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日本語訳を! 8-(5)

お願いします。 (14) Archaeologists who have been digging and surveying at the pyramid town of Kahun on and off since 1889 have discovered what urban life was like in the Middle Kingdom. The walled village built beside the pyramid complex was home to the king's workers and their families. Judging from the size of their grain silos, there was enough food to support as many as 5,000 people. Seeds found in the ancient layers show botanists what the vegetation looked like back then. Poppies, lupines, and jasmine bloomed and perfumed the air. Gardeners tended their peas, beans, radishes, and cucumbers. (15) Nearby, archaeologists piece together life in the royal court as the area is excavated. One papyrus, The Tale of Sinuhe, gives us an idea of how a Middle Kingdom palace functioned. It was divided into three main parts. The royal family and their servants lived in an area called the Nursery. Banquets were held in the Pillared Hall. And business was conducted in the Audience Hall. (16) The story of the royal guard Sinuhe reveals that even in the Middle Kingdom plots to murder the king and overthrow the throne were a constant worry. King Amenemhet had united the country, but not all those governors were willing to give up their power now that they had tasted it. Prince Senwosert was on his way home from battle when messengers brought news from the palace that his father had been murdered. The story goes that Sinuhe, overhearing their message, panicked and fled Egypt. Crossing the desert, he thought he had met his end: "Thirst's attack overtook me, and I was scorched, my throat parched. I said, This is the taste of death."


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(14) 1889年以降断続的にカフーンと言うピラミッドの町で発掘や調査をしていた考古学者たちは、都市生活が、中王国ではどのようだったかについて発見しました。 ピラミッド施設のそばに造られた壁に囲まれた村は、王の労働者と彼らの家族の故郷でした。 彼らの穀物貯蔵庫の規模から判断して、5,000人もの人々を養うのに十分な食物が、ありました。古代の地層で見つかる種子は、植物学者に、植物が当時どの様であったかを示します。 ポピー、ルピナス(マメ科)、ジャスミンが、花を咲かせ、大気に芳香を漂わせました。 庭師は、彼らのエンドウ、豆、ラディッシュ(大根)、キュウリの世話をしました。 (15) 近くで、その地域が発掘されるにつれて、考古学者たちは、宮廷での生活を少しずつつなぎ合わせる様に解読します。「シヌヘの物語」と言うパピルスによって、我々は、中王国の宮殿がどのように機能したかが分かります。 それは、3つの主要な部分に分けられました。 王族と彼らの召使は、「保育室」と呼ばれる区域に住んでいました。 晩餐会が、「支柱の立ち並ぶ広間」で催されました。 そして、執務は「聴衆の間」で行われました。 (16) 王室の警護人シヌヘの物語は、中王国でさえ、王を殺害して、王権を転覆しようとする策略が恒常的な心配であったことを明らかにします。アメネンホット王は国を統一しました、しかし、全てのそれらの総督が、彼らが権力の味を知った今、彼らの権力を放棄する気持ちがあるというわけではありませんでした。 センウォセルト王子は、使者が彼の父が殺害されたという知らせを宮殿から持ってきたとき、戦いからの帰途にありました。物語は、シヌヘが、彼らの伝言を小耳にはさみ、うろたえ、エジプトから逃げたと続きます。 砂漠を横断している時、彼は、自らの終焉に至ったと思いました: 「のどの渇きの攻撃が、私に追い付いた、そして、私は焼け焦げる思いである。私ののどは、火にあぶられるようだ。 私は言った、これが死の味なのだ。」





  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

  • 18-3日本語訳

    お願いします。  Ashoka wanted Kalinga not only for its riches,but also because the highways that connected north and south India ran right through the middle of the state.And war elephants or no war elephants,what Ashoka wanted,he usually got.His attack was brutal and effective.By the time the war was over,one out of every four Kalingans was dead or wounded.Many more had been taken prisoner and were separated from what was left of their families.Those who survived faced lives as broken and barren as their wrecked houses and ruined fields.Ashoka reported that“150,000”were deported,100,000 were killed,and many more died(from other causes).”  As Ashoka stared out over the ruins left by his armies,something changed.He'd seen the agony of defeated people before,but this was different.He was different.He remembered the lessons of dharma,artha,kama,and moksha,and realized suddenly that there was nothing honorable,creative,beautiful,or peaceful about this victory.  So Ashoka,who called himself“Beloved of the Deities,”sent out a royal edict,a message,which he had proclaimed in every village and carved into rock pillars for all to see:“After the Kalingas had been conquered,Beloved of the Deities came to feel a strong inclination towards dharma,a love for dharma,and for instruction of dharma.Now Beloved of the Deities feels deep remorse for having comquered the Kalingas.”  Ashoka adopted a new philosophy,one he called“conquest by dharma,”instead of by arms.As he explained in one of his proclamations:  I have had this edict written so that sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests,or that if military conquests are made,that they be done with forbearance and light punishment,or better still that they consider making conquest by dharma only,for that bears fruit in this world and the next.May all their intense devotion be given to this which has result in this world and the next.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(3)

