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Montenegrin Victory and the Battle of Bloody Christmas

  • The Montenegrin Army fought against Austro-Hungary in Serbia for three months in winter 1915.
  • In January 1916, they faced an invasion of their own territory and had to protect the Serbian army's retreat to Corfu.
  • The battle of Bloody Christmas on 6th and 7th January 1916 was the climax of the fighting.


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  • Nakay702
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>It ended with a Montenegrin victory.In the winter of 1915, the Army of Montenegro had been fighting Austro-Hungary for three months in Serbia. In January 1916 they had to resist the invasion of their own territory. ⇒それ(モジコヴァックの戦い)は、1915年の冬モンテネグロの勝利で終った。モンテネグロの方面軍は、セルビアでオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍と3か月間戦っていた。1916年1月に、彼らは、自分自身の領土への侵入に対抗しなければならなくなった。 >The Montenegrin Army was weakened by the harsh weather and lack of supplies. On 5 January 1916, they received a command to protect the retreat of the Serbian army to Corfu via Albania.The fighting culminated on 6 and 7 January 1916 (on Orthodox Christmas; also known as 'Bloody Christmas'). ⇒モンテネグロ方面軍は、厳しい天候と必需品不足によって弱体化した。1916年1月5日、彼らは、アルバニア経由でコルフに退却するセルビア軍を保護するようにとの命令を受けた。戦いは、1916年1月6日‐7日に最高潮の激戦に達した(ユダヤ教正統派歴でいうクリスマスに当たるので、「流血のクリスマス」として知られる)。






  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Montenegrin Campaign of World War I, which was fought in January 1916, was a part of the Serbian Campaign, in which Austria Hungary defeated and occupied the Kingdom of Montenegro, an ally of Serbia. By January 1916, the Serbian Army had been defeated by an Austrian-Hungarian, German and Bulgarian invasion. The remnants of the Serbian army had withdrawn through Montenegro and Albania, and were being evacuated by allied ships since 12 December, first to Italy and later to Corfu. The k.u.k. High command in Teschen, decided to use the success in Serbia to knock Montenegro out of the war.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    On 13 January 1916, the vanguard of the Austrian army reached the capital Cetinje. Braun had encountered stiff resistance and advanced only 10 km in the direction of Nikšić.Negotiations on an armistice started on 13 January, after the fall of Cetinje. King Nicholas I of Montenegro first refused the harsh Austrian terms, but fled to Albania and from there to Italy on 19 January. From there he issued an order to Janko Vukotić demanding that the army continued to fight and eventually retreat with the Serbians to Albania and Corfu.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Austro-Hungarian forces retreated and Gorizia fell to the Italians. They, however, didn't succeed in forcing their way to Trieste, and were stopped northwest of Duino.Fighting culminated on 6 August, when Italian forces under general Luigi Capello launched an attack on Austro-Hungarian positions guarding the main transport road leading from the coast town of Duino to Gorizia. The main objective of the attack was to secure the transport road, thus securing their advance to Gorizia from the south. A plan was drafted by Italian general Luigi Capello, to split the army in half, with one side attacking straight at Austrian positions and the other to attack from the rear.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    In early 1916, the German army had 900,000 men in recruit depots and another 300,000 due in March when the 1897 class of conscripts was called up. The army was so flush with men that plans were made to demobilise older Landwehr classes and in the summer, Falkenhayn ordered the raising of another 18 divisions, for an army of 175 divisions. The costly battles at Verdun and the Somme had been much more demanding on German divisions and they had to be relieved after only a few days in the front line, lasting about 14 days on the Somme. A larger number of divisions might reduce the strain on the Westheer and realise a surplus for offensives on other fronts. Hindenburg and Ludendorff ordered the creation of another 22 divisions, to reach 179 divisions by early 1917. The men for the divisions created by Falkenhayn had come from reducing square divisions with four infantry regiments to triangular divisions with three regiments, rather than a net increase in the number of men in the army.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    During the three days of fighting the 1st and 2nd Brigade of the 8th Tudzha Division suffered on average 21% casualties and abandoned many of their artillery guns which further weakened them despite that they managed to retreat to a new position around Lerin. Their defeat forced the western parts of the right wing of the Bulgarian First Army also to retire and thus opened the way for further Allied attacks that would develop in the three-month-long Monastir Offensive.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    A major problem for the Bulgarians was that their army and resources were stretched to the limits from Dobruja to Macedonia and Albania. In this difficult situation the Bulgarian high command turned to its German allies. The Germans themselves had little reinforcements to offer as the Brusilov Offensive had taken its toll and the Battle of the Somme was still raging. They turned to the Ottoman Empire and convinced Enver Pasha to send the 11,979 men of the 50th Division to Macedonia.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    British attacks in January 1917, had taken place against exhausted German troops holding poor defensive positions left over from the fighting in 1916; some troops had low morale and showed an unusual willingness to surrender. The army group commander Generalfeldmarschall Crown Prince Rupprecht, advocated a withdrawal to the Siegfriedstellung on 28 January, which was initially refused but then authorised on 4 February and the first "Alberich day" was set for 9 February. The British attacks in the Actions of Miraumont from 17–18 February and anticipation of further attacks, led Rupprecht on 18 March to order a withdrawal of about 3 miles (4.8 km) on a 15-mile (24 km) front of the 1st Army to the R. I Stellung, from Essarts to Le Transloy on 22 February. The withdrawal caused some surprise to the British, despite the interception of wireless messages from 20–21 February.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Falkenhayn wrote in his memoir that he sent an appreciation of the strategic situation to the Kaiser in December 1915, The string in France has reached breaking point. A mass breakthrough—which in any case is beyond our means—is unnecessary. Within our reach there are objectives for the retention of which the French General Staff would be compelled to throw in every man they have. If they do so the forces of France will bleed to death. — Falkenhayn The German strategy in 1916 was to inflict mass casualties on the French, a goal achieved against the Russians from 1914 to 1915, to weaken the French Army to the point of collapse. The French Army had to be drawn into circumstances from which it could not escape, for reasons of strategy and prestige.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    General Kövess was awarded the Silver Merit Medal (Signum Laudis) with war-ribbon on the 12th of January 1916 and promoted to Generaloberst on the 26th of February 1916. During the following weeks the troops of the 3rd Austrian Hungarian army occupied the rest of Montenegro and invaded Albania, taking Scutari and finally Durazzo at the end of February. The evacuation of the Serbian army had been completed on 10 February.The Battle of Mojkovac (Serbian: Бој на Мојковцу, Boj na Mojkovcu) was a World War I battle fought between 6 January and 7 January 1916 near Mojkovac, Montenegro, between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Montenegro.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

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