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お願いします (12) The first soldiers to reach Ramesses II's camp burst into the command tent, shouting that the Hittite army was right behind. Ramesses grabbed his battle armor and stepped out of the tent to see his camp already in chaos. The Hittites had broken through the defensive line. Ramesses realized he was isolated from his elite guards in the midst of the enemy with only his shield bearer, Menna, at his side. "When Menna saw so great a number of chariots had ringed about me, he felt faint, and fear entered his limbs. Thus he spoke to his majesty,‘We stand alone in the middle of the enemy. The infantry and the chariots have abandoned us.... Let us also leave unharmed.'" Ramesses stood firm and answered, "Steady your heart, Menna. I shall move among them just as a hawk." (13) The battle scenes carved on the walls of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel show Ramesses single-handedly taking down the Hittite army:  There was no officer with me, no charioteer, no soldier. My infantry and my chariotry had run away before the enemy and no one stood firm to fight.... I found that my heart grew stout and my breast swelled with joy. Everything which I attempted I succeeded.... I found the enemy chariots scattering before my horses. Not one of them could fight me. Their hearts quaked with fear when they saw me and their arms went limp so they could not shoot.... I made them plunge into the water like crocodiles. They fell on their faces, one on top of another. I slaughtered them at will.... Behold, I am victorious, me alone!

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  • sayshe
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(12) ラムセス2世の野営にやって来た最初の兵士は、指揮所に飛びこみました。そして、ヒッタイト軍が正に背後に迫っていると叫びました。 ラムセスは、彼の鎧をつかんで、指揮所を飛び出すと、彼の野営地がすでに混乱状態に陥っているのが分かりました。 ヒッタイト軍は、防衛線を突破していました。ラムセスは、彼が選り抜きの護衛兵から切り離されて、敵の真っただ中にいることに気付きました、彼のそばにいるのは、盾持ちのメナだけでした。 「メナは、凄まじい数の二輪戦車が私を取り囲んだのを見ると、彼はめまいを起こし、手足の先まで恐怖にしびれました。次の様に、彼は、陛下に話しました、『我々は、敵のまっただ中に孤立しています。 歩兵連隊と二輪戦車部隊は、我々を見捨てました .... 我々も、傷を受けない内に撤退しましょう。』」ラムセスは、しっかりと踏みとどまって、答えました。「落ち付け、メナ。 余は、タカのごとく彼らの中を動き回るであろう。」 (13) アブシンベルの大神殿の壁に刻まれた戦闘場面は、たった一人で、ヒッタイト軍を倒しているラムセスを示しています: 将校も、二輪戦車の操縦兵も、兵士も、余のそばにはいなかった。 余の歩兵連隊も余の二輪戦車部隊も、敵を前にして逃げていた、誰一人として、しっかりと踏みとどまって戦おうとしなかった .... 余は我が心臓が強くなり、胸が喜びで腫れるのに気付いた。 余が試みたすべてで、余は成功を収めた .... 余は、敵の二輪戦車が余の馬前で散り散りになるのを見た。彼らの1人として、余と戦うにあたわず。 彼らは、余を見かけると、彼らの心臓は恐れで震えた、そして、彼らの腕は萎え、撃つことあたわず .... 余は、彼らをワニのごとく水に飛び込ませた。 彼らは、次々と前のめりに倒れた。 余は、意のままに彼らを虐殺した .... 見よ、余は勝利をおさめたり、余一人にて!

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    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."

