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お願いします (1) North of the Nile Delta, across the Mediterranean Sea, the land of the Hittites juts out like the snout of a barking dog. From an area where a whisker might sprout, the people of an initially insignficant nation called Hatti, began to spread throughout the Near East. By the late second millenmium BCE, they had grown into a great power. Asian princes wrote time and again to Akhenaten, warning him that he had better stop the Hittites now, before it was too kate. The Hittites were chipping away at Egypt's control in Syria. But Akhenate ignored the letters and he ignored the Hittites. And the Hittites grew stronger. (2) In the 13th century BCE, during the early part of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, when Ramesses II was king, he Hittites could no longer be ignored. They controlled the city-state of Qadesh, and whoever controlled Qadesh controlled the trade route from the coast. It was a strategic position and Ramesses II knew it. "Now the vile enemy from Hatti had gathered together all the foreign lands as far as the end of the sea.... They covered the mountains and filled the valleys and were like locusts in thier numbers." In the spring of his regnal Year 5, Ramesses II led his army eastward on a mission to beat back the Hittites. (3) The Egyptians army was a fearsome force. Twenty thousand infantrymen and charioteers advanced toward Qadesh. Four divisions of highly trained soldiers, each unit named after a protective god―Amun, Re, Ptah, and Seth―marched east. Ox-drawn carts and donkeys loaded with food and weapons followed, kicking up dust as they went. Members of the royal family, priests, advisers, and diplomats accompanied the soldiers to meet an enemy that Ramesses II claimed outnumbered them two to one.

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(1) ナイル・デルタの北、地中海の向こう側に、ヒッタイト人の土地が、ほえている犬の鼻のように突き出してます。 犬のほおひげに当たる地域から、ヒッタイトと呼ばれる初めは取るに足らない国であった民族が、近東中に拡散し始めました。 紀元前2000年の後半までには、彼らは強国になっていました。アジアの王子たちは、アクエンアテンに再三再四書簡を送り、手遅れにならない今のうちに、ヒッタイトを食い止めた方がよいと彼に警告しました。 ヒッタイトは、シリアにおけるエジプトの支配地域を少しずつ奪っていきました。 しかし、アクエンアテンは手紙を無視しましたし、彼はヒッタイトも無視しました。 それで、ヒッタイトはより強大になりました。 (2) 紀元前13世紀、エジプト第19王朝の初期、ラムセス2世が王であった頃、ヒッタイトは、もはや無視できなくなっていました。 彼らは、クァデシュと言う都市国家を支配していました、そして、クァデシュを支配する者は誰でも、海岸からの通商路を支配しました。 それは戦略上の拠点でした、そして、ラムセス2世はそのことを知っていました。「今や、ヒッタイトの卑劣な敵は、海が果てるところまで、すべての外国の土地を統一した .... 彼らは山をおおい、谷を満たし、数においてイナゴのごとし。」 彼の即位から5年目の春に、ラムセス2世は、彼の軍を率いて東に赴き、ヒッタイトを撃退する任務にあたりました。 (3) エジプト軍は、恐るべき力でした。 2万人の歩兵と二輪戦車を操る兵士が、クァデシュに向かって進軍しました。 よく訓練された兵士4個師団は、それぞれ、守り神の名をとって ― アメン、ラー、プタハ、セス ― と名づけられていましたが、東に進軍しました。牛が引く荷車や食料と武器を乗せたロバが後に続き、砂塵を巻き上げながら進みました。 王族、神官、助言者、外交官が、兵士たちに同行し、ラムセス2世が、2対1で数が勝ると言う敵を迎え撃ちました。

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  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) Ramesses II and his faithful shield bearer, Menna, led the troops, riding front and center in a golden chariot. Tall and dignified, with flaming red hair and a prominent, hooked nose, the king looked exactly as a pharaoh should, heading out to vanquish his enemies. He indeed was Ramesses the Great. (5) The march through Canaan and southern Syria along the coastal road would take a month. It is likely that Ramesses had a timetable to meet. As was the custom, the time and place of the battle had probably been agreed upon. They were to arrive at Qadesh in May. (6) The city of Qadesh lay tucked into a crook formed by a fork in the Orontes River. A moat connected the two prongs of river, creating an island city. The water barrier made Qadesh easier to defend. (7) One day's march from Qadesh, in the Wood of Labwi, Ramesses and his men halted. They needed to rest before crossing the Orontes River and facting the Hittite army. A refreshed army was a strong army. While setting up camp, Egyptian sentries found two men hiding in the trees. The men claimed to have deserted the Hittite army and professed profusely their allegiance to the great and powerful Ramesses II. When questioned, they told Ramesses that the Hittite king had stalled 120 miles north of Qadesh. "He was too frightened to proceed southwards when he heard that the Pharaoh had come northwards." (8) Believing the story completely (flattery will get you everywhere) and without making any attempt to be sure it was true, Ramesses took one division, the Army of Amun, and crossed the river. The single division advanced quickly on Qadesh. The king anticipated an easy victory. Without the Hittite army there would be little opposition. Ramesses prepared for a sunrise surprise attack. But it was Ramesses who was in for the surprise.

