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日本語訳を! 6-(4)

お願いします。 (9) The Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, and the Book of the Dead all had the same purpose―turn the quiz into an open-book exam and guarantee that the spirits passed. Once safely though the labyrinth of portals, the spirits entered the hall of judgment. Before 42 gods, the spirits declared their innocence to everything the Egyptians could think of. The cheat sheet helped them remember all the sins they didn't commit. The spirits addressed the gods one by one. Some of the gods had creepy names: Bone Breaker and Blood Eater, for example. Some gods had rather unusual names: Fiery Eyes, Hot Foot, and Pale One. Others had names that would make good video game demons: Demolisher, Lord of Truth, and the Accuser. Still others sounded a bit goofy, as if they were one of the Seven Dwarfs―Nosey, for example. The spirits had to remember which sin they denied to which god (with the help of their cheat sheet). Apparently being noisy was considered sinful. One of the denial was "O Water-smiter who came forth from the Abyss, I have not been loud voiced."


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(9) ピラミッド文書、棺文書、死者の書の全てが、同じ目的を持っていました ― つまり、問答を教科書持ち込み可能の試験に変え、霊魂が通過することを保証することでした。 ひとたび無事に扉の迷宮を通り抜けてしまえば、霊魂は、判決の間に入りました。 42名の神々の前で、霊魂は、エジプト人が思いつく限りのあらゆることに対して、自分たちが無実であることを宣言しました。 カンニング・ペーパーは、彼らが犯していないすべての罪を思い出すのに役立ちました。霊魂は、神々一人一人に呼びかけました。 神々の中には、例えば、骨を砕く神、血をすする神といった、気味悪い名前を持つものもいました。 また、燃えるようにギラギラした目の神、熱い足の神、青白い神、と言った、かなり珍しい名前の神々もいました。 さらに、テレビゲームのデーモンになりそうな、破壊者、真実の支配者、告発者、と言った名前を持つ神々もいました。 それから、たとえば、まるで七人の小人の一人の ― ノゥズィ(詮索好き)の様に、少し、間の抜けた感じのする神々もいました。霊魂は、(カンニング・ペーパーの助けを借りて)どの神に対して、どの罪を否定したのか覚えていなければなりませんでした。 どうも、詮索好きなことは、罪であると考えられたようです。 否定の1つは、次の様でした「ああ、深淵より現れた、水打ちの神よ、私が大声をあげられたことは一度もありません」。




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  • 回答No.1

9) Pyramid Texts(柩の Texts)、そして、死者の書は同じ目的準をすべて持ちました持込み自由の試験へのクイズと気分が通ったという保証。 一度問題なく、入口のうち迷宮でも、気分は判断のホールに入りました。 42匹の神の前に、気分は、エジプト人が考えることができたすべてに、彼らの無実を宣言しました。 カンニング・ペーパーは、彼らが彼らが犯さなかったすべての罪を覚えているのを援助しました。 気分は、一つずつ神に宛名を書きました。 神のいくつかには、気味悪い名前がありました: 骨粉砕と血液搾取、たとえば。 若干の神には、むしろ変わった名前がありました: ギラギラ光る目、熱い足と青白い人。 他には、テレビゲーム・デーモンを果たす名前がありました: 破壊するもの、真実の支配者と告発人。 まるで、たとえば、彼らが七人のこびと―Noseyの1つであるように、静かな他は少しまぬけに聞こえました。 気分は彼らが否定したどの罪がそうするかについて覚えていなければなりませんでした、そしてそれは、神としてあがめてください(彼らのカンニング・ペーパーの助けを借りて)。 明らかに、うるさいことは罪深いと思われました。 否定の1つは、そうでありました「Abyssから出て来たO Water-打つ人、私が大きい声でありませんでした」。



  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) One of the most important household gods was Janus, the Spirit of the Door. Janus had two faces. One looked into the home; the other faced the outside world. He let friends and family in but kept enemies out. Family life began and ended with him. Vesta ruled as the goddess of the fireplace. She was the spirit inside the flame that cooked food and kept the family warm. When Scipio Hispanus married, and later when babies were born, he would have presented the new family members to Vesta so that she would know to protect them as well. (8) Each day, the whole family gathered at the hearth and tossed salt and flour onto the flames. These gifts of salt and flour symbolized the basic needs of life. Scipio Hispanus, like allRoman fathers, had to keep the household gods happy. Rulers and leaders had the same job for the community. They tried to keep peace with the gods through public celebrations that included prayers, festivals, and sacrifices. (9) In the earliest times, it was the king's job to keep the gods happy and make sure they stayed on Rome's side. Later, consuls performed these traditional rituals and ceremonies. As Rome gre and its society became more complicated, priests and priestesses took over the religious responsibilities. They served in the temples of the gods. In the temple to Vesta, for example, the Vestal Virgins tended the city's hearth and guarded the holy flame where Vesta lived. Her priestesses made vows of chastity, promising not to have sexual relationships during the 30 years they served the goddess.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The dwarf-god Bes was a welcome sight to woman in labor. Bes fought off evil spirits that might threaten her or her body. During the Middle Kingdom, Bes's likeness might be carved onto the boomerang-shaped magic wand women often placed on their stomachs while giving birth. During the New Kingdom, Bes's picture might be painted on the birth house wall. Childbirth was dangerous to both mother and baby, so divine help from any of the gods associated with newborns was sought out, particularly from the chief god of newborns―the pregnant hippo-goddess, Taweret. (5) Scholars believe one out of every two or three newborns died, but they can only estimate because many newborns did not have their own burial. If a mother and baby both died in childbirth, they would be buried together. Babies who died soon after birth might be placed in clay pots and buried under the home, and those who never lived long enough to be named might be thrown into the Nile to the crocodiles. Mothers anxiourly watched their babies for danger signs. With predictions such as, "If the child made a sound like the creaking of the pine trees, or turned his face downward, he would die," it's no wonder they were anxious. (6) Parents named their children quickly. A child without a name was doomed to the "second death"―complete erasure―no life after death. Mothers wasted no time announcing their newborn's mame. Some names were long―Hekamaatreemperkhons. And some names were short―Ti. Some names described the child―Nefertiti, the Beautiful Woman Has Come. Some names connected the child with one of the gods―Tutankhamen, the Living Image of Amun. And some names were what the mother cried out when she gave birth―Nefret, pretty.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(5)

