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お願いします!!続き If they arrived in the evening or early morning,they could have seen the fires of the coppersmiths and potters along the southern edge of the city.The wind blows from the north in Harappa.Limiting furnaces to the southern side of the city meant that their sparks would be blown away from the crowded city streets.As Sarang got closer to the city,he would have realized that the wind carried more than sparks.The leather dressers also worked on the ddge of the city,and the stink of dead animals,which in some poor neighborhoods were left to rot on the street,must have bden awful. Once inside the city gates,the sights and sounds of the crowded market would most likely have overwhelmed a farm boy like Sarang.One part of the city specialized in wood carving and carpentry.Here his mother could have bought cedar chests to keep the family's clothing safe from moths and insects.Stonecutters,who made everything from drills to grinding stones to sharp stone blades,lived in another quarter.Sarang would have seen booths selling carved ivory ornaments,polished until they were smooth as butter,and inlay for wooden furniture. Jewelers clustered at the center of the market,their workbenches glittering with gold and silver pendants inlaid with precious stones.Strings of beads carved from hard stones of every color hung in the stalls of bead makers.Sarang's family may have bought beads here,but they probably could not have afforded a belt of carnelian beads.Archaeologists estimate that,given the hardness of the drill bits available to the people of Harappa,bead makers would need more than three days to drill a hole in bead three and one-half inches long.Some of the carnelian beads found on belts are almost twice as long.From start to finish,including all the stages of making a belt,it would have taken one worker more than 480 working days to complete a belt of 36 beads.No wonder archaelogists have found only three carnelian belts.


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夕方や早朝に到着したならば、彼らは都市の南の端に沿って銅器職人や陶工の使う火を見ることができたでしょう。風は、ハラッパでは北から吹きます。都市の南側へ窯場を制限することは、それらの火の粉が混雑した街路からは離れた方向に吹き飛ばされることを意味しました。サラングが都市に近づくにつれて、彼は風が火の粉以外の物も運んでくることに気付いたことでしょう。なめし革職人も都市の端で仕事をしていました、それで、死んだ動物は、貧しい地区では、通りで腐敗するに任されたので、その悪臭はひどかったにちがいありません。ひとたび都市の門内に入ると、混雑した市場の光景や音は、サラングのような農場で育った男の子をたぶん圧倒したことでしょう。都市のある地区は、木彫りや大工仕事を専門としていました。ここでは、彼の母は、家族の衣類を蛾や昆虫から守るための杉ダンスを買うことができたかもしれません。石工は、錐から砥石や鋭い石の刃まであらゆる物を作りましたが、別の地区に住んでいました。サラングはバターようになめらかになるまで磨かれ彫刻された象牙の装飾や木製家具のための象嵌を売っている売店を目にしたことでしょう。 宝石商は市場の中心に群がっていました。そして、彼らの作業台は宝石がはめ込まれた金や銀のペンダントできらめいていました。あらゆる色の硬い石から彫刻されたビーズの紐がビーズ職人の露店に掛けられていました。サラングの家族はビーズをここで買ったかもしれません、しかし、彼らはおそらく紅玉髄のビーズのベルトを買う余裕はなかったことでしょう。ハラッパの人々が利用できる錐の硬さを考えると、ビーズ職人が長さ3インチ半のビーズの穴をあけるのに3日以上が必要であったろうと、考古学者は、見積もります。ベルトで見つかる紅玉髄のビーズのいくつかは、ほとんど二倍の長さがあります。最初から最後まで、ベルトを製造するすべての工程を含めると、36のビーズのベルトを完成するために、1人の職人に480日以上の作業日数がかかったことでしょう。考古学者がわずか3つの紅玉髄のベルトしか発見していないのも不思議ではありません。





  • 日本語訳をお願いします。5

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き In Gujarat and Afghanistan,bead makers chipped,ground,and drilked agates and carnelian.At first,artisans made beads close to the places where the rock was quarried.The artisans would trade them during festivals,when everyone came together at the end of the harvest season.In time,merchants and craftsmen in the villages began to import the raw stone and make the beads locally in villages far from the mining area.Many of the beads are extremely small,and children,who have small and nimble fingers,may have been involved in the grinding and polishing as well as the stringing of the beads. These finished products-terracotta pots,copper pins,shell jewelry,stone beads-were rare and precious luxuries to people of other regions who didn't have the materials or the technnlogy to make their own.Because there were no malls and shopping centers in ancient South Asia,merchants could profit from trading items from one regiom to the other,such as shell items from the coast for copper from the highlands. Villages and towns surrounded by protective walls grew up along the trade routes,usually at important crossroads or in areas with good farmland that could support a lot of people.Craftspeople began to live in these larger villages and towns because they were filled with customers who would buy their products,and the walls protected their workshops.By 2800 BCE,these trading centers would grow into South Asia's first cities,where busy people could buy the things they neede-even dinner.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。4

