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至急こちらをお願いします。続き Does that mean that there were no women potters in later times? Probably not.In many regions of South Asia,even though men may throw pottery using the wheel,the women and young girls do most of the clay preparation and fime decoration work. Not every community lived near riverbed clay deposits,of course,so not every village had its own potter.But they may have had some other precious resource.Young people who lived near the sea,for example,became skilled divers and shell workers.Shell was used to make small tools and ornaments,especially bangles. People who lived in the Baluchistan Mountains to the west or the Aravalli hills to the east of Indus Valley learned how to work the copper in their soil.At first they collected bits of copper that were already in metal form and pounded them into beads or small pins and knives.They also developed techniques for getting copper from copper ore.Metal workers used wood charcoal to make very hot fires that could melt the metal out of the rock.To make the charcoal,people had to cut down forests.Over thousands of years,the copper-producing areas became deforested. Like shell bangles,stone beads were very common in South Asia,where they were symbols of wealth and power.The earliest bead makers drilled stone beads of soft limestone and soapstone in the highlands of Baluchistan and the deserts of Rajasthan.There were also deposits of chert,a hard stone that is easy to split into sharp-edged tonls,and jasper,a kind of quartz,suitable for making drill bits.Later bead makers shaped and drilled other types of stones,such as green serpentine from Baluchistan and blue lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.


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  • sayshe
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それは、女性陶工が後の時代にいなかったことを意味するでしょうか?おそらくいなかったようです。南アジアの多くの地域では、たとえ男性がろくろを使って陶器作りをする場合があっても、女性や少女は、ほとんどの粘土の準備や細かい装飾作業をします。 もちろん、すべての地域社会が川床の粘土鉱床の近くで暮らしているというわけではなかったので、すべての村にそこ独自の陶工がいるというわけではありませんでした。しかし、彼らにはなんらかの他の貴重な資源があったかもしれません。たとえば、海の近くで暮らす若者は、熟練したダイバーや貝殻職人になりました。貝殻は、小さな道具や装飾、特にバングル、を作るのに用いられました。(http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=bangle) アラバリ丘陵の西方のバルチスタン山脈からインダス渓谷の東方にかけて住んでいた人々は、彼らの土地にある銅の細工をする方法を学びました。最初、彼らは、すでに金属になっている銅の粒を集め、それらを叩いて、ビーズや小さなピン、そして、ナイフの形にしました。彼らは、また、銅鉱石から銅を得る技術も開発しました。金属職人は、岩石から金属を溶かすことのできる非常に熱い火を起こすために、木炭を使いました。木炭を作るために、人々は森を切り倒さなければなりませんでした。数千年に渡って、銅生産地域からは森が消失しました。 貝殻製のバングルと同様、石のビーズも南アジアでは非常に一般的でした、この地域では、それらは富と権力の象徴でした。最も初期のビーズ職人は、バルチスタンの高地やラジャスタンの砂漠にある柔らかい石灰岩や石鹸石(http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=soapstone)の石のビーズに錐で穴をあけました。簡単に割れて鋭利な道具になる硬い石の、チャートや錐の穂先を作るのに適した、水晶の一種の碧玉の鉱床もありました。後のビーズ職人は、例えばバルチスタンから産出する緑の蛇紋石やアフガニスタンから産出する青いラピスラズリの様な、他のタイプの石の形を整えたり、錐で穴をあけたりしました。





  • 日本語訳をお願いします。5

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き In Gujarat and Afghanistan,bead makers chipped,ground,and drilked agates and carnelian.At first,artisans made beads close to the places where the rock was quarried.The artisans would trade them during festivals,when everyone came together at the end of the harvest season.In time,merchants and craftsmen in the villages began to import the raw stone and make the beads locally in villages far from the mining area.Many of the beads are extremely small,and children,who have small and nimble fingers,may have been involved in the grinding and polishing as well as the stringing of the beads. These finished products-terracotta pots,copper pins,shell jewelry,stone beads-were rare and precious luxuries to people of other regions who didn't have the materials or the technnlogy to make their own.Because there were no malls and shopping centers in ancient South Asia,merchants could profit from trading items from one regiom to the other,such as shell items from the coast for copper from the highlands. Villages and towns surrounded by protective walls grew up along the trade routes,usually at important crossroads or in areas with good farmland that could support a lot of people.Craftspeople began to live in these larger villages and towns because they were filled with customers who would buy their products,and the walls protected their workshops.By 2800 BCE,these trading centers would grow into South Asia's first cities,where busy people could buy the things they neede-even dinner.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-2

