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日本語訳を!!c8-1

お願いします!! During the holidays,big cities like New York and London are even more crowded than usual.Why do people go to all the trouble and expense to travel to a big city? Because the theaters and museums and major-league sports.And even more activities than usual are going om during the holidays,like Thanksgiving and New Year's Day parades and holiday concerts and performances. The weeks after the spring and fall harvests were probably a holiday for the people of the Indus Valley civilization.Farmers,fishermen,and herders gathered their goods and their families and made the long trip to the nearest city to sell their goods and thank the deities for the bounty of the harvest.Imagine the son of a farmer who is 12 or 13-old enough to bear the two-day walk to Harappa one autumn in about 2100 BCE.We'll call this boy Sarang.Sarang would have begun the journey by helping to load the family's oxcart with the barley,wheat,and cotton that they had raised that year on their farm.He may have helped to harness the oxen that pulled the heavy load.He was probably wildly excited-and probably driven crazy by the oxen's slow pace through the wooded countryside and by the loud creaking of the cart. If they lived too far away to make the journey in single day,Sarang and his family would have set up camp with other travelers they had met along the way to help protect their goods from the bandits who hid in the forest.Eventually they would have emerged from the forest to see the walled city of Harappa in the distance,rising pale and beautiful above the plain.

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休みの間、ニューヨークやロンドンなどの大都市は、いつもよりさらに込んでいます。なぜ、人々は、わざわざお金まで出して大都市へ旅行するのでしょうか?なぜならば、劇場、博物館、メジャーリーグのスポーツ、そして、感謝祭や元日パレード、休暇中のコンサートやパフォーマンスのようないつもよりさらに多くの活動が、休みの間には行われているからです。 春と秋の収穫後の数週は、多分インダス渓谷文明の人々にとって休日だったでしょう。農民、漁師、放牧民は、彼らの商品と彼らの家族を集めて、彼らの商品を売り、神に収穫の恩恵に対する感謝をするために、最寄りの都市まで長旅をしました。紀元前2100年頃のある秋にハラッパまでの2日間の徒歩の旅に耐えられる十分な年齢の ― 12歳か13歳になったある農民の息子を想像してください。我々は、この男の子をサラングと呼ぶことにしましょう。サラングの旅は、彼らが自分たちの農場でその年育てた大麦、小麦、綿を一家の牛車に載せるのを手伝うことから始まったことでしょう。彼は、重い荷を引く雄牛に馬具をつけるのを手伝ったかもしれません。彼は、多分ひどく興奮したでしょう ― そして、おそらく樹木が茂った田園地方を通り抜ける雄牛の遅いペースや、牛車の大きなきしむ音にイライラしたかも知れません。 彼らが一日で旅をするには遠過ぎるところに住んでいたならば、サラングと彼の家族は彼らの商品を森に隠れた盗賊から守る一助とするために途中で彼らが会った他の旅行者とキャンプを張ったことでしょう。ようやく、彼らは森を抜けて、平野にうっすらと美しくそびえるハラッパの城壁に守られた都市を遠くに目にしたことでしょう

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関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-2

    お願いします!!続き If they arrived in the evening or early morning,they could have seen the fires of the coppersmiths and potters along the southern edge of the city.The wind blows from the north in Harappa.Limiting furnaces to the southern side of the city meant that their sparks would be blown away from the crowded city streets.As Sarang got closer to the city,he would have realized that the wind carried more than sparks.The leather dressers also worked on the ddge of the city,and the stink of dead animals,which in some poor neighborhoods were left to rot on the street,must have bden awful. Once inside the city gates,the sights and sounds of the crowded market would most likely have overwhelmed a farm boy like Sarang.One part of the city specialized in wood carving and carpentry.Here his mother could have bought cedar chests to keep the family's clothing safe from moths and insects.Stonecutters,who made everything from drills to grinding stones to sharp stone blades,lived in another quarter.Sarang would have seen booths selling carved ivory ornaments,polished until they were smooth as butter,and inlay for wooden furniture. Jewelers clustered at the center of the market,their workbenches glittering with gold and silver pendants inlaid with precious stones.Strings of beads carved from hard stones of every color hung in the stalls of bead makers.Sarang's family may have bought beads here,but they probably could not have afforded a belt of carnelian beads.Archaeologists estimate that,given the hardness of the drill bits available to the people of Harappa,bead makers would need more than three days to drill a hole in bead three and one-half inches long.Some of the carnelian beads found on belts are almost twice as long.From start to finish,including all the stages of making a belt,it would have taken one worker more than 480 working days to complete a belt of 36 beads.No wonder archaelogists have found only three carnelian belts.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 4

    お願いします!!続き Most cities build walls to keep enemies out.But Harappa didn't seem to have enemies,at least any that were willing to attack it.Archaeologists have not found many weapons or pictures of warfare in Harappa.The city walls show no sign of attack and don't seem to have been designed for defense.If an enemy got past the massive gateway,the orderly streets and open courtyards inside the city would have been hard to defend. If the city wall wasn't meant to protect against war,maybe it was meant to keep out thieves.But most thieves probably would have preferred to rob travelers or traders when they were alone in the desert or forest,The city walls did help protect against another kind of threat-the floodwaters of the nearby Ravi River.But perhaps the most important functiom of the walls was to help the city collect the taxes needed in order to maintain its walls,clean its streets,and protect its people. By 2600 BCE,Harappa had two major walled sections,each with gateways that could control who entered the city.Walls also surrounded the suburbs next to these large sections.In one suburb,archaeologists found a massive gateway with several small rooms alongside the entryway.In the litter filling the rooms,they found seals,broken clay impressions or sealings,and stone weights,the ancient world's version of pens,stamps,and weight registers.Those rooms were offices,probably for inspectors who taxed all goods coming into and going out of the city. When traders arrived at a city,they parked their oxcarts outside the city gates at a place that was part-hotel,partwarehouse called a caravanserai.Staying outside the city meant that the merchants could come and go from the caravanserai as they pleased without worrying about the city gates,which were probably only open between morning and evening.They could also leave things locked in heir rooms that they didn't intend to sell,so that they wouldn't have to pay taxes on them.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 5