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き Does that mean that there were no women potters in later times? Probably not.In many regions of South Asia,even though men may throw pottery using the wheel,the women and young girls do most of the clay preparation and fime decoration work. Not every community lived near riverbed clay deposits,of course,so not every village had its own potter.But they may have had some other precious resource.Young people who lived near the sea,for example,became skilled divers and shell workers.Shell was used to make small tools and ornaments,especially bangles. People who lived in the Baluchistan Mountains to the west or the Aravalli hills to the east of Indus Valley learned how to work the copper in their soil.At first they collected bits of copper that were already in metal form and pounded them into beads or small pins and knives.They also developed techniques for getting copper from copper ore.Metal workers used wood charcoal to make very hot fires that could melt the metal out of the rock.To make the charcoal,people had to cut down forests.Over thousands of years,the copper-producing areas became deforested. Like shell bangles,stone beads were very common in South Asia,where they were symbols of wealth and power.The earliest bead makers drilled stone beads of soft limestone and soapstone in the highlands of Baluchistan and the deserts of Rajasthan.There were also deposits of chert,a hard stone that is easy to split into sharp-edged tonls,and jasper,a kind of quartz,suitable for making drill bits.Later bead makers shaped and drilled other types of stones,such as green serpentine from Baluchistan and blue lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-3

    お願いします!!続き Other shops specialized in the ceramic art of faience,their shelves stocked with beads and bangles as welk as small bottles for perfume and medicines.Still others offered white soapstone beads and pendants,delicately fashioned inlay,and intricately carved and inscribed seals with geometric designs.At this same shop,merchants could have ordered inscribed reals with special animal designs that stood for their clan or religious beliefs. Seals show a person who talks to tigers from a thorny tree.Other seals and figurines show mother deities;a bearded,horned deity;or the ritual killing of a water buffalo.Many of these scenes include a holy man sitting on his heels and meditating in the shade of the pipal,or sacred fig,tree.Archaeologists believe that communities of holy men practiced the discipline of yoga in sacred groves outside the city walls.Sarang's family may well have gone to visit these holy men to bring them offerings as part of the harvest festival. Sarang's family certainly would have stopped in the potter's quarter to buy pots and small clay figurines for worship at the harvest festival.If Sarang had glanced into the courtyard behind any potter's shop,he might well have seen children at work.Artisans' shops were attached to their children would have helped with simple tasks,such as sweeping or fetching materials.Archaeologists have found that some of the flat clay disks that were used to cover pots have child-sized hand-and footprints pressed into them.Bead maker's children,with their small hands and good eyesight,probably also helped string tiny beads. Besides pots,potters made small figurines that were used as offerings to the deities.Even today,many Hindus use small clay or paper figures as part of their prayers and offerings to the deities.Could some of the deities they worship have come from Harappan times?No one knows.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-3

    お願いします!!続き Say you were a merchant from Oman,in what is now known as the Middle East,come to Harappa to trade alabaster vases and fine woolen cloth for shell bangles and stone beads.The first thing you would have noticed was what wasn't there-no great temples or monuments,like the ones you had seen in the cities of Mesopotamia and Persia.You probably would have thought Harappa a poor place,without the grandeur of home.But hen you would have noticed the tidy,neat streets.Even as a stranger in a strange city,you didn't have to leave extra time in case you got lost in the maze of streets every time you went to the market.The streets were straight and predictable,and quieter than you were used to.Houses weren't open to the stredt,so you didn't hear every word that people were saying inside as you walked by.Instead,the main doorway of eabh house was located along a side street and had an entryway that screened the inside from curious eyes.The windows opened onto the courtyard at its center. You'd have noticed that the city smelled better than most cities you visited.Major streets had built-in garbage bins.Each block of houses had a private well and bathrooms with drains.The small drains leading from the bathing areas and toilets emptied hnto slightly larger drains in the side streets that flowed into huge covered sewer in the main streets,big enough for people to climb inside and clean.These big city sewers emptied outside of the city wall into gullies and were washed out every year by the rains.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Both Philip I, king of France and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor were in conflict with Urban and did not participate; the noble armies embarked in August and September 1096 divided into four separate parts. The armies travelled eastward by land to Byzantium where they received a welcome from the Emperor. The combined force including non-combatants may have contained as many as 100,000 people. The army, mostly French and Norman knights under baronial leadership, pledged to restore lost territories to the empire and marched south through Anatolia. The crusaders besieged Antioch, massacring the inhabitants and pillaging the city. They were immediately besieged by a large army led by Kerbogha. Bohemond of Taranto successfully rallied the crusader army and defeated Kerbogha. Bohemond then kept control of the city, despite his pledge that he would provide aid to Alexios. The remaining crusader army marched south along the coast reaching Jerusalem with only a fraction of their original forces. The Jewish and Muslim inhabitants fought together to defend Jerusalem, but the crusaders entered the city on 15 July 1099. They proceeded to massacre the inhabitants and pillage the city. In his Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, Raymond D'Aguilers exalted actions a modern viewpoint would consider atrocities.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 5

