large that we would call them towns: Nekhen in the south and Tjeni in the north. Location, location, location―it was all about location even then. Nekhen was the gateway to gold. This southernmost town of the Nile Valley was closest to the Nubian gold mines. Gold made Nekhen fat and prosperous.  Tjeni in the north was also a gateway. This town developed across the Nile from where the cliffs pinched the river into a narrow roadway. Tjeni controlled traffic on the Nile. And it was also here that tradesmen returning from the west entered Egypt. The goods they brought with them made Tjeni fat and prosperous. The wealth and power of Nekhen and Tjeni grew, and when it did, their leaders grew wealthy and powerful, too.  Nothing says wealthy like things. The rarer something is, the more exotic and the finer the quality, the louder it shouts about its owner, "Look at me, I'm rich and powerful, I have all these fabulous things!" Artists no longer had to squeeze their craft making into what time they had left after tending their garden and milking their cows. People would gladly trade whatever the artist needed for the artist's talents. And now enough people lived in one spot to keep the artist busy all year.  For artists location meant something, too. One of the best locations for an artist in ancient Egypt was near a cemetery. The more power people had in life, the more fantastic their burial had to be. The dead were steady customers. Artists sculpted stone vases, molded clay figures, crafted gold jewelry, and carved stone palettes for the tombs of the rich and famous.

  • 日本語訳を!(11)

    お願いします (1) When families get together for holidays and special occasions―after the latest news has been exchanged, and a good meal eaten, and the day has grown long―the old stories come out. Each story is told as if it were the first time, even though everyone has heard it a hundred times before, and can anticipate the next line before it is said out loud. Why are these worn family histories shared again and again? Partly because they hold the character of the people who are in them―they can show us grandma's fierce independence, grandpa's stubborn streak, cousin's temper, and great aunt's love of animals. They hold a hint of who we are and how we hope to be remembered (and some things tha we wish had been forgotten). It is the same with the ancient Egyptian stories told on tomb and temple walls and the tales that circle the columns in the colonnades. Through the millennia, the stories pass down to us keys to unlock the mystery of the people who lived so long ago. (2) Nearly 3,500 years ago Queen Hatshepsut―or as she would have called herself, King Hatshepsut―chose the stories she wanted remembered. Some are true, and others she made up to justify a woman ruling Egypt. How does a queen become a king? How does a king transform into a god? Sometimes it's all in the story you choose to tell. (3) When King Thutmose II died in 1504 BCE, his son, Thutmose III, was too young to rule Egypt. Although his exact age is unknown, it is possible that he was just a young child. So, as was custom, the widowed queen took over until the young king was old enough to rule by himself. The records tell us: "Having ascended into heaven Thutmose II became united with the gods.... Hatshepsut governed Egypt, and the Two Lands were under her control. People worked for her, and Egypt bowed her head."

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(2)

    お願いします。 (5) It was also common for governors to brag that they could support the people in their cnmmunity while the rest of Egypt starved. Ankhtyfy apparently was just as conceited as all the others because his inscription says, I gave bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked...I gave sandals to the barefooted. The whole country has become like locusts going upstream and downstream in search of food; but never did I allow anybody in need to go from this province to another one. I am the hero without equal. (6) Boasts like these led scholars to believe that the First Intermediate Period and all its chaos were brought about by famine. Was all of Egypt starving? Is that why the country fell apart? Archaeologists who study ancient climates don't think that is true. There were droughts in the Old Kingdom and the king was still able to maintain control. And there were good harvests during the First Intermediate Period and yet chaos ruled. The boasts about feeding the hungry were most likely meant to send the message to the people that they needed the governor, that without their local ruler they would suffer as the rest of the country was supposedly suffering. (7) Governors had always recruited military troops from their provinces for their king. Now instead of sending soldiers to the capital, they were using the troops for their own scrambles for power. The strong grew stronger, and the wealthy grew wealthier. The central government splintered. The king's power slipped further.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(6)

    お願いします。  For more than 3,000 years, the sons and the occasional daughter of the rich and the royal studied to become scribes. It was a profession for the privileged. But over time, fewer and fewer scribes learned the ancient sacred symbols. The Greek alphabet found its way into Egyptian writing and even vowels became visible. Eventually, there was no one left who knew how to read those first words drawn in pictures.  In modern times, the curious drawings taunted scholars. The mysterious history of ancient Egypt was right there in front of them. If only someone could read it. The carvings circling temple columns, the paintings coloring coffins, the words written on tomb walls waited in silence for someone to crack the code. Who would be first to figure out what the ancients had written?  In 1799 the French army was in Egypt as part of Napoleon's grand plan to conquer the world. His engineers were rebuilding an old fort along the branch of the Nile called the Rosetta. The men had torn away one wall and were clearing the rubble when they found a gleaming black stone carved in three different scripts. Even though the engineers could not read the words, they knew the stone must be important. Napoleon sent artists to make copies of the text carved in the stone and the copies were sent to scholars all over Europe.  The slab of black stone that the priests had carved the thank-you note into 2,000 years before became known as the Rosetta Stone. Scholars translated the Greek right away, but no one could read demotic or hieroglyphs. How did those curious carvings work?