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日本語訳をお願いします 3

お願いします!! 続き Have you ever met someone who looks totally ordinary,but turns out to have a really interesting life? Maybe she plays in a rock band.Or he designs theme park rides.The people of the Indus civilization left no great monuments behind.But that's because they were too busy making a good life for themselves,lives whose richness was in the living,not the stuff they left behind.It wasn't until the early 1920s that archaeologists realized that there might be more in the mounds of crumbling brick than met the eye.And so,30 years after Sir Alexander Cunningham's death in 1893,archaeologists finally rediscovered the great city nf Harappa. Harappa was built on a low ridge between the Ravi and Satluj Rivers.It was a good location for a city.The land was fertile and villagers could hunt for animals and gather wood for fuel in the ndarby forests.The rivers kept the fields around the city well watered,and the mud from floods made the land fertile.Lakes full of fish sparkled in the distance.Traveling merchants liked to stop in Harappa,where they could get a good meal and a snug bed safe behind the mud-brick city walls. As it happens,Harappa's city walls are as mysterious as its script,the signs and symbols Cunningham found on the stone seal.Building and taking care of town walls must have been expensive and complicated.The earliest city wall at Harappa was 8 feet wide (2.5 meters) and may have stood more than 13 feet (4 meters) high.Archaeologists have added up the work hours required to dig the clay,shape and dry the mud bricks,mix the mortar that joined the bricks together,bring materials to the site by oxcart,and then actually build the wall.They estimate that it would have taken more than 500 people a full three months to construct a city wall when Harappa was still a small city.The city walls must have been very important-but why?

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あなたは、全く普通に見えるが、本当に面白い生活を送っているとわかる誰かにこれまでに会ったことがありますか?多分、彼女はロック・バンドで演奏するでしょう。あるいは、彼はテーマパークの乗り物を設計します。インダス文明の人々は、大きな記念物をあとに残しませんでした。しかし、それは、彼らが残したものではなく、彼ら自身のための素晴らしい生活、豊かさが生活の中にある生活、を作るのに、彼らがあまりに忙しかったからです。1920年代初期になってようやく、考古学者は、目に触れる以上の物が、砕けるレンガの小山にはあるかもしれないと気付きました。そして、1893年のアレキサンダー・カニンガム卿の死から30年後に、考古学者はハラッパの巨大都市をようやく再発見しました。 ハラッパは、ラビ川とサツルジ川の間の低い峰の上に築かれました。それは、都市にとって良い場所でした。土地は肥沃でした、そして、村人は近くの森で動物の狩りをしたり、燃料にするまきを集めることができました。川は、都市の周辺の畑に十分水を供給し続けましたし、洪水による泥は土地を肥沃にしました。魚でいっぱいの湖が、遠くできらめいていました。行商人はハラッパに立ち寄るのが好きでした、と言うのは、そこでは、彼らはおいしい食事と泥レンガの都市壁の背後で安全な心地よいベッドを得ることが出来たからです。 たまたまですが、ハラッパの都市壁は、カニンガムが、石の印鑑に見つけた、文書、サイン、シンボルと同じくらい、不可解です。都市壁を作り、維持することは、費用がかかり、複雑だったにちがいありません。ハラッパで最も初期の都市壁は、幅8フィート(2.5メートル)、高さ13フィート以上(4メートル)でそびえていたかもかもしれません。考古学者は、粘土を掘り、泥レンガを成形して、乾燥させ、レンガをつなぐ漆喰を混ぜ合わせ、牛車で建設現場に材料を持ってきて、それから、実際に壁を建設するのに必要な労働時間を合計しました。ハラッパがまだ小さな都市であった頃の都市壁を建設するために500人以上でまる3ヵ月かかったと、彼らは見積もります。都市壁は非常に重要だったにちがいありません-しかし、なぜ?

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  • 日本語訳をお願いします 4

    お願いします!!続き Most cities build walls to keep enemies out.But Harappa didn't seem to have enemies,at least any that were willing to attack it.Archaeologists have not found many weapons or pictures of warfare in Harappa.The city walls show no sign of attack and don't seem to have been designed for defense.If an enemy got past the massive gateway,the orderly streets and open courtyards inside the city would have been hard to defend. If the city wall wasn't meant to protect against war,maybe it was meant to keep out thieves.But most thieves probably would have preferred to rob travelers or traders when they were alone in the desert or forest,The city walls did help protect against another kind of threat-the floodwaters of the nearby Ravi River.But perhaps the most important functiom of the walls was to help the city collect the taxes needed in order to maintain its walls,clean its streets,and protect its people. By 2600 BCE,Harappa had two major walled sections,each with gateways that could control who entered the city.Walls also surrounded the suburbs next to these large sections.In one suburb,archaeologists found a massive gateway with several small rooms alongside the entryway.In the litter filling the rooms,they found seals,broken clay impressions or sealings,and stone weights,the ancient world's version of pens,stamps,and weight registers.Those rooms were offices,probably for inspectors who taxed all goods coming into and going out of the city. When traders arrived at a city,they parked their oxcarts outside the city gates at a place that was part-hotel,partwarehouse called a caravanserai.Staying outside the city meant that the merchants could come and go from the caravanserai as they pleased without worrying about the city gates,which were probably only open between morning and evening.They could also leave things locked in heir rooms that they didn't intend to sell,so that they wouldn't have to pay taxes on them.

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    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

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