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日本語訳を! 5-(1)

番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

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  • 回答No.2
  • go_urn
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(1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. 古代エジプト人は、すべてのものに神を配していました。 That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? あのナイル河からちょっと奥に入ったところの、あなたの従兄弟の家の後の小高い丘に生えている棕櫚の樹はどうかですって? It had a god. それにも(ちゃんと)神がいたのです。 The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? あなたのお父さんが朝に行うメーキャップはどうですかって? It had a god, too. (もちろん)それにも神がいたのですよ。 More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. 2,000を超える神々の名前が、石灰岩やパピルスの上に記されたり、泥を固めたレンガの壁に刻まれているのが発見されてきています。 Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. ある神々は勢力があり多くの人に崇められており、またある神々は霞のような精霊でほんの少数の人々に知られているだけです。 There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. また、ナイル河や太陽、空、大地といった現実のモノにその霊を宿す神々もいれば、 And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. ワニやサソリや蛇に噛まれるといった危難に対して守ってくれる神々もいれば、 There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; 音楽や医学の技術といった学芸・学問を守護する神々もいれば、 and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. 書記や建築家といった学芸・学問を積んだ人々を守護する神々もいました。 You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. あなたが挙げるどんなことに対しても、エジプト人たちは、その神を持っていたのです。 (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. いい神々もいれば悪い神々もおり、また悪い神々からあなたを守ってくれる荒々しい神々もいました。 There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. 生者のための神々もいれば、死者のための神々もいました。 Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. ある神々は人間の姿をしており、ある神々は動物の、そしてある神々は人間と動物の両方から少しずつ取った姿をしていました。 The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. ある種類の雄牛は非常に神聖視されており、王のような生活を送り、死ぬと、エジプト人たちは、その雄牛を、ちょうどファラオをそうするように、ミイラにしました。 They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. 彼らは雄牛の身体全体を宝石で飾り尽くし、1個が80トンもの重さのある御影石の角石をくり貫いて作った石棺に遺体を安置しました。 These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. こうした神聖な雄牛は、墓所さえもまた、特別の場所が決められていました。 At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. サッガラの墓所では、考古学者たちは24体の雄牛(が埋葬されているの)を発見しました。1体1体が、入念にくり貫かれた石棺に入っていました。 (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. 古代エジプトで最も重要な神は太陽神でした。 The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. 古代エジプト人は、太陽神は、ちょうど黄金虫が小さな土の玉を地面を押しころがしていくように、太陽を押して空を渡らせているのだと想像しました。 Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. 毎朝、エジプト人たちは、ちょうど黄金虫の卵が土の玉から生れてくるように、太陽が、再び生れてくるのに感謝しました。 And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld. そして太陽が沈んで訪れる毎晩、エジプト人たちは、太陽が冥界を通過している間に、邪悪な蛇が太陽を呑み込んでしまうのではないかと心配しました、

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  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(4)

    お願いします。 (9) The Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, and the Book of the Dead all had the same purpose―turn the quiz into an open-book exam and guarantee that the spirits passed. Once safely though the labyrinth of portals, the spirits entered the hall of judgment. Before 42 gods, the spirits declared their innocence to everything the Egyptians could think of. The cheat sheet helped them remember all the sins they didn't commit. The spirits addressed the gods one by one. Some of the gods had creepy names: Bone Breaker and Blood Eater, for example. Some gods had rather unusual names: Fiery Eyes, Hot Foot, and Pale One. Others had names that would make good video game demons: Demolisher, Lord of Truth, and the Accuser. Still others sounded a bit goofy, as if they were one of the Seven Dwarfs―Nosey, for example. The spirits had to remember which sin they denied to which god (with the help of their cheat sheet). Apparently being noisy was considered sinful. One of the denial was "O Water-smiter who came forth from the Abyss, I have not been loud voiced."