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    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

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    お願いします (4) Ramesses II and his faithful shield bearer, Menna, led the troops, riding front and center in a golden chariot. Tall and dignified, with flaming red hair and a prominent, hooked nose, the king looked exactly as a pharaoh should, heading out to vanquish his enemies. He indeed was Ramesses the Great. (5) The march through Canaan and southern Syria along the coastal road would take a month. It is likely that Ramesses had a timetable to meet. As was the custom, the time and place of the battle had probably been agreed upon. They were to arrive at Qadesh in May. (6) The city of Qadesh lay tucked into a crook formed by a fork in the Orontes River. A moat connected the two prongs of river, creating an island city. The water barrier made Qadesh easier to defend. (7) One day's march from Qadesh, in the Wood of Labwi, Ramesses and his men halted. They needed to rest before crossing the Orontes River and facting the Hittite army. A refreshed army was a strong army. While setting up camp, Egyptian sentries found two men hiding in the trees. The men claimed to have deserted the Hittite army and professed profusely their allegiance to the great and powerful Ramesses II. When questioned, they told Ramesses that the Hittite king had stalled 120 miles north of Qadesh. "He was too frightened to proceed southwards when he heard that the Pharaoh had come northwards." (8) Believing the story completely (flattery will get you everywhere) and without making any attempt to be sure it was true, Ramesses took one division, the Army of Amun, and crossed the river. The single division advanced quickly on Qadesh. The king anticipated an easy victory. Without the Hittite army there would be little opposition. Ramesses prepared for a sunrise surprise attack. But it was Ramesses who was in for the surprise.

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  • sayshe
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#1.です。訂正です。 (12) ラムセス2世の野営にやって来た最初の兵士は、指揮所に飛びこみました。そして、ヒッタイト軍が正に背後に迫っていると叫びました。 ラムセスは、彼の鎧をつかんで、指揮所を飛び出すと、彼の野営地がすでに混乱状態に陥っているのが分かりました。 ヒッタイト軍は、防衛線を突破していました。ラムセスは、彼が選り抜きの護衛兵から切り離されて、敵の真っただ中にいることに気付きました、彼のそばにいるのは、盾持ちのメナだけでした。 「メナは、凄まじい数の二輪戦車が余を取り囲んだのを見ると、彼はめまいを起こし、手足の先まで恐怖にしびれた。次の様に、彼は、言った、『陛下、我々は、敵のまっただ中に孤立しています。 歩兵連隊と二輪戦車部隊は、我々を見捨てました .... 我々も、傷を受けない内に撤退しましょう。』」ラムセスは、しっかりと踏みとどまって、答えました。「落ち付け、メナ。 余は、タカのごとく彼らの中を動き回るであろう。」 にして下さい。失礼しました。

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  • 日本語訳を!(20)

    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

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    お願いします (4) Ramesses III's inscription tells us that he raced with his army toward southern Palestine to stop the Sea Peoples before they stepped on Egyptian soil. Every ship was sent to the mouth of the Nile, until Ramesses III had filled "the harbor-mouths, like a strong wall, with warships, galleys and barges." Ramesses III knew that he must draw a defensive line. The Egyptians believed this enemy had toppled empires. Egypt would not be one of them. He spared nothing outfitting his fleet. "They were manned completely from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of the choicest of Egypt..." Along the shore, Ramesses III positioned charioteers. "Their horses were quivering in their every limb, ready to crush the countries under their feet." (5) The Sea Peoples approached from the northeast. They came in waves. A vast horde advanced by land, a massive fleet bore down by sea―all headed straight for Egypt. Thousands marched―young, old, families with wagons piled high with their belongings pulled by humpbacked oxen, soldiers in chariots, soldiers on foot―driven by the common goal of claiming Egypt's prosperous land for their own. (6) The first wave of Sea People attacked by land. From the scenes drawn at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we see the chaotic mass of enemy soldiers as they launched themselves at the Egyptians. Some wore horned helmets. Others wore feathered helmets. Charioteers, three to a chariot, forced their horses into the fray. Swordsmen charged, slashing long, tapered swords. The infantry thrust their javelins and spears. Against them Ramesses III stood firm. King, chariot, and horses are shown in perfect alignment whereas the Sea Peoples are a chaotic jumble, facing slaughter, surrender, or flight. Ramesses III's troops fought with chins raised and lips pressed together in grim determination. The Sea Peoples scattered. Their soldiers turned and fled.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