    お願いします。 (10) If all went in the hall of judgment, the spirits moved on to the final test―and this is where Anubis came in. Anubis had the body of a human and the head of a jackal. One of his official titles was "Lord of the Mummy Wrappings." It was Anubis who administered the final test. On one side of a balance scale, he would place the dead person's heart and, on the other, a feather that symbolized truth and justice. The god Thoth, who was the scribe of the gods, stood by with his pen ready to write down the test results. Would the heart weigh heavy with sin? Or would it balance with truthfulness and justice? If it balanced, the deceased was given a plot of land in the Field of Reeds. But if the balance tipped, the deceased met a very different fate. Near the scales a fierce monster called "The Eater of the Dead" waited―and he was hungry. Anubis fed the Eater of the Dead the hearts of those who failed the final test. Without a heart, the dead person was doomed. Egyptians believed that the three spirits needed their whole body to live in the Field of Reeds. If they were missing any essential part, they would spend eternity as evil spirits haunting the living. Naturally, the living did everything they could to preserve the body.

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    お願いします (14) Rome borrowed the Olympian gods from Greece, Where they were thought to live on Mount Olympus. Eventually, the Romans had gods for almost everything. They prayed to Juno for help with the birth of a baby, to Mars for help in battle, to Jupiter before planting their crops, and to Ceres for a good yield of grain. (15) Roman religion, government, and family were all closely connected. Each reflected the other. Jupiter ruled over the gods as father and king─just as kinds and consuls ruled the Roman state and fathers ruled their families.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(3)

    お願いします。 (8) With so much to lose, the Egyptians came up with a cheat sheet. During the Old Kingdom, only pharaohs could get into the Field of Reeds. Not wanting to risk forgetting a name or a spell, the kings had the answers to all the questions, along with all the magic spells, buried with them. We call the book of spells from the Old Kingdom the Pyramid Texts. During the Middle Kingdom, when the Field of Reeds was open to everyone, the spell were conveniently written on the sides of the coffins. We call those the Coffin Texts. In the New Kingdom the spells were written on scrolls and buried with the body. The words written during the New Kingdom are now known as the Book of the Dead. The Egyptians thought of every possible unpleasantness and wrote spells to protect against it. They even had a spell that prevented them from having to stand on their head and eat feces―or step in some. "What I detest is feces, and I will not eat it... and I will not touch it with my toes." Obviously the ancients weren't taking chances on anything less than a perfect afterlife.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) The reaction of the Sabine men is easy to guess: they set out to rescue the women. They attacked the walled city of Rome. A fierce battle between the Sabines and the Romans raged until a strange thing happened. Torn between love for their Sabine fathers and brothers and their love for the Romans who were now their husbands, the Sabine women ran onto the battleground. With desperate cries, hair tumbling to their shoulders, and infants in their arms, they begged the warriors on both sides to stop killing each other. Moved by the women's words and tears, the men called a truce, and the two peoples became one. (14) So what do we discover about the ancient Romans from these stories? For one thing, they believed that many gods were involved in their lives. Often a hero or leader, such as Aeneas, is believed to have had one mortal parent and one immortal one. This would explain why he gods cared so much about Rome, its beginnings, and its continued success. (15) The first Roman histories give varying, sometimes contradictory, stories about the distant past―for example, the two very different legends about Rome's founding. That's because these tales began in prehistorical times, before people began writing down their histories. Storytellers passed the tales down orally for hundreds of years. (16) Family histories get passed down orally, too. And stories change and get better the more we tell them. Do members of your family have different versions of events that happened only 20 or 30 years ago? Do you exaggerate a bit when you tell your friends about your adventures? In the same way, the myths and legends of Rome“improved”through thousands of tellings over hundreds of years. But these stories may carry a part of the truth.