    お願いします!!続き If they arrived in the evening or early morning,they could have seen the fires of the coppersmiths and potters along the southern edge of the city.The wind blows from the north in Harappa.Limiting furnaces to the southern side of the city meant that their sparks would be blown away from the crowded city streets.As Sarang got closer to the city,he would have realized that the wind carried more than sparks.The leather dressers also worked on the ddge of the city,and the stink of dead animals,which in some poor neighborhoods were left to rot on the street,must have bden awful. Once inside the city gates,the sights and sounds of the crowded market would most likely have overwhelmed a farm boy like Sarang.One part of the city specialized in wood carving and carpentry.Here his mother could have bought cedar chests to keep the family's clothing safe from moths and insects.Stonecutters,who made everything from drills to grinding stones to sharp stone blades,lived in another quarter.Sarang would have seen booths selling carved ivory ornaments,polished until they were smooth as butter,and inlay for wooden furniture. Jewelers clustered at the center of the market,their workbenches glittering with gold and silver pendants inlaid with precious stones.Strings of beads carved from hard stones of every color hung in the stalls of bead makers.Sarang's family may have bought beads here,but they probably could not have afforded a belt of carnelian beads.Archaeologists estimate that,given the hardness of the drill bits available to the people of Harappa,bead makers would need more than three days to drill a hole in bead three and one-half inches long.Some of the carnelian beads found on belts are almost twice as long.From start to finish,including all the stages of making a belt,it would have taken one worker more than 480 working days to complete a belt of 36 beads.No wonder archaelogists have found only three carnelian belts.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-3

    お願いします!!続き Other shops specialized in the ceramic art of faience,their shelves stocked with beads and bangles as welk as small bottles for perfume and medicines.Still others offered white soapstone beads and pendants,delicately fashioned inlay,and intricately carved and inscribed seals with geometric designs.At this same shop,merchants could have ordered inscribed reals with special animal designs that stood for their clan or religious beliefs. Seals show a person who talks to tigers from a thorny tree.Other seals and figurines show mother deities;a bearded,horned deity;or the ritual killing of a water buffalo.Many of these scenes include a holy man sitting on his heels and meditating in the shade of the pipal,or sacred fig,tree.Archaeologists believe that communities of holy men practiced the discipline of yoga in sacred groves outside the city walls.Sarang's family may well have gone to visit these holy men to bring them offerings as part of the harvest festival. Sarang's family certainly would have stopped in the potter's quarter to buy pots and small clay figurines for worship at the harvest festival.If Sarang had glanced into the courtyard behind any potter's shop,he might well have seen children at work.Artisans' shops were attached to their children would have helped with simple tasks,such as sweeping or fetching materials.Archaeologists have found that some of the flat clay disks that were used to cover pots have child-sized hand-and footprints pressed into them.Bead maker's children,with their small hands and good eyesight,probably also helped string tiny beads. Besides pots,potters made small figurines that were used as offerings to the deities.Even today,many Hindus use small clay or paper figures as part of their prayers and offerings to the deities.Could some of the deities they worship have come from Harappan times?No one knows.