  • 日本語訳を!(18)

    お願いします (1) North of the Nile Delta, across the Mediterranean Sea, the land of the Hittites juts out like the snout of a barking dog. From an area where a whisker might sprout, the people of an initially insignficant nation called Hatti, began to spread throughout the Near East. By the late second millenmium BCE, they had grown into a great power. Asian princes wrote time and again to Akhenaten, warning him that he had better stop the Hittites now, before it was too kate. The Hittites were chipping away at Egypt's control in Syria. But Akhenate ignored the letters and he ignored the Hittites. And the Hittites grew stronger. (2) In the 13th century BCE, during the early part of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, when Ramesses II was king, he Hittites could no longer be ignored. They controlled the city-state of Qadesh, and whoever controlled Qadesh controlled the trade route from the coast. It was a strategic position and Ramesses II knew it. "Now the vile enemy from Hatti had gathered together all the foreign lands as far as the end of the sea.... They covered the mountains and filled the valleys and were like locusts in thier numbers." In the spring of his regnal Year 5, Ramesses II led his army eastward on a mission to beat back the Hittites. (3) The Egyptians army was a fearsome force. Twenty thousand infantrymen and charioteers advanced toward Qadesh. Four divisions of highly trained soldiers, each unit named after a protective god―Amun, Re, Ptah, and Seth―marched east. Ox-drawn carts and donkeys loaded with food and weapons followed, kicking up dust as they went. Members of the royal family, priests, advisers, and diplomats accompanied the soldiers to meet an enemy that Ramesses II claimed outnumbered them two to one.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (6) The Hyksos army was made up of professional soldiers. They drove chariots, wore body armor and leather helmets, and wielded bows designed to shoot arrows farther than ordinary wooden bows. It's no surprise that the Hyksos beat the Egyptians in those first battles. But the Egyptians learned from the encounters. They stole the ddsign of the chariot from the Hyksos and then improved upon it. The Egyptians made the chariot lighter. The redesign positioned the driver over the axle and they covered the wooden axle with metal so that it turned more smoothly. These changes made it easier for the horse to pull the chariot. The driver stood, holding onto straps for balance, with a soldier at his side. The soldier held a shield and was armed with a bow and arrows, a sword, and a javelin. The back of the chariot was open so that the charioteers could jump out with ease and engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. (7) The Egyptians trained. They held battle competitions in front of the king. Archers shot at targets. Wrestlers grappled with one another. Swordsmen clashed blades. What had once been a rag-tag scrabble of men became an organized military. But they still had work to do on their style of waging war. Before a battle, the Egyptians notified the enemy which day they planned to attack and where. If the enemy wasn't ready, the Egyptians rescheduled. And if the enemy retreated into their fortress, rather than rudely barging in, the Egyptians would patiently wait outside hoping to starve them out. Unfortunately, Egypt's enemies weren't always as courteous.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    By the end of 5 August, they were completely exhausted; their depleted ranks stumbled back to their bivouac lines at Romani and Etmaler where they were ordered one day's rest. Von Kressenstein had prepared successive lines of defence during his advance towards Romani, and despite losing one artillery battery and more than one third of his soldiers, fought a series of effective rearguard actions which slowed the pursuit by British Empire mounted troops and enabled his force to retreat back to El Arish.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(4)