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  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

(1) 古代のエジプト人には、すべてのものに神がありました。 あなたのいとこの家の裏の坂で芽を出している、ナイル川から少し離れて立つ、あのヤシの木はどうでしょう? それには、神がいました。 あなたの父親が、朝、彼のパレットから塗り付けた化粧はどうでしょう? それにも神がいました。2,000以上の神々の名前が、石灰石やパピルスに書かれ、日干しレンガの壁に刻まれているのが、発見されています。力強く、多くの人々に崇拝される神もいれば、ごくわずかの人々にしか知られていない微かな精霊もいました。 その魂が、本当のもの、例えば、ナイル川、太陽、空、地球に宿っている神々もありました。また、ワニ、サソリ、ヘビにかまれると言った様な、危険から守ってくれる神々もいました。音楽や医学の技 ― といった学問を表わす神々もいました;また、書記、建築家 ― の様な、知識人を表わす神々もいました。 その他どんなものでも、エジプト人には、それのための神がいました。 (2) 良い神々と悪い神々がいました、また、あなたを悪い神々から守ってくれる荒々しい神々もいました。 生きている人々のための神々と死者のための神々がいました。人の姿をした神もいましたし、動物の姿をした神もいました、さらに、半神半獣の神もいました。 ある品種の雄牛は、とても神聖だったので、彼らは、王様のような生活をして、彼らが、死ぬと、エジプト人は、ちょうど彼らが、ファラオをミイラにするように、雄牛をミイラにしました。 彼らは、宝石で雄牛を飾り立て、それぞれ重さが80トンもある花崗岩の塊から切り出した、棺の中に、雄牛の死体をおさめました。これらの神聖な雄牛には、彼ら自身の墓地さえありました。 サッカラの埋葬地で、考古学者は、1頭ずつ精巧に彫刻を施された棺に入れられた、24頭の雄牛を見つけました。 (3) エジプトで最も重要な神は、太陽神でした。 ちょうどスカラベ(コガネムシ・球押しコガネ・フンコロガシ)が、地面の上を小さい糞の球を押してゆくように、エジプト人は、空の向こうに太陽を押して行く太陽神を描きました。毎朝、糞の球の中で孵化する小さいスカラベの卵のように、太陽が再び産まれた時、エジプト人は、感謝しました。 そして、毎晩、太陽が沈むとき、それが、黄泉の国を通過して行くときに、邪悪なヘビが、太陽をのみこむことを、彼らは心配しました。 <参考> スカラベ http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%B9%E3%82%AB%E3%83%A9%E3%83%99

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  • 日本語訳を! 1-(3)

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  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

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  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(3)

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    お願いします (22) In his fervor for the Aten, Akhenaten forgot Egypt. The city of Amarna was like the royal firstborn son who took all the attention. The rest of Egypt became the second son, ignored and neglected. Egyptians outside Amarna were paying taxes to build a city they would never see, dedicated to a god they did not want. (23) Egypt's foreign subjects fell one by one to outside conquerors. The Amarna letters flooded in with pleas for help. They fell on deaf ears. One poor prince wrote at least 64 times, "Why will you neglect our land?" (24) Akhenaten had inherited an empire but left a country in decline. After his death the new capital was abandoned. The kings who followed Akhenaten demolished his temples and erased his name. Once Amarna had been stripped of stone it was forgotten and left to crumble. The sun had set on he Amarna Period.

  • 日本語訳を!(10)

    お願いします (1) The invaders didn't swoop across Egypt like a tidal wave. At the beginning of the Second Intermediate Peiod, they trickled in―immigrants from the east settling into the delta of northern Egypt. We call the invaders the Hyksos. Soon so many Hyksos had moved into the delta that they had their own king―and that irritated the king of Egypt. This as Egyptian soil, after all. Who did that foreign king think he was ruling in Egypt? No matter how hard the Hyksos tried to blend in, they were still foreigners. It didn't matter if they worshipped Egyptian gods, wore Egyptian clothes, or ate Egyptian food. They were still foreigners. Even their Egyptian name, heqa-khasut, smacked of somewhere else. It meant "chiefs of foreign lands." (2) True, the Hyksos brought with them the hump-backed Zebu cattle that the Egyptians liked so much. And those apples sure were tasty...not to mention the olives. And oh, the sound of the lyre and the lute! Their notes echoed through the chambers of the royal palace. Then there was the vertical loom. For weaving linen it couldn't be beat. The Hyksos' potter's wheels were better, too. But why were the Hyksos hiring scribes to copy Egyptian texts? Stealing Egyptian medical practices, no doubt. And it was totally unacceptable to build Avaris, a walled fortree, and claim it as their capital. (3) Manetho, an Egyptian priest, writes that the Hyksos' king "found a city very favorably situated on the east of the...Nile, and called it Avaris. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier." Nowhere did the Hyksos' foreignness offend Egyptians as much as at Avaris. Why, those Hyksos dared to live in the same place that they buried their dead. Barbarians!