  • 日本語訳を! 2-(1)

    お願いします。  If you had an important story to tell, but most of your audience couldn't read, you might tell the story by drawing it in pictures. If you wanted the story to last a very long time, you might draw those pictures in stone. That's what an Egyptian storyteller did, and his work has lasted more than 5,000 years. It's the story of the first king of Egypt. And the stone is called the Palette of Narmer.  Long before the first king, before there were people of great power, before there were towns to lead, before there were villages with headsmen, the people of Egypt lived like all prehistoric peoples. They lived in small groups on the move. They followed the food.  Ten thousand years ago the area around the Nile hadn't dried up into desert yet. Rain fell more often and fields of grass grew. Elephants plodded about, flapping their ears in the heat. Giraffes nibbled on thorny trees. Vultures rode the warm air currents in search of something dead to eat. The people of Egypt hunted gazelle and dug root vegetables.  By 6,000 years ago, the people of Egypt had begun to herd cattle. When the Nile swelled and flowed over its banks, the people would follow their cattle away from the river. Extended families sometimes joined other groups while the cattle munched in the grasslands. By the end of summer, the heat and the lack of rain shriveled the grass, and the herderr brought the cattle back to the edge of the floodplain―back to the Nile. They planted seeds and grew an early form of wheat called emmer. They grew peas, barley, and melons.  Small villages began to crop up along the Nile, just out of reach of the floodwaters. When the people argued, someone from the group would step in to solve the problem. Pretty soon they would look to that person to solve all of the problems. Power was born.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) Artists almost never signed their work. The art was not about the artist. Artists were not innovators, they were craftsmen, and as you can tell from their Middle Kingdom titles, they were more closely related to scribes than to the "artist" types we think of today. That's not to say Egyptian artists weren't talented. Oe sculptor created two life-size sculptures of a high priest and his princess wife that were so realistic they scared off tomb robbers. The stone eyes implanted in the statues appeared to watch the thieves, and frightened them so badly that they dropped their tools and ran. (5) Perhaps what contributed to the tomb robbers' fear was the Egyptian belief that art had magic. Often you will see crocodiles, hippos, and snakes drawn with spears sticking out of them. If a crocodile suddenly came to life right next to you, you would probably appreciate the spear. And since these murals were one day going to become a reality, it's nice that the banquet scene has plates piled high with delicious food. (6) It must have been the attention to rules that led Egyptian artists to discover the "sacred ratio." The proportions in the sacred ratio repeat throughout the natural world. Plants, flowers, and trees grow in the sacred ratio. Sunflowers, pinecones, and the nautilus shell spiral according to the sacred ratio. The earth and the moon measure, and the galaxies spin―all to this sacred proportion. Egyptian artists drew the human body according to the sacred ratio, in the same way modern artists do today.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    (9) When the herdsman found Romulus and Remus, he took them home. He and his wife raised the boys their own. The twins grew to be brave, manly, and noble. They roamed the countryside like ancient Robin Hoods, often saving innocent people from danger and persecution. (10) Romulus and Remus eventually discovered who they really were and decided to found a new city near the Tiber River, where they had been rescued as babies. But the brothers didn't get along very well, and they disagreed about where the city should be built. They tried to settle their argument through divination, using the path of birds in the sky to figure out the wishes of the gods. They decided to watch some vultures flying overhead. Romulus tried to trick Remus, pretending to have spotted more vultures than he actually saw, and then Remus made fun of Romulus. The brothers got into a fight, and Romulus killed Remus. (11) Romulus buried his brother and then, with his followers, built a new city on the Palatine Hill and circled it with strong, stone walls. As the city grew, it eventually enclosed seven hills and took the name of its founder, Romulus―or Rome. The Romans dated everything that happened after that “frod the founding of the city”in 753 BCE. For more than a thousand years, they used a calender that began in that year. (12) Some Romans claimed that Romulus and Remus were the sons of Mars, the god of war. Later Romans believed that this connection to Mars explained Romulus's cruel attack on the Sabines, a tribe that lived in small, unprotected villages near Rome. Romulus was convinced that Rome would become great through war, so he pretended to invite his Sabine neighbors to a festival. But then he led the Romans in a sudden attack. The soldiers seized 30 unmarried women and ran off―taking the Sabine women home as their wives.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-2

