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日本語訳を!c10-4

お願いします!続き After the discovery of some unburied skeletons on the highest,and therefore latest,street levels at Mohenjo Daro,some scholars assumed that the forts that Indra was destroying were the walled cities of the Indus Valley.But the Late Harappan cities were never destroyed by warfare,and there is no evidence of large groups of people coming from outside South Asia.Historians believe that the mysterious skeletons were people who died from contagious diseases.They were left unburied in abandoned parts of the city so they would not infect the grave diggers. So what happened around 1900 BCE? For many years,historians believed that invaders called Aryans poured into the Indus Valley and,with the help of the horse and bronze or iron weapons,destroyed the Late Harappan civilization. But archaeologists can't find evidence of major warfare,and the body types of the people living in the Indus Valley did not change during this time period.More likely,the disappearing Saraswati River stqained the Late Harappan way of life past the breaking point.Satellite photos of the dried riverbed and excavations along its banks show that the river was huge at one time,almost five miles across.As old ways of living and trade broke down,the people of the Indus Valley began to look around for other ways to stay alive.People from the countryside and highlands who spoke the Indo-Aryan language,people who had known amd traded with the Harappans for many years,became more powerful over time until they could challenge the Harappans' power.

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モヘンジョダロの最も高くにあり、したがって最後となった、通りで埋葬されていない骸骨の発見の後、インドラが破壊していた砦がインダス渓谷の城郭都市であると、推定する学者もありました。しかし、後期ハラッパの都市が、戦争によって破壊されたことは一度もありませんし、人々の大集団が、外部の南アジアから来たと言う証拠もありません。歴史家は、不可解な骸骨は伝染病で死んだ人々であったと思っています。墓掘り人足を感染させないように、彼らは都市のさびれた地区に埋葬されずに放置されたのでした。 それでは、紀元前1900年頃に何があったのでしょうか?長年、歴史家は、アーリア人と呼ばれる侵略者が、インダス渓谷に殺到し、馬と青銅製や鉄製の武器の助けを借りて、後期ハラッパ文明を破壊したと信じていました。 しかし、考古学者は大きな戦争の証拠を見つけることができません、そして、インダス渓谷に住んでいる人々の体型はこの時期、変わりませんでした。より可能性のあるのは、枯れて行くサラスワティー川が、後期ハラッパの生活様式に重圧を与え、ついには限界点を越えたのかもしれません。干上がった川床の衛星写真とその堤に沿った発掘物は、川が一時期は巨大であり、川幅がほぼ5マイルであったことを示しています。生活や交易の昔の様式が壊れて行くにつれて、インダス渓谷の人々は生きのびていく別の方法を捜し始めました。インド・アーリア語を話した田園地方や高地の人々、長年にわたってハラッパの人々を知り交易をおこなってきた人々が、歳月を経て力を蓄え、ついには、ハラッパの人々の力に挑むことが出来る様になったのでした。

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