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お願いします (4) Ramesses II and his faithful shield bearer, Menna, led the troops, riding front and center in a golden chariot. Tall and dignified, with flaming red hair and a prominent, hooked nose, the king looked exactly as a pharaoh should, heading out to vanquish his enemies. He indeed was Ramesses the Great. (5) The march through Canaan and southern Syria along the coastal road would take a month. It is likely that Ramesses had a timetable to meet. As was the custom, the time and place of the battle had probably been agreed upon. They were to arrive at Qadesh in May. (6) The city of Qadesh lay tucked into a crook formed by a fork in the Orontes River. A moat connected the two prongs of river, creating an island city. The water barrier made Qadesh easier to defend. (7) One day's march from Qadesh, in the Wood of Labwi, Ramesses and his men halted. They needed to rest before crossing the Orontes River and facting the Hittite army. A refreshed army was a strong army. While setting up camp, Egyptian sentries found two men hiding in the trees. The men claimed to have deserted the Hittite army and professed profusely their allegiance to the great and powerful Ramesses II. When questioned, they told Ramesses that the Hittite king had stalled 120 miles north of Qadesh. "He was too frightened to proceed southwards when he heard that the Pharaoh had come northwards." (8) Believing the story completely (flattery will get you everywhere) and without making any attempt to be sure it was true, Ramesses took one division, the Army of Amun, and crossed the river. The single division advanced quickly on Qadesh. The king anticipated an easy victory. Without the Hittite army there would be little opposition. Ramesses prepared for a sunrise surprise attack. But it was Ramesses who was in for the surprise.

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(4) ラムセス2世と彼の忠実な盾持ちのメナは、黄金の二輪戦車の先頭と中央に乗って軍隊を率いました。 背が高く威厳に満ち、炎の様な赤い髪と高い鉤鼻を持ち、正にファラオに見える王は、彼の敵を打ち破るために出発しました。彼こそが、ラムセス大王でした。 (5) カナンを通って沿岸の道に沿った南シリアへの行軍は、1ヵ月かかりました。 ラムセスには交戦の予定表があったようです。 慣例通り、戦いの時間と場所は、おそらく話し合いで同意されていました。 彼らは、5月にクァデシュに到着する予定でした。 (6) クァデシュの都は、オロンテス川の分岐点の近くに形成された湾曲部に隠れるように位置していました。 濠が、川の2つの枝分かれした流れをつなぎ、島そのものが都になっていました。 水の防壁は、クァデシュを防御しやすくしていました。 (7) クァデシュから1日行進した、ラブウィの森で、ラムセスと彼の兵士たちは、停止しました。 彼らは、オロンテス川を渡って、ヒッタイト軍にまみえる前に休む必要がありました。 英気を養った軍は、強い軍になっていました。 野営の準備をしている間に、エジプトの見張りは、2人の男が木の中に隠れているのを発見しました。男たちは、ヒッタイト軍を捨てたと言い張り、偉大で強力なラムセス2世に忠誠をやたらと明言しました。 尋問されると、ヒッタイト王が、クァデシュの北120マイルの所で立ち往生したと、彼らはラムセスに伝えました。 「ファラオが北上していることを耳にした時、彼はあまりの恐怖に、南へ進むことが出来ませんでした。」 (8) (お世辞は、どこにでもありますが)その話をすっかり信じ、それが事実か確かめようともせずに、ラムセスは、アメンの軍1個師団を率いて、その川を渡りました。 その1個師団は、素早くクァデシュに向かって進みました。王は、楽勝を予想しました。 ヒッタイト軍がいなければ、ほとんど抵抗はないでしょう。ラムセスは、日の出時の不意の攻撃の準備をしてました。 しかし、奇襲攻撃を受けたのは、ラムセス達でした。

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関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (12) The first soldiers to reach Ramesses II's camp burst into the command tent, shouting that the Hittite army was right behind. Ramesses grabbed his battle armor and stepped out of the tent to see his camp already in chaos. The Hittites had broken through the defensive line. Ramesses realized he was isolated from his elite guards in the midst of the enemy with only his shield bearer, Menna, at his side. "When Menna saw so great a number of chariots had ringed about me, he felt faint, and fear entered his limbs. Thus he spoke to his majesty,‘We stand alone in the middle of the enemy. The infantry and the chariots have abandoned us.... Let us also leave unharmed.'" Ramesses stood firm and answered, "Steady your heart, Menna. I shall move among them just as a hawk." (13) The battle scenes carved on the walls of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel show Ramesses single-handedly taking down the Hittite army:  There was no officer with me, no charioteer, no soldier. My infantry and my chariotry had run away before the enemy and no one stood firm to fight.... I found that my heart grew stout and my breast swelled with joy. Everything which I attempted I succeeded.... I found the enemy chariots scattering before my horses. Not one of them could fight me. Their hearts quaked with fear when they saw me and their arms went limp so they could not shoot.... I made them plunge into the water like crocodiles. They fell on their faces, one on top of another. I slaughtered them at will.... Behold, I am victorious, me alone!

  • 16-1日本語訳

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