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お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.


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最初、現代の学者は誰も、メルーハがどこにあったのかわかりませんでした。それから、考古学者は「メルーハ」は我々がインダス渓谷として知っている土地に対するアッカド語(メソポタミアの言語)に違いないと気付きました。ハラッパの商人が、メソポタミアに宝石や美しい濃い色の木(紫檀、黒檀?)を持ってきたにちがいありません。これらの商人は、冬のモンスーンの最後の季節風に乗ってメソポタミアに航海することを含めて、利益のためにはほぼ何でもしました。 ドーラビラ出身の船長が、インドの北東部海岸で、メソポタミアに向けた彼の例年の冬の航海の最後の準備をしているところを想像してください。弱まっているモンスーンの北東の風が勢いを増してきました、そして、船長は最後の大きい陶器製の貯蔵用の壺を彼の船の船倉に積み込みたいと願っていました。この時代の船で現存している物はありませんが、彼の船が多分木造で、マスト、帆、中央船室があったということを、我々は印鑑や粘土細工から分かっています。 船底の浅い川船には、マストや帆がありませんでしたが、それらも、また、木、または、タールで防水された葦できていました ― 実際、葦の跡型の残るタールがいくらかオマーンで、今も残っています。 我々の船長の元で働く船員は、風から護られた船の隅に料理をする場所のある小さな台所を作りました。彼らはタマネギとニンニクをひも状に屋根からつるし、台所の後ろの壁に沿って造られた棚に、ショウガ、塩、スパイスで満たされた小さな素焼の壺を積み込みました。彼らは、甲板の上に薪の束と料理の燃料にするための乾燥牛糞の欠片を積み上げました、メソポタミアの大工や船大工が高値を支払うシシャムの木(インド紫檀)の長く黒い梁の間に空間を見つけることができたいたるところに積み上げたのです。





  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-4

    お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.

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    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-6

    お願いします!続き The river passage ended at the dangerous deep,narrow passages of the Kabul River,where the merchants left their boats and loaded their goods onto small,hardy mountain cattle and human porters.The trip across the plain near modern Kabul was easier,but once they got to the narrow valleys and high mountain passes of northern Afghanistan,they had to go by foot,leading the pack animals. They arrived at a small settlement of Indus people in the high valleys of Badakshan sometime in November.These Indus colonists mined lapis lazuli and panned for gold and tin in the river's sands,but they also kept herds of sheep,goat,and cattle,and farmed enough land to provide them with food for most of the year.But they liked being able to buy things from home,and they also wanted grain to trade with nomadic mountain people who brought them more precious stones and metals. Although they didn't have to find their way through schools of sea snakes and storms at sea,the merchants who traded in the high mountains faced other dangers.Early snows sometimes blocked the high mountain passes,and the monsoon and earthquakes washed the roads away all the time,forcing the merchants to blaze their own paths.So as soon as their trading was done,the merchants of“Meluhha”turned around and headed back down the mountains,eager to get home to snug houses and good friends before the cold days of winter set in.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (25) In spite of his poor health, Augustus lived to be 76 years old and reigned for 41 years as emperor. In the last years of his life, he realized that he must choose a successor. But whom? His beloved grandsons had both died young. With only one logical choice left, Augustus summoned his stepson Tiberius to Rome. He named this gloomy man as his co-ruler and successor. (26) In 14 CE, Augustus took a last journey by sea. He caught a chill in the night air and became quite ill. He called Tiberius to his bedside and spoke with him for a long time in private. Then, on August 19, knowing that the end was near, he called for a mirror and had his hair carefully combed. The biographer Suetonius tells the story: “he summoned a group of friends and asked ‘Have I played my part in the comedy of life believably enough?’” Then he added lines from a play: If I have pleased you, kindly show Appreciation with a warm goodbye. (27) Augustus Caesar had played many roles well: the dutiful heir of Julius Caesar; the victor over Antony; the reformer of Roman government; the generous sponsor of literature and art;and, in his final years, the kindly father figure of Rome─providing food, entertainment, and security to his people. Near the end of his life, he remembered: “When I was 60 years old, the senate, the equestrians, and the whole people of Rome gave me the title of Father of my Country and decreed that this should be inscribed in the porch of my house.” (28) When Augustus died, all Italy mourned, and the Senate proclaimed him a god. His rule marked a turning point in history. In his lifetime, the Roman Republic came to an end. but he rescued the Roman state by turning it into a system ruled by emperors─a form of government that survived for another 500 years. In an age in which many rules were called “saviors” and “gods,” Augustus Caesar truly deserved to be called the savior of the Roman people.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

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    お願いします (8) Much of what we know about the war with the Hyksos comes from the tomb of an Egyptian officer. Ahmose, son of Ibana, inscribed on the columns and walls of his tomb details of the many battles he fought with the Hyksos. "I was taken to the ship Northern, because I was brave. I followed the king on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence." Ahmose was rewarded for his valor, he "was appointed to the ship Rising in Memphis. Then there was fighting on the water...I made a seizure and carried off a hand." To keep track of the number of enemy soldiers killed, it was the custom to cut off a hand and present it to the king. (9) For his victories―and the hands that went with them―Ahmose, son of Ibana, was awarded seven times the medal of honor called the Golden Fly. The Golden Fly was a gilded pin shaped like a horsefly. Although the horsefly may seem like an odd shape for a war medal,the Egyptians chose it because the horsefly was the tormentor of beasts. This medal of honor was presented only to the bravest soldiers. (10) A Roman historian writing in the first century CE, Josephus, tells us how it turned out in the end for the Hyksos.  They enclosed Avaris with a high strong wall in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. The Egyptian king attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt. (11) Archaeologists working at Avaris don't see evidence of a mass slaughter. They believe the Hyksos were expelled and took their possessions with them. One way or the other the message was the same: Hands off Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    In the early morning, Reserve Infantry Regiment 153 and two companies of Infantry Regiment 52, entered the wood from the north and wheeled to attack the 3rd South African Battalion from behind, capturing six officers and 185 men from the Transvaal Battalion; the rest were killed. By mid morning, Black Watch, Seaforth and Cameron Highlanders in Longueval tried to charge into the wood but were repulsed by German small-arms fire from the north-west corner of the wood. The brigade was short of water, without food and unable to evacuate wounded; many isolated groups surrendered, after they ran out of ammunition. In the afternoon, the 53rd Brigade advanced from the base of the salient to reach Thackeray at the South African headquarters but were unable to reach the forward elements of the South African brigade. This situation prevailed through the night of 19–20 July.