• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!

日本語訳をお願いします 3

お願いします!! 続き Have you ever met someone who looks totally ordinary,but turns out to have a really interesting life? Maybe she plays in a rock band.Or he designs theme park rides.The people of the Indus civilization left no great monuments behind.But that's because they were too busy making a good life for themselves,lives whose richness was in the living,not the stuff they left behind.It wasn't until the early 1920s that archaeologists realized that there might be more in the mounds of crumbling brick than met the eye.And so,30 years after Sir Alexander Cunningham's death in 1893,archaeologists finally rediscovered the great city nf Harappa. Harappa was built on a low ridge between the Ravi and Satluj Rivers.It was a good location for a city.The land was fertile and villagers could hunt for animals and gather wood for fuel in the ndarby forests.The rivers kept the fields around the city well watered,and the mud from floods made the land fertile.Lakes full of fish sparkled in the distance.Traveling merchants liked to stop in Harappa,where they could get a good meal and a snug bed safe behind the mud-brick city walls. As it happens,Harappa's city walls are as mysterious as its script,the signs and symbols Cunningham found on the stone seal.Building and taking care of town walls must have been expensive and complicated.The earliest city wall at Harappa was 8 feet wide (2.5 meters) and may have stood more than 13 feet (4 meters) high.Archaeologists have added up the work hours required to dig the clay,shape and dry the mud bricks,mix the mortar that joined the bricks together,bring materials to the site by oxcart,and then actually build the wall.They estimate that it would have taken more than 500 people a full three months to construct a city wall when Harappa was still a small city.The city walls must have been very important-but why?


  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数73
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

あなたは、全く普通に見えるが、本当に面白い生活を送っているとわかる誰かにこれまでに会ったことがありますか?多分、彼女はロック・バンドで演奏するでしょう。あるいは、彼はテーマパークの乗り物を設計します。インダス文明の人々は、大きな記念物をあとに残しませんでした。しかし、それは、彼らが残したものではなく、彼ら自身のための素晴らしい生活、豊かさが生活の中にある生活、を作るのに、彼らがあまりに忙しかったからです。1920年代初期になってようやく、考古学者は、目に触れる以上の物が、砕けるレンガの小山にはあるかもしれないと気付きました。そして、1893年のアレキサンダー・カニンガム卿の死から30年後に、考古学者はハラッパの巨大都市をようやく再発見しました。 ハラッパは、ラビ川とサツルジ川の間の低い峰の上に築かれました。それは、都市にとって良い場所でした。土地は肥沃でした、そして、村人は近くの森で動物の狩りをしたり、燃料にするまきを集めることができました。川は、都市の周辺の畑に十分水を供給し続けましたし、洪水による泥は土地を肥沃にしました。魚でいっぱいの湖が、遠くできらめいていました。行商人はハラッパに立ち寄るのが好きでした、と言うのは、そこでは、彼らはおいしい食事と泥レンガの都市壁の背後で安全な心地よいベッドを得ることが出来たからです。 たまたまですが、ハラッパの都市壁は、カニンガムが、石の印鑑に見つけた、文書、サイン、シンボルと同じくらい、不可解です。都市壁を作り、維持することは、費用がかかり、複雑だったにちがいありません。ハラッパで最も初期の都市壁は、幅8フィート(2.5メートル)、高さ13フィート以上(4メートル)でそびえていたかもかもしれません。考古学者は、粘土を掘り、泥レンガを成形して、乾燥させ、レンガをつなぐ漆喰を混ぜ合わせ、牛車で建設現場に材料を持ってきて、それから、実際に壁を建設するのに必要な労働時間を合計しました。ハラッパがまだ小さな都市であった頃の都市壁を建設するために500人以上でまる3ヵ月かかったと、彼らは見積もります。都市壁は非常に重要だったにちがいありません-しかし、なぜ?