    お願いします。 (8) With so much to lose, the Egyptians came up with a cheat sheet. During the Old Kingdom, only pharaohs could get into the Field of Reeds. Not wanting to risk forgetting a name or a spell, the kings had the answers to all the questions, along with all the magic spells, buried with them. We call the book of spells from the Old Kingdom the Pyramid Texts. During the Middle Kingdom, when the Field of Reeds was open to everyone, the spell were conveniently written on the sides of the coffins. We call those the Coffin Texts. In the New Kingdom the spells were written on scrolls and buried with the body. The words written during the New Kingdom are now known as the Book of the Dead. The Egyptians thought of every possible unpleasantness and wrote spells to protect against it. They even had a spell that prevented them from having to stand on their head and eat feces―or step in some. "What I detest is feces, and I will not eat it... and I will not touch it with my toes." Obviously the ancients weren't taking chances on anything less than a perfect afterlife.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(4)

    お願いします。 (12) You try to imagine what it had looked like that first season your grandfather worked here. Then it was nothing more than an empty plateau. You remember his stories of how they chose where to place he very first stones. The priests had tracked the movement of the stars in the Great Bear constellation across the night sky. Using the stars for bearings nd applying "the instrument of knowing," a simple handheld rod with a string that dropped straight to the ground, they had staked out the base. Then, in a symbolic ceremony, King Khufu himself had pointed out true north by lining up the headdress of a priestess with the star that was the hoof of the Great Bear. The calculations were so precise that thousands of years later modern scholars would discover the Great Pyramid as less than a tenth of a degree off true north. (13) The orientation was critical for the king's entrance to the afterlife. The pyramid represented his rampway to heaven. From the Pyramid Texts we learn that the pyramid was the "stairway in order to reach the heights...stairs to the sky, which are laid down for the king, that he may ascend thereon to the heavens." And your grandfather was there to see the first rock put in place.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(2)

    お願いします。 (5) It was also common for governors to brag that they could support the people in their cnmmunity while the rest of Egypt starved. Ankhtyfy apparently was just as conceited as all the others because his inscription says, I gave bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked...I gave sandals to the barefooted. The whole country has become like locusts going upstream and downstream in search of food; but never did I allow anybody in need to go from this province to another one. I am the hero without equal. (6) Boasts like these led scholars to believe that the First Intermediate Period and all its chaos were brought about by famine. Was all of Egypt starving? Is that why the country fell apart? Archaeologists who study ancient climates don't think that is true. There were droughts in the Old Kingdom and the king was still able to maintain control. And there were good harvests during the First Intermediate Period and yet chaos ruled. The boasts about feeding the hungry were most likely meant to send the message to the people that they needed the governor, that without their local ruler they would suffer as the rest of the country was supposedly suffering. (7) Governors had always recruited military troops from their provinces for their king. Now instead of sending soldiers to the capital, they were using the troops for their own scrambles for power. The strong grew stronger, and the wealthy grew wealthier. The central government splintered. The king's power slipped further.

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(4)

    お願いします。 (10) But the writings that actually come from the First Intermediate Period aren't quite so negative. Some stories are about problemr, but problems that could be overcome. Problems wrestled with. Problems solved. Not everything was bleak for everyone. With the decline of the king's power, people suddenly began to think for themselves. If the king could not control Egypt, was he really a god? Perhaps, if the king was not perfect and he could enter the afterlife, others could, too. (11) Directions to the next world, which previously had been available only to the king, were now being written on the inside and outside of coffins. Maps of the underworld were drawn, too, so that the dead could find their way. Just to be on the safe side, artists drew eyes on the outside of the coffin so that dead inside could read what was written outside. The Coffin Texts became available to the upper levels of society who could afford a burial. (12) Without the rigid formulas of the old ways, new ways were possible. The paintings and stories in Ankhtyfy's tomb are examples of this new freedom. They are unlike anything from the Old Kingdom. The artists painted in bold new styles. The painted scenes of everyday activities such as spinning and weaving, with craftspeople using new inventions. Artistry and technology bloomed when the artisans were no longer told how things must be done. (13) Scholars do not agree on exactly when the First Intermediate Period ended and the Middle Kingdom began. The list of kings is confusing, and dates overlap. But one thing is certain: when the Middle Kingdom was in full swing, centralized power was back.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.