    お願いします!!続き Althongh they were made by hand and not machine,the fired bricks used used for building in the cities came in just one size and shape:a rectangle about 11 inches long and 5 1/2 inches wide(28 cm by 14 cm).These fired bricks were so strong that some of them have been recycled and are being reused in modern buildings.Bricks weren't the only things that were the same size-walls and doorways throughout the Indus Valkey are about the same size and design.Even wells were lined with the same styles of wedge-shaped bricks.And every city had a drainage system for carrying away rainwater and sewage from toilets and bathing areas. Who decided to make one-size-fits-all bricks?Who said that street had to run north/south and east/west?Today' cities are full of differences-the size,style,orientation,and building materials of any ten buildings are almost never the same.So why were the ancient Indus cities so similar? Maybe because one person-or one small group of people-was making all the decisions.Maybe a strong gouernment or strong religious leaders told everyone what to do.But there is no sign of large palaces or temples-the buildings of powerful governments and religious leaders.Perhaps the people of the Indus Vally had religious or historical beliefs that taught them that they should build everything in the same way.No one knows for sure. The cities of the Indus Valley were very well organized.They were divided into walled neighborhoods,with each neighborhood specializing in one kind of work.Potters lived in one area,and coppersmiths lived in another.People probably lived with their extended families-children,parents,cousins,aunts and uncles,and grandparents-all doing the same kind of work.

  • 17-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Have you ever gone camping? People who love to camp often talk about how well they can see the stars away from city lights.They talk about noticing how early some birds wake up in the morning,and how after a few days they have figured out the best places to find lizards or wild blueberries.When you're camping,you're living close to the earth.(Some people think too close!)You have the time to see patterns that you wouldn't notice in ordinary life-like the way mint stems are square,with leaves that stick out opposite each other,and that the best time to find salamanders is after it has rained.When you go camping,you can't help noticing and wondering about the natural world.You can't help being a scientist.  The peoples of ancient India lived close to the land all the time.In a way,they were all scientists.They may not have had the tools that modern scientists do.They never learned about magnifying lenses,so they had no microscopes or telescopes.They certainly didn't have any laboratories with gleaming glassware and stainless steel sinks.But they were curious about the world in which they lived,they paid attention,and they discovered some wonderful things.  The earliest and longest lasting of their discoveries are included in the traditional Indian medicine form called Ayurveda.Ayurveda has been around in one form or another for 5,000 years.It includes all kinds of treatments,such as herbal medicine,surgery,yoga,meditation,and massage,and teaches that disease often starts first in the mind.A lot of people still use Ayurveda.For example,many Indian mothers massage their babies with oils and apply heavy black eyeliner around their children's eyes.They believe that the massages help soothe their children and prevent stomabh pains,and that the eyeliner protects their children's eyes from infections and the bright Indian sun.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-3

    お願いします!!続き Say you were a merchant from Oman,in what is now known as the Middle East,come to Harappa to trade alabaster vases and fine woolen cloth for shell bangles and stone beads.The first thing you would have noticed was what wasn't there-no great temples or monuments,like the ones you had seen in the cities of Mesopotamia and Persia.You probably would have thought Harappa a poor place,without the grandeur of home.But hen you would have noticed the tidy,neat streets.Even as a stranger in a strange city,you didn't have to leave extra time in case you got lost in the maze of streets every time you went to the market.The streets were straight and predictable,and quieter than you were used to.Houses weren't open to the stredt,so you didn't hear every word that people were saying inside as you walked by.Instead,the main doorway of eabh house was located along a side street and had an entryway that screened the inside from curious eyes.The windows opened onto the courtyard at its center. You'd have noticed that the city smelled better than most cities you visited.Major streets had built-in garbage bins.Each block of houses had a private well and bathrooms with drains.The small drains leading from the bathing areas and toilets emptied hnto slightly larger drains in the side streets that flowed into huge covered sewer in the main streets,big enough for people to climb inside and clean.These big city sewers emptied outside of the city wall into gullies and were washed out every year by the rains.