    お願いします!!続き When the marchants entered the city,inspectors stationed at the gates broke open the sealed bundles of trade goods to examine what the merchants had brought to sell.The merchants probably had to pay a tax for the right to sell their goods in the city.After the inspectors had decided how much tax to charge and the merchants had paid,they were free to take their goods to the market.When inspectors broke the clay sealing on a bundle of goods,they would throw it into the street,where it would dissolve with the rains.But sometimes the clay sealing was swept into the trash and burned.Archaeologists later found these hardened sealings. Customers bought things with grain and finished goods such as stone beads or textiles(cloth),which the merchant could trade somewhere else.When the day's trading was done,the merchant took his pay to the gateway.After the inspectors had examined and weighed the grain and finished goods,they may have sealed each bundle with a small lump of clay stamped with the city official's mark to show that the merchant had paid his exit taxes.Then the merchant could leave. By 2600 BCE,baked-brick houses filled Harappa and drains removed dirty water from the city.Each walled neighborhood had its own market and craft workshops.Potters and metalsmiths built their workshops at the ddges of the settlement,so that the cinders from their furnaces and kilns would not land on nearby houses.Copper craftsmen worked along the southern edge of the city.The winds usually came from the north and would blow the smoke and cinders away from the city. People built houses with small rooms,some of which were used for storing food.Households opened onto courtyards that served as kitchens and workshops.Some houses had two stories with stairs along one wall.Almost every house had a flat roof that people used for sleeping in the summer and as extra work space.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 4

    お願いします!!続き Most cities build walls to keep enemies out.But Harappa didn't seem to have enemies,at least any that were willing to attack it.Archaeologists have not found many weapons or pictures of warfare in Harappa.The city walls show no sign of attack and don't seem to have been designed for defense.If an enemy got past the massive gateway,the orderly streets and open courtyards inside the city would have been hard to defend. If the city wall wasn't meant to protect against war,maybe it was meant to keep out thieves.But most thieves probably would have preferred to rob travelers or traders when they were alone in the desert or forest,The city walls did help protect against another kind of threat-the floodwaters of the nearby Ravi River.But perhaps the most important functiom of the walls was to help the city collect the taxes needed in order to maintain its walls,clean its streets,and protect its people. By 2600 BCE,Harappa had two major walled sections,each with gateways that could control who entered the city.Walls also surrounded the suburbs next to these large sections.In one suburb,archaeologists found a massive gateway with several small rooms alongside the entryway.In the litter filling the rooms,they found seals,broken clay impressions or sealings,and stone weights,the ancient world's version of pens,stamps,and weight registers.Those rooms were offices,probably for inspectors who taxed all goods coming into and going out of the city. When traders arrived at a city,they parked their oxcarts outside the city gates at a place that was part-hotel,partwarehouse called a caravanserai.Staying outside the city meant that the merchants could come and go from the caravanserai as they pleased without worrying about the city gates,which were probably only open between morning and evening.They could also leave things locked in heir rooms that they didn't intend to sell,so that they wouldn't have to pay taxes on them.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-1

    お願いします! “Like a bronze city,surpassing all other rivers and waters,pure in her course from the mountains to the sea”is how the Saraswati River is described in ancient South Asian scripture called the Rig Veda.And yet 100 years ago,historians didn't know anything about the river.That's because in about 1900 BCE,the Saraswati River was beginning to dry up.What was a farmer to do? During the Late Harappan period,from 1900 to 1,000 BCE,many people,confused and frightened by the change in the land they knew so well and desperate for food and water,packed up what was left of their shriveled farms and moved to the cities on the Indus and Ravi Rivers or new farmlands in the Ganga plain. Soon the countryside was no longer good for farmers because the rivers had dried up.Even more people poured into the cities,which were full to overflowing.Looking for safety and shelter,the new immigrants built shacks anywhere they could find a corner find a corner to call their own.When the cornerr were gone,they started building shacks in the middle of the street.The government could not keep up with the overcrowding,and garbage began to build up in the streets. At about the same time,just after 1900 BCE,merchants stopped traveling to distant places to find precious goods such as turquoise,lapis lazuli,and carnelian to bring to the city to sell.Craftsmen began making glassy faience that looked like turquoise,lapis lazuli,and red carnelian for customers who could no longer find the real thing.These lookalikes were so good that they sometimes fooled even modern archaeologists until the“stones”were examined under a microscope.In time the craftmen learned how to make true glass that could be colored the reddish brown of carnelian and the black and white of agates,the stone that marbles are made from.