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お願いします!続き After the discovery of some unburied skeletons on the highest,and therefore latest,street levels at Mohenjo Daro,some scholars assumed that the forts that Indra was destroying were the walled cities of the Indus Valley.But the Late Harappan cities were never destroyed by warfare,and there is no evidence of large groups of people coming from outside South Asia.Historians believe that the mysterious skeletons were people who died from contagious diseases.They were left unburied in abandoned parts of the city so they would not infect the grave diggers. So what happened around 1900 BCE? For many years,historians believed that invaders called Aryans poured into the Indus Valley and,with the help of the horse and bronze or iron weapons,destroyed the Late Harappan civilization. But archaeologists can't find evidence of major warfare,and the body types of the people living in the Indus Valley did not change during this time period.More likely,the disappearing Saraswati River stqained the Late Harappan way of life past the breaking point.Satellite photos of the dried riverbed and excavations along its banks show that the river was huge at one time,almost five miles across.As old ways of living and trade broke down,the people of the Indus Valley began to look around for other ways to stay alive.People from the countryside and highlands who spoke the Indo-Aryan language,people who had known amd traded with the Harappans for many years,became more powerful over time until they could challenge the Harappans' power.


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モヘンジョダロの最も高くにあり、したがって最後となった、通りで埋葬されていない骸骨の発見の後、インドラが破壊していた砦がインダス渓谷の城郭都市であると、推定する学者もありました。しかし、後期ハラッパの都市が、戦争によって破壊されたことは一度もありませんし、人々の大集団が、外部の南アジアから来たと言う証拠もありません。歴史家は、不可解な骸骨は伝染病で死んだ人々であったと思っています。墓掘り人足を感染させないように、彼らは都市のさびれた地区に埋葬されずに放置されたのでした。 それでは、紀元前1900年頃に何があったのでしょうか?長年、歴史家は、アーリア人と呼ばれる侵略者が、インダス渓谷に殺到し、馬と青銅製や鉄製の武器の助けを借りて、後期ハラッパ文明を破壊したと信じていました。 しかし、考古学者は大きな戦争の証拠を見つけることができません、そして、インダス渓谷に住んでいる人々の体型はこの時期、変わりませんでした。より可能性のあるのは、枯れて行くサラスワティー川が、後期ハラッパの生活様式に重圧を与え、ついには限界点を越えたのかもしれません。干上がった川床の衛星写真とその堤に沿った発掘物は、川が一時期は巨大であり、川幅がほぼ5マイルであったことを示しています。生活や交易の昔の様式が壊れて行くにつれて、インダス渓谷の人々は生きのびていく別の方法を捜し始めました。インド・アーリア語を話した田園地方や高地の人々、長年にわたってハラッパの人々を知り交易をおこなってきた人々が、歳月を経て力を蓄え、ついには、ハラッパの人々の力に挑むことが出来る様になったのでした。





  • 日本語訳を!c10-5

    お願いします!続き Between about 1500 and 600 BCE,Indo-Aryan speakers gained power and conquered areas in the Ganga River valley beyond the lands that the Harappans once controlled.Cave paintings from Central India show them overwhelming the local pepole with their horses,chariots,and iron weapons.The language and traditions of people from other regions replaced the old ways of the Harappans,until the Harappans and everything they made-the shining cities,the bustling trade networks,even their language-was lost or buried,forgotten for thousands of years.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-2

    お願いします!続き  A person who could call the deities to sacrifice was a very special person indeed.These were the Brahmin teachers.In the Vedic books called the Upanishads,they teach and talk bbout the Ultimate Supreme Being,called Brahman.Many religious people believed that the Ultimate Supreme Being pervaded all of creation.According to the Upanishads,“The finest essence here-that constitutes the self of this whole world; that is the truth; that is the self.And that's how you are....”Knowledge of Brahman made one enlightened and stopped the endless cycle of death and rebirth.But even if you were a Brahmin,there were no guarantees that you would be enlightened.  Being good was not enough to be reincarnated as a human,never mind to reach the level of Brahman.You also had to purify yourself through special lituals.People tried to wash away the sins that they committed during their life through rituals such as bathing in sacred rivers,singing hymns to the deities,giving alms to the poor and to charitable organizatioms,and taking care of old and weak animals as well as people.They gave away all their wealth,devoted themselves to meditation, and made pilgrimages to sacred places.  Many of these sacred places were found along the shores of India's Ganga River.Just as the Indus Valley civilization grew from the life-giving waters of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers,so the Brahmanical religion grew up along the banks of the Ganga River.The people of ancient South Asia thought of the river as a beautiful deity.According to the Ramayama,“[The]Ganga[river is]flowing along the valley,coming down from the Himalayas,carrying within her the essence of rare herbs and elements found on her way.She courses through many a kingdom,and every inch of the ground she touches becomes holy.”