  • 日本語訳をお願いします 4

    お願いします!!続き Most cities build walls to keep enemies out.But Harappa didn't seem to have enemies,at least any that were willing to attack it.Archaeologists have not found many weapons or pictures of warfare in Harappa.The city walls show no sign of attack and don't seem to have been designed for defense.If an enemy got past the massive gateway,the orderly streets and open courtyards inside the city would have been hard to defend. If the city wall wasn't meant to protect against war,maybe it was meant to keep out thieves.But most thieves probably would have preferred to rob travelers or traders when they were alone in the desert or forest,The city walls did help protect against another kind of threat-the floodwaters of the nearby Ravi River.But perhaps the most important functiom of the walls was to help the city collect the taxes needed in order to maintain its walls,clean its streets,and protect its people. By 2600 BCE,Harappa had two major walled sections,each with gateways that could control who entered the city.Walls also surrounded the suburbs next to these large sections.In one suburb,archaeologists found a massive gateway with several small rooms alongside the entryway.In the litter filling the rooms,they found seals,broken clay impressions or sealings,and stone weights,the ancient world's version of pens,stamps,and weight registers.Those rooms were offices,probably for inspectors who taxed all goods coming into and going out of the city. When traders arrived at a city,they parked their oxcarts outside the city gates at a place that was part-hotel,partwarehouse called a caravanserai.Staying outside the city meant that the merchants could come and go from the caravanserai as they pleased without worrying about the city gates,which were probably only open between morning and evening.They could also leave things locked in heir rooms that they didn't intend to sell,so that they wouldn't have to pay taxes on them.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-5

    お願いします!!続き But as a pilgrim,you would probably have been most interested in the large building that today is called the Great Bath.You would go first into a small bathing area that was supplied with a well.You'd take off your outer clothes,which were dusty from your journey,and wash yourself.Once you were clean,you would move on into a large courtyard.You might walk along the roofed edges of the courtyard to better admire the sacred pool in the center.When you were ready for the bath that would clean your spirit as well as yourbody,you would walk into the large pool by one of the two wide stairways that led down into the healing water. Travelers from both Mohenjo Daro and Harappa probably would have felt least at home in Dholavira,the third major city of the Indus.Dholavira,located in what is now the modern country of India,was on an island in an inland bay far to the south of Mohenjo Daro.The farming was not good in the areas around Dholavira-the climate was too dry-so most people supported themselves by herding,fishing,and trading.To collect and store enough rainwater,the people of Dholavira built stone tanks or reservoirs that stretched over more than a third of their city. Dry Dholavira may not have had much mud,but it had lots of stone.Most of its houses and drains were made of sandstone blocks.Dholavira was the grandest of the cities,with huge walls and ceremonial gates separating the quarters was even topped by an inscription of ten symbols,each one a little more than a foot tall. Dholavira's magnificent gates couldn't change the fact that,in general,the people of the Indus Valley cities did not choose to build huge monuments to a king or religious ruler.Their cities were simple and workaday,without unnecessary flourishes or great pieces of monumental art.But towering high bbove the plain,with gleaming red-brick gateways and light gray mud-brick walls,they still must have been a commanding sight.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-1

    お願いします!! During the holidays,big cities like New York and London are even more crowded than usual.Why do people go to all the trouble and expense to travel to a big city? Because the theaters and museums and major-league sports.And even more activities than usual are going om during the holidays,like Thanksgiving and New Year's Day parades and holiday concerts and performances. The weeks after the spring and fall harvests were probably a holiday for the people of the Indus Valley civilization.Farmers,fishermen,and herders gathered their goods and their families and made the long trip to the nearest city to sell their goods and thank the deities for the bounty of the harvest.Imagine the son of a farmer who is 12 or 13-old enough to bear the two-day walk to Harappa one autumn in about 2100 BCE.We'll call this boy Sarang.Sarang would have begun the journey by helping to load the family's oxcart with the barley,wheat,and cotton that they had raised that year on their farm.He may have helped to harness the oxen that pulled the heavy load.He was probably wildly excited-and probably driven crazy by the oxen's slow pace through the wooded countryside and by the loud creaking of the cart. If they lived too far away to make the journey in single day,Sarang and his family would have set up camp with other travelers they had met along the way to help protect their goods from the bandits who hid in the forest.Eventually they would have emerged from the forest to see the walled city of Harappa in the distance,rising pale and beautiful above the plain.

