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日本語訳を! 5-(3)

お願いします。 (7) On the road leading to Abydos, there was a stela, which is a slab of rock with inscriptions on it. The stela tells the story of King Neferhotep's concern over the spirit of the god Osiris, who lived in the statue, which lived in the shrine, which lived in the innermost room inside the temple at Abydos. According to the stela, King Neferhotep "desired to see the ancient writings." The ancient works were kept by the priests, "the real scribes of hieroglyphs, the masters of all secrets." King Neferhotep told the priests who watched over the ancient records that he planned a "great investigation" into the proper care of the statue of Osiris. The priests replied, "Let your majesty proceed to the house of writings and let your majesty see every hieroglyph." (8) King Neferhotep studied the ancient writings in the library. He learned how the gods were cared for from the beginning of time. He learned exactly what rituals pleased the gods. He decided that he should go to Abydos himself to explain to the priests what he had learned. King Neferhotep sent a messenger ahead telling the priests to bring the statue of Osiris to meet his royal barge on the Nile when he landed. (9) When King Neferhotep arrived near Abydos, the priests met him. The statue of Osiris had traveled with them in its shrine. The shrine had been placed in a cabin on a boat modeled after the boat that the Egyptians believed the gods used to navigate the stars. The boat rested across poles shouldered by a procession of priests. (10) On the seven-mile journey from the Nile to the temple, King Neferhotep was entertained by the priests, who acted out the Legend of Osiris. We know bits and pieces of the legend from inscriptions on the tomb walls and from songs such as the Great Hymn to Osiris. The most complete version of the legend, however, was written much later, probably in the first century CE, by the Greek historian Plutarch. The legend has been told in many ways. This is one version:

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(7) アビドスに通じる道に、石碑がありました。この石碑は、銘文が刻まれた岩の板です。 その石碑は、オシリス神の霊魂に対するネフェルホテプ王の懸念の物語を語っています、オシリス神は、その像の中に宿り、そして、その像は、聖堂の中に安置され、その聖堂は、アビドスの寺院の内部の最も奥まった部屋に安置されていたのです。石碑によれば、ネフェルホテプ王は、「古文書を見たいと願いました。」 その古代の文書は、神官たち、すなわち、「ヒエログリフの本当の書記、あらゆる秘密の支配者」に守られていました。 ネフェルホテプ王は、古代の記録を見守る神官たちに、彼が、オシリスの像の適切なまつり方の「大調査」を計画していると伝えました。「国王陛下は、書物の館にお進み下さい、そして、国王陛下は、全てのヒエログリフをご覧ください。」と、神官たちは、答えました。 (8) ネフェルホテプ王は、図書館の中の古文書を調べました。 時の始まりから、神々が、どのようにまつられてきたかを、彼は知りました。彼は、どんな儀式が神々を喜ばせるかについて、正確に知りました。 神官たちに、彼が、知ったことについて説明するために、彼自身が、アビドスへ行かなければならないと、彼は決心しました。 ネフェルホテプ王は、前もって伝令を差し向け、彼が、上陸したとき、ナイル川の彼の王の舟を出迎えるためにオシリスの像を持ってくるように神官たちに伝えました。 (9) ネフェルホテプ王が、アビドスの近くに到着したとき、神官たちは、彼を出迎えました。 オシリスの像は、その聖堂に入ったまま神官たちと旅してきていました。 その聖堂は、神々が、以前、星々をつかさどっていたと、エジプト人が信じる舟を模した船の船室に安置されました。 その舟は、神官たちの行列が、担ぐ二つの棒の上に安置されました。 (10) ナイル川から寺院への7マイルの旅では、ネフェルホテプ王は、神官たちからもてなしを受けました、神官たちは、オシリスの伝説を演じたのでした。 我々は、墓の壁に刻まれた銘文や、オシリスに捧げる大いなる讃美歌のような歌から、その伝説の断片について知っています。しかし、その伝説の最も完全な版は、ずっと後、おそらく、紀元1世紀に、ギリシアの歴史家プルタークによって書かれました。 その伝説は、様々に、語られてきました。 以下は、1つの版です:

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  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

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  • 日本語訳を! 5-(5)

    お願いします。 (13) From a passage in the Pyramid Texts, we know that Isis and Osiris had a son who challenged Seth, "in the name of Horus the son who avenged his father." Each time Horus fought Seth to take back the throne, Isis protected him from injury with her power. In a final battle, Seth turned into a ferocious crocodile. But Horus managed to spearthe crocodile, killing Seth. In the end, Horus restored ma'at to Egypt. (14) When the play was over, King Neferhotep and the procdssion had arrived at Abydos. Abydos was one of the most sacred places in ancient Egypt. One legend claims that Osiris himself is buried there. Another legend says the only part of Osiris buried at Abydos is his dismembered head. (15) Unlike today's religious buildings, in ancient Egypt temples were not open to the common people. Anyone entering the temple had to be "pure" so as not to offend the god. To become pure, the priests bathed several times a day. Hair could carry dirt or worse, lice, so priests shaved their bodies every three days. They even pulled out their eyelashes. The common Egyptian could only catch a glimpse of the shrines as they were moved from place to place. When the priests brought the statue of Osiris to meet King Neferhotep, people would have lined the route, not only to see the priests sing, dance, and perform, but also to peek at the shrine.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

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    お願いします (14) Rome borrowed the Olympian gods from Greece, Where they were thought to live on Mount Olympus. Eventually, the Romans had gods for almost everything. They prayed to Juno for help with the birth of a baby, to Mars for help in battle, to Jupiter before planting their crops, and to Ceres for a good yield of grain. (15) Roman religion, government, and family were all closely connected. Each reflected the other. Jupiter ruled over the gods as father and king─just as kinds and consuls ruled the Roman state and fathers ruled their families.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(6)

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