    お願いします!!続き When the marchants entered the city,inspectors stationed at the gates broke open the sealed bundles of trade goods to examine what the merchants had brought to sell.The merchants probably had to pay a tax for the right to sell their goods in the city.After the inspectors had decided how much tax to charge and the merchants had paid,they were free to take their goods to the market.When inspectors broke the clay sealing on a bundle of goods,they would throw it into the street,where it would dissolve with the rains.But sometimes the clay sealing was swept into the trash and burned.Archaeologists later found these hardened sealings. Customers bought things with grain and finished goods such as stone beads or textiles(cloth),which the merchant could trade somewhere else.When the day's trading was done,the merchant took his pay to the gateway.After the inspectors had examined and weighed the grain and finished goods,they may have sealed each bundle with a small lump of clay stamped with the city official's mark to show that the merchant had paid his exit taxes.Then the merchant could leave. By 2600 BCE,baked-brick houses filled Harappa and drains removed dirty water from the city.Each walled neighborhood had its own market and craft workshops.Potters and metalsmiths built their workshops at the ddges of the settlement,so that the cinders from their furnaces and kilns would not land on nearby houses.Copper craftsmen worked along the southern edge of the city.The winds usually came from the north and would blow the smoke and cinders away from the city. People built houses with small rooms,some of which were used for storing food.Households opened onto courtyards that served as kitchens and workshops.Some houses had two stories with stairs along one wall.Almost every house had a flat roof that people used for sleeping in the summer and as extra work space.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 3

    お願いします!! 続き Have you ever met someone who looks totally ordinary,but turns out to have a really interesting life? Maybe she plays in a rock band.Or he designs theme park rides.The people of the Indus civilization left no great monuments behind.But that's because they were too busy making a good life for themselves,lives whose richness was in the living,not the stuff they left behind.It wasn't until the early 1920s that archaeologists realized that there might be more in the mounds of crumbling brick than met the eye.And so,30 years after Sir Alexander Cunningham's death in 1893,archaeologists finally rediscovered the great city nf Harappa. Harappa was built on a low ridge between the Ravi and Satluj Rivers.It was a good location for a city.The land was fertile and villagers could hunt for animals and gather wood for fuel in the ndarby forests.The rivers kept the fields around the city well watered,and the mud from floods made the land fertile.Lakes full of fish sparkled in the distance.Traveling merchants liked to stop in Harappa,where they could get a good meal and a snug bed safe behind the mud-brick city walls. As it happens,Harappa's city walls are as mysterious as its script,the signs and symbols Cunningham found on the stone seal.Building and taking care of town walls must have been expensive and complicated.The earliest city wall at Harappa was 8 feet wide (2.5 meters) and may have stood more than 13 feet (4 meters) high.Archaeologists have added up the work hours required to dig the clay,shape and dry the mud bricks,mix the mortar that joined the bricks together,bring materials to the site by oxcart,and then actually build the wall.They estimate that it would have taken more than 500 people a full three months to construct a city wall when Harappa was still a small city.The city walls must have been very important-but why?

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-4

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  • 日本語訳を!!c7-3

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  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

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  • 日本語訳を!!c7-5

    お願いします!!続き But as a pilgrim,you would probably have been most interested in the large building that today is called the Great Bath.You would go first into a small bathing area that was supplied with a well.You'd take off your outer clothes,which were dusty from your journey,and wash yourself.Once you were clean,you would move on into a large courtyard.You might walk along the roofed edges of the courtyard to better admire the sacred pool in the center.When you were ready for the bath that would clean your spirit as well as yourbody,you would walk into the large pool by one of the two wide stairways that led down into the healing water. Travelers from both Mohenjo Daro and Harappa probably would have felt least at home in Dholavira,the third major city of the Indus.Dholavira,located in what is now the modern country of India,was on an island in an inland bay far to the south of Mohenjo Daro.The farming was not good in the areas around Dholavira-the climate was too dry-so most people supported themselves by herding,fishing,and trading.To collect and store enough rainwater,the people of Dholavira built stone tanks or reservoirs that stretched over more than a third of their city. Dry Dholavira may not have had much mud,but it had lots of stone.Most of its houses and drains were made of sandstone blocks.Dholavira was the grandest of the cities,with huge walls and ceremonial gates separating the quarters was even topped by an inscription of ten symbols,each one a little more than a foot tall. Dholavira's magnificent gates couldn't change the fact that,in general,the people of the Indus Valley cities did not choose to build huge monuments to a king or religious ruler.Their cities were simple and workaday,without unnecessary flourishes or great pieces of monumental art.But towering high bbove the plain,with gleaming red-brick gateways and light gray mud-brick walls,they still must have been a commanding sight.