  • 日本語訳を!c10-3

    お願いします!続き The way that people buried their dead changed during the Late Harappan times.At first,they changed only the way they placed the bodies,which were buried on their side and oriented northeast to southwest instead of north and south.The dead were buried with pottery and occasionally ornaments.Later,burial practices really changed.The dead body was left in the open and exposed to animals and insects until only the bones were left.Later,people collected the bones of the dead and put them into a large painted jar that was buried along with smaller pots and offerings,The pottery from the earlier burials looked like Harappan pottery-now the urns used for pot burials had very different painted designs.Changing religious ideas during a difficult time could have been the cause of these new styles.Or,a new people might have introduced them. By 1200 BCE,weapons and tools made of iron began to appear.By 600 BCE,iron was common.Although scholars used to think the South Asians learned how to make iron from people in Turkey,they now believe South Asians discovered it for themselves. And does the appearance of iron weapons mean that people were fighting wars in South Asia? Scriptures called the Rig Veda,which probably come from this time although they weren't written down until several hundred years later,describe forests being cut down as well as the rain and thunder deity Indus destroying forts and conquering his enemies: With all-outstripping chariot-wheel,O Indra,thou far-famed,hast overthrown the twice ten kings of men... Thou goest on from fight to fight intrepidly,destroying castle after castle here witg strength.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-2

    お願いします!!続き Althongh they were made by hand and not machine,the fired bricks used used for building in the cities came in just one size and shape:a rectangle about 11 inches long and 5 1/2 inches wide(28 cm by 14 cm).These fired bricks were so strong that some of them have been recycled and are being reused in modern buildings.Bricks weren't the only things that were the same size-walls and doorways throughout the Indus Valkey are about the same size and design.Even wells were lined with the same styles of wedge-shaped bricks.And every city had a drainage system for carrying away rainwater and sewage from toilets and bathing areas. Who decided to make one-size-fits-all bricks?Who said that street had to run north/south and east/west?Today' cities are full of differences-the size,style,orientation,and building materials of any ten buildings are almost never the same.So why were the ancient Indus cities so similar? Maybe because one person-or one small group of people-was making all the decisions.Maybe a strong gouernment or strong religious leaders told everyone what to do.But there is no sign of large palaces or temples-the buildings of powerful governments and religious leaders.Perhaps the people of the Indus Vally had religious or historical beliefs that taught them that they should build everything in the same way.No one knows for sure. The cities of the Indus Valley were very well organized.They were divided into walled neighborhoods,with each neighborhood specializing in one kind of work.Potters lived in one area,and coppersmiths lived in another.People probably lived with their extended families-children,parents,cousins,aunts and uncles,and grandparents-all doing the same kind of work.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-1

    お願いします!  “All creatures from Brahma to the small insect have to face the result of their deeds,”said the Vedic deity Vishnu. If you were a student who never practiced your Vedas,or a farmer who let your land go to seed,or a craftsman who sold leaky pots,your parents or your wife or your customers would probably get angry with you.But that's not all.What Vishnu meant was that you could pay in your next life for not meeting your duties in this one.Your actions had results,which were called karma.Many ancient South Asians believed that most people's souls came back into the world after they died,and not necessarily in a human body.  On the other hand,if you were especially good,you could come back as a Brahmin.Brahmins were considered to be the most pure of all human beings.Only they knew the hymns and rituals from the Vedas to call the deities to the fire sacrifice.They knew how to start a fire with a bow drill and,once that fire was started,how to offer sacrificed animals and clarified butter(or“ghee”)to the flames as they chanted special hymns.  By around 1000 BCE,the Vedic rituals practiced by Brahmins began to change.Earlier traditions of the Indus civilization and other local beliefs began to creep back into use.The Brahmins began to use Harappan-style conch-shell ladles to pour sacrifices and blow Harappan-style conch shells to call the deities.They began to practice the ancient Harappan discipline of yoga and decorate the floors where they performed rituals with sacred designs called mandalas,made out of powdered conch shells and rice powder.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-2

    お願いします!続き Jewelers weren't the only Late Harappan craftsmen who changed their ways.Potters developed a new kind of kiln that could get hotter faster.This kiln had a hollow center.Holes around the edge of the kiln floor let the fire into the chamber with the pottery.The higher temperatures made pots stronger.So did a new way of working the clay-craftsmen used a wooden paddle and a smalk lump of clay like an anvil to beat the clay walls of a pot and make the walls thinner and stronger.Working this way,potters could make pots with a rounded base instead of a flat base,which made them easier to balance on the hip or head and easier to pour from.The hot temperatures of the new kilns also let potters try out new kinds of black and red glazes and,in time,different designs.Did a clever,inventive potter bring about these changes? Or did new people moving to the city introduce them? Potters also began to make small figures of horses,donkeys,and two-humped camels-animals that until this period been used only high in the mountains of Central Asia.What's more,the people using these animals did not write Indus script,although they did use circular seals with geometric designs similar to those found on seals during the Harappan period. Over time,the new leaders who came to power kept neither written records nor made Harappan-style seals to stamp clay and seal trade goods.This may have been because the trade networks had collapsed,so there was no need for the records.Or it's possible that the new leaders decided not to write down their records.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-1