  • 日本語訳を!(20)

    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (22) In his fervor for the Aten, Akhenaten forgot Egypt. The city of Amarna was like the royal firstborn son who took all the attention. The rest of Egypt became the second son, ignored and neglected. Egyptians outside Amarna were paying taxes to build a city they would never see, dedicated to a god they did not want. (23) Egypt's foreign subjects fell one by one to outside conquerors. The Amarna letters flooded in with pleas for help. They fell on deaf ears. One poor prince wrote at least 64 times, "Why will you neglect our land?" (24) Akhenaten had inherited an empire but left a country in decline. After his death the new capital was abandoned. The kings who followed Akhenaten demolished his temples and erased his name. Once Amarna had been stripped of stone it was forgotten and left to crumble. The sun had set on he Amarna Period.

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翻訳のお仕事でもしているのですか。まず、自分でできるところはやってみてください。丸投げはいけませんね。

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  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

  • 日本語訳を!!12

    お願いします (1) Ptolemy XII was pharaoh of Egypt, the wealthiest country in the Mediterranean world. Ptolemy loved to party─he was called “The Flute Player” because he was so fond of music. But Ptolemy was not just a playful fellow. He was also a troublesome one, so troublesome that his own people wanted him out. They booted him from power in 58 BCE and put his eldest daughter, Berenice, on the throne instead. (2) Ptolemy fought back. He traveled to Rome and bribed the general Ptolemy to support him against Berenice. Ptolemy took troops to Egypt, defeated Berenice's supporters, and returned the playboy king to his throne. In gratitude, Ptolemy named Ptolemy as legal guardian to his eldest son. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be beheaded. (3) Who was this man who ordered his own daughter's death? (4) Ptolemy XII was actually a Greek. His long-ago ancestor, the first Ptolemy, had served as a general under Alexander the Great, who, in 331 BCE, had conquered a huge empire─including Egypt. When Alexander died, his three top generals divided the empire among themselves. The one who chose Egypt made himself its king and called himself Ptolemy I. By the time Ptolemy XII came to the throne, his family had ruled Egypt for almost 250 years. But they still spoke Greek and considered themselves part of the Greek world. (5) Although Ptolemy had executed his eldest daughter, there was another whom he especially loved─a bright, lively girl named Cleopatra VII. The king seems to have found her the most interesting of all his children. He proclaimed her a goddess when she was about four years old.

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    お願いします (4) Ramesses III's inscription tells us that he raced with his army toward southern Palestine to stop the Sea Peoples before they stepped on Egyptian soil. Every ship was sent to the mouth of the Nile, until Ramesses III had filled "the harbor-mouths, like a strong wall, with warships, galleys and barges." Ramesses III knew that he must draw a defensive line. The Egyptians believed this enemy had toppled empires. Egypt would not be one of them. He spared nothing outfitting his fleet. "They were manned completely from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of the choicest of Egypt..." Along the shore, Ramesses III positioned charioteers. "Their horses were quivering in their every limb, ready to crush the countries under their feet." (5) The Sea Peoples approached from the northeast. They came in waves. A vast horde advanced by land, a massive fleet bore down by sea―all headed straight for Egypt. Thousands marched―young, old, families with wagons piled high with their belongings pulled by humpbacked oxen, soldiers in chariots, soldiers on foot―driven by the common goal of claiming Egypt's prosperous land for their own. (6) The first wave of Sea People attacked by land. From the scenes drawn at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we see the chaotic mass of enemy soldiers as they launched themselves at the Egyptians. Some wore horned helmets. Others wore feathered helmets. Charioteers, three to a chariot, forced their horses into the fray. Swordsmen charged, slashing long, tapered swords. The infantry thrust their javelins and spears. Against them Ramesses III stood firm. King, chariot, and horses are shown in perfect alignment whereas the Sea Peoples are a chaotic jumble, facing slaughter, surrender, or flight. Ramesses III's troops fought with chins raised and lips pressed together in grim determination. The Sea Peoples scattered. Their soldiers turned and fled.

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  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (12) The first soldiers to reach Ramesses II's camp burst into the command tent, shouting that the Hittite army was right behind. Ramesses grabbed his battle armor and stepped out of the tent to see his camp already in chaos. The Hittites had broken through the defensive line. Ramesses realized he was isolated from his elite guards in the midst of the enemy with only his shield bearer, Menna, at his side. "When Menna saw so great a number of chariots had ringed about me, he felt faint, and fear entered his limbs. Thus he spoke to his majesty,‘We stand alone in the middle of the enemy. The infantry and the chariots have abandoned us.... Let us also leave unharmed.'" Ramesses stood firm and answered, "Steady your heart, Menna. I shall move among them just as a hawk." (13) The battle scenes carved on the walls of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel show Ramesses single-handedly taking down the Hittite army:  There was no officer with me, no charioteer, no soldier. My infantry and my chariotry had run away before the enemy and no one stood firm to fight.... I found that my heart grew stout and my breast swelled with joy. Everything which I attempted I succeeded.... I found the enemy chariots scattering before my horses. Not one of them could fight me. Their hearts quaked with fear when they saw me and their arms went limp so they could not shoot.... I made them plunge into the water like crocodiles. They fell on their faces, one on top of another. I slaughtered them at will.... Behold, I am victorious, me alone!

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    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.