    お願いします。 (9) The Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, and the Book of the Dead all had the same purpose―turn the quiz into an open-book exam and guarantee that the spirits passed. Once safely though the labyrinth of portals, the spirits entered the hall of judgment. Before 42 gods, the spirits declared their innocence to everything the Egyptians could think of. The cheat sheet helped them remember all the sins they didn't commit. The spirits addressed the gods one by one. Some of the gods had creepy names: Bone Breaker and Blood Eater, for example. Some gods had rather unusual names: Fiery Eyes, Hot Foot, and Pale One. Others had names that would make good video game demons: Demolisher, Lord of Truth, and the Accuser. Still others sounded a bit goofy, as if they were one of the Seven Dwarfs―Nosey, for example. The spirits had to remember which sin they denied to which god (with the help of their cheat sheet). Apparently being noisy was considered sinful. One of the denial was "O Water-smiter who came forth from the Abyss, I have not been loud voiced."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) But now the battle moved to the Mediterranean. Egypt was not known for having much of a navy. Its navy was essentially the army with a little training at sea. Egyptians hated the sea―or the "Great Green" as they called it. Now they must fight the Sea Peoples on the Great Green. (8) From the text inscribed at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we know that the Sea Peoples "penetrated the channels of the Nile Mouths" and that Ramesses III attacked "like a whirlwind against them." Although the Egyptian seamen were not as skilled as the Sea Peoples, their boats had oars―not just sails like the Sea Peoples' vessels. On open waters the Egyptian navy wouldn't have had a chance, but in the confined river mouths they could maneuver using oars. The Egyptian warships herded the Sea Peoples' boats closer and closer to land, where Ramesses III had lined the shore with archers. When the enemy ships were forced within firing range, the Egyptian archers let go volley after volley of arrows. The air filled with the hiss of their flight and the thwack of their landing. Egyptian marine archers joined the land archers firing from the boat decks in unison. Arrows fell like rain on the Sea Peoples who, armed with only swords and spears, cowered helplessly.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) Menenius told the rebels that one time the various parts of this body became angry at the stomach and ganged up against it. They claimed that it was unfair that they should have all the worry, trouble, and work of providing for the belly, while the belly had...nothing to do but enjoy the good things they gave it. So they plotted that the hands should carry no more food to the mouth and that the...teeth would refuse to chew. (6) The body parts meant to punish the belly, but they all grew weak from lack of food. “They finally figured out that the belly had an important job after all. It received nourishment, but it also gave nourishment. It was no idle task to provide the body parts with what they all needed to survive and thrive.” Using this fanciful story, Menenius convinced the workers that their rebellion would be a disaster for everyone, rich and poor alike. Rome needed all of its people. (7) Thanks to Menenius, the workers agreed to go home. But they refused to go back to the status quo. One of the plebs' chief complaints was that the law favored the patricians. And since the courts were in the hands of the rich, a poor person had no protection against an unjust judge. A judge could protect his friends or rule according to his own best interests─whatever was best for him. After the plebs made their stand at the Sacred Mount, the senate voted to give them an assembly of their own and representatives to protect them against injustice. These officials, “tribunes of the plebs,” spoke up for the people and even had the right to veto decrees of the Senate.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします "Then his majesty commanded the entire army to march upon the road which threatened to be narrow. He went forth at the head of his army himself, showing the way by his own footsteps; horse behind horse, his majesty being at the head of his army." Thutmose III led his troops through the dangerous pass. (15) The rebel forces never expected the Egyptian army to choose the dangerous direct road. They had divided the bulk of their army between the other two roads, leaving the central pass virtually unprotected. When the Egyptians attacked, the enemy retreated to the city gates of Megiddo, "they fled headlohm to Megiddo with faces of fear. They abandoned their horses and chariots of gold and silver...." Slow runners found the gates already slammed shut and had to be pulled over the walls by their friends inside, using ropes made from clothes tied together. Thutmose III's daring dash worked. (16) Because the Egyptians stopped to collect the loot abandoned by the fleeing soldiers, victory was not theirs that day. They were forced to wait outsidd the city walls for what, according to the records, was a seven-month siege. But the day's events sent a message to the ancient world. The throme of Egypt was in capable hands with the warrior king Thutmose III in control. Egypt would flourish under him. Its territory would be greatly expanded. Ma'at would be maintained. For Egypt ht would be a golden age.