    お願いします!! Archaeologist can't read the records the people of the Indus Vally left because they haven't decoded the script. So they have to use other clues-like trash. What's left of people's ruined basements,garbage,and sewers tell us a lot about what it was like to live in the Indus Valley 4,000 years ago. Sometimes ancient cities are buried through tragic events such as an earthquake or a volcanic eruption.But usually cities get buried bit by bit,while people are still living there.Old buildings fall down and are covered with dust and garbage.Because it's easier,people build on top of the old buildings rather than clear them out and start from the ground again.As this happens,the streets are repaved and get higher and higher over time. The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa,located in what is now Pakistan,had enough room for 40,000 to 80,000 people.That's about as many eople as can fit into the huge Olympic stadium in Athens.But no one is sure if that many people actually lived there full-time.How many of those buildings were empty during the farming season,when people may have gone home to their family farms to help with planting and harvesting? How many of the buildings sheltered merchants or pilgrims who were just passing through?Or people who had come to celebrate religious festivals? The streets of Indus towns and cities in India and Pakistan are strangely similar.Each has streets that run north and south and east and west.Why?No one knows,although religious beliefs might have had something to do with it.For example,Christian cathedrals face the rising sun in the east and Muslims pray facing their sacred city,Mecca.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-1

    お願いします! “Like a bronze city,surpassing all other rivers and waters,pure in her course from the mountains to the sea”is how the Saraswati River is described in ancient South Asian scripture called the Rig Veda.And yet 100 years ago,historians didn't know anything about the river.That's because in about 1900 BCE,the Saraswati River was beginning to dry up.What was a farmer to do? During the Late Harappan period,from 1900 to 1,000 BCE,many people,confused and frightened by the change in the land they knew so well and desperate for food and water,packed up what was left of their shriveled farms and moved to the cities on the Indus and Ravi Rivers or new farmlands in the Ganga plain. Soon the countryside was no longer good for farmers because the rivers had dried up.Even more people poured into the cities,which were full to overflowing.Looking for safety and shelter,the new immigrants built shacks anywhere they could find a corner find a corner to call their own.When the cornerr were gone,they started building shacks in the middle of the street.The government could not keep up with the overcrowding,and garbage began to build up in the streets. At about the same time,just after 1900 BCE,merchants stopped traveling to distant places to find precious goods such as turquoise,lapis lazuli,and carnelian to bring to the city to sell.Craftsmen began making glassy faience that looked like turquoise,lapis lazuli,and red carnelian for customers who could no longer find the real thing.These lookalikes were so good that they sometimes fooled even modern archaeologists until the“stones”were examined under a microscope.In time the craftmen learned how to make true glass that could be colored the reddish brown of carnelian and the black and white of agates,the stone that marbles are made from.

  • 日本語訳を!c14-2

    お願いします!  One of the main messages that drew people to the teachings of Mahavira was his idea that all things are connected:  All men who are ignorant of the Truth are subject to pain;in the endless cycle of rebirth they suffer in many ways.  Therefore a wise man,who considers well the ways that lead to bondage and birth,should himself search for the truth,and be kind towards all creatures.  Mahavira's five rules of telling the truth,never stealing,never owning anything,never hurting anything,and remaining celibate were very difficult to follow.But in time his teachings became popular anyway.Most everyone wanted to reach moksha,release from the cycle of rebirth.People believed hat Mahavira achieved moksha upon his death at the age of 72.Instead of being born again,his spirit was released from the cycle of life and death.Some said that Indra,king of the deities,collected the pieces of his bones that were left after his body was burned and took them to heaven,where the deities joined together to worship them.  Mahavira did not try o start a religion .He was one of many teachers who had conquered the senses-who had learned how not to pay attention to feelings such as hunger,thirrt,and pain-and helped others to understand the way to reach moksha.Mahavira and others who have conquered their five senses are called jina,or conquerors.The name of the religious tradition that grew up around these teachers is called Jainism.  In Jainism,men and women who are great teachers are called“ford makers.”A ford is a place where it is easy to cross a stream-a ford maker is someone who helps others find a way to cross from the river of life and endless death and rebirth,to the peace of enlightenment,when the soul unites with the universe.These teachers learned to control their senses and desires and to break free from life on Earth.Mahavira was the 24th ford maker.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-4

    お願いします!!続き Harappan cities were orderly,well-organized places-were they possibly controlled by kings? One clue led some early scholars to think that they might have been.The most famous stone sculpture of the Indus valley is called the Priest King.It's one of only nine stone sculptures,mostly of men,that have been found at Mohenjo Daro.All were broken and defaced,which probably means that the people they represented had lost favor.The lower half of the Priest King is missing,but most stone sculptures with a preserved,lower portion are seated with one knee bent to the ground and the other raised.People sitting in this position are seen on many of the Indus seals worshipping a deity in a tree or a figure seated in a cross-legged yoga position.This suggests that the sculpture does not represent a priest-king,as its name suggests,but instead an important clan or community leader. We know a lot about the objects Sarang and his family would have seen in the town,but many questions remain.What was the harvest festival like? Would Sarang and his family have seen dancing and heard singing? Were there plays about the deities? Or were the celebrations solemn,with fasting and prayer? We can only guess.But it's probably safe to say that Sarang would have thought that his trip to the city was one of the most exciting times of the year.