  • 日本語訳 お願いします。

    日本語訳 お願いします。 Let's encourage your adoptee to work on hls or her career.Where they work depends on the type of iob they have.It will be either in the kitchen,in the office,or the workshop behind and drag your little friend to the appropriate work area. ゲームやってたら出てきました。 はやく意味を知りたいので、是非回答お願いします。

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 6

    お願いします!!続き People put their garbage in large clay pots stuck into the floor in rooms along the edge of the street.Some of these large jars set into the ground may have served as toilets that laborers cleaned out every so often.Most houses also had bathing areas and drains that emptied into pots or larger drains in the street. The system worked really well,as long as the merchants kept coming and paying the taxes that built the walls and drains and paid the laborers who maintained them.But by about 1900 BCE,after 700 comfortable years, things began to change.For reasons scholars still don't fully understand,fewer traders were willing to risk the dangers of traveling through desert and forest.We know there were fewer traders because archaeologists have found fewer valuable items from distant places.Because fewer traders were paying taxes,the cities could no longer afford to keep up their walls and inspectors.Changes in the course of the Indus River and its tributaries,combined with increased flooding may well have added to Harappa's problems.There may have been other reasons as well.Reasons that can only be found with further excavations.And someday,perhaps we will be able to read the Indus script.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-3

    お願いします!!続き Say you were a merchant from Oman,in what is now known as the Middle East,come to Harappa to trade alabaster vases and fine woolen cloth for shell bangles and stone beads.The first thing you would have noticed was what wasn't there-no great temples or monuments,like the ones you had seen in the cities of Mesopotamia and Persia.You probably would have thought Harappa a poor place,without the grandeur of home.But hen you would have noticed the tidy,neat streets.Even as a stranger in a strange city,you didn't have to leave extra time in case you got lost in the maze of streets every time you went to the market.The streets were straight and predictable,and quieter than you were used to.Houses weren't open to the stredt,so you didn't hear every word that people were saying inside as you walked by.Instead,the main doorway of eabh house was located along a side street and had an entryway that screened the inside from curious eyes.The windows opened onto the courtyard at its center. You'd have noticed that the city smelled better than most cities you visited.Major streets had built-in garbage bins.Each block of houses had a private well and bathrooms with drains.The small drains leading from the bathing areas and toilets emptied hnto slightly larger drains in the side streets that flowed into huge covered sewer in the main streets,big enough for people to climb inside and clean.These big city sewers emptied outside of the city wall into gullies and were washed out every year by the rains.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (8) Much of what we know about the war with the Hyksos comes from the tomb of an Egyptian officer. Ahmose, son of Ibana, inscribed on the columns and walls of his tomb details of the many battles he fought with the Hyksos. "I was taken to the ship Northern, because I was brave. I followed the king on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence." Ahmose was rewarded for his valor, he "was appointed to the ship Rising in Memphis. Then there was fighting on the water...I made a seizure and carried off a hand." To keep track of the number of enemy soldiers killed, it was the custom to cut off a hand and present it to the king. (9) For his victories―and the hands that went with them―Ahmose, son of Ibana, was awarded seven times the medal of honor called the Golden Fly. The Golden Fly was a gilded pin shaped like a horsefly. Although the horsefly may seem like an odd shape for a war medal,the Egyptians chose it because the horsefly was the tormentor of beasts. This medal of honor was presented only to the bravest soldiers. (10) A Roman historian writing in the first century CE, Josephus, tells us how it turned out in the end for the Hyksos.  They enclosed Avaris with a high strong wall in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. The Egyptian king attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt. (11) Archaeologists working at Avaris don't see evidence of a mass slaughter. They believe the Hyksos were expelled and took their possessions with them. One way or the other the message was the same: Hands off Egypt.