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お願いします (11) Some scholars believe that Amenhotep IV was a normal-looking young man. Their theory is that the distorted human forms artists began drawing at this time were the result of a new artists style. The bodies, neither male nor female, but a bit of both, were meant to show the king as "everything." Other scholars have a different theory. They believe that Amenhotep IV was deformed by disease. They believe the long spidery fingers nd toes, the head that looks like pulled taffy, and the stick arms, full breasts and sagging belly represent a true likeness. Amenhotep IV's mummy has never been found, but if one turns up with an unusual body shape, we'll know who it is. (12) Scholars aren't sure if Amenhotep IV ruled alongside his father for a short time or not. It would have been excellent on-the-job training for the inexperienced prince. It would also have made it crystal clear to anyone who might have designs on the throne that the job was filled. From Amenhotep III's mummy we know toward the end he was fat and in poor health. Two of his teeth on the right side were abscessed. He would have been in constant pain. With Amenhotep IV ruling beside latest painkiller from Cyprus―opium. If he had packed his teeth with opium, he would not have been able to make clear-headed decisions; a co-ruler would have been not only useful, but also necessary. (13) When Amenhotep III died, embalmers used a new method. They injected tree resin and salt under the skin to plump it up nd give the body a more life like look. This innovation was the first in increasingly drastic changes that marked the reign of the rebel Amenhotep IV―a short blip in Egypt's history we know as the Amarna Period.

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(11) アメンホテプ4世が、見た目は普通の青年であったと信じている学者もいます。 彼らの理論は、絵師たちがこの時期に描き始めたゆがめられた人間の形は、新しい絵師の画風の結果であったというものです。 その身体は、男性でも女性でもなく、両方の寄せ集めでしたが、王を「あらゆるもの」として示すことが意図されていました。異なる理論を唱える学者もいます。 彼らは、アメンホテプ4世が病気によって奇形になったと考えています。 彼らは、細長い指とつま先、引き延ばしたタフィー飴のように見える頭、棒のような腕、豊かな胸、たるんだ腹部は、実際の似た姿を現していると考えています。 アメンホテプ4世のミイラはまだ見つかっていませんが、異常な体形を持ったミイラが現れるならば、我々は、それが誰なのか分かることでしょう。 (12) アメンホテプ4世が短い期間彼の父と共に統治を行ったかどうか、学者にはよくわかりません。 そうしていれば、経験のない王子にとっては優れた実地研修となったことでしょう。 それは、また、王位に対して野心を抱く全ての者にその地位が充足されたことを非常に明確に示したことでしょう。 アメンホテプ3世のミイラから、我々は、晩年にかけて、彼が肥満して、健康がすぐれなかったことが分かります。彼の歯の右側の2本は、歯槽膿漏になっていました。 彼は、いつも痛がっていたことでしょう。 アメンホテプ4世と共に、キプロス産の最新の鎮痛剤 ― アヘンをそばに置いて(アメンホテプ3世は)統治していたことでしょう。 歯にアヘンを詰め込んだならば、彼は明晰な思考で決定を下すことができなかったでしょう; 共同統治者(アメンホテプ4世のこと)が、役に立つばかりでなく、必要でもありました。 (13) アメンホテプ3世が崩御すると、ミイラ職人は新しい方法を使用しました。 彼らは皮膚の下に木の樹脂と塩を注入して、それをふくらませて、遺体をより生きているように見せました。 この革新は、反抗的アメンホテップ4世の治世 ― 我々がアマルナ時代として知っているエジプト史の短い時期を特徴づける、ますます激しくなってゆく変化の最初の変化でした。

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    お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.

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    お願いします (17) The priests who performed Tut's funeral had poured sacred oils over the mummy and the coffin. The oils glued the two together. Carter tried to loosen the resin by warming it in the hot desert sun, but it was no use. Tut was stuck. They called in a professor of anatomy to perform the examination on Tut's remains. The professor sliced away the linen wrappings only to find that it wasn't just the wrappings stuck to the coffin. The body was stuck, too. First the professor tried to chisel away the body, and when that didn't work, he tried heated knives. Finally, he hacked the torso in half and removed the body by sections. How much would we have been able to learn using today's scientific methods had the body not been so brutally handled? (18) The arm and leg bones pulled from their joints allowed the professor to calculate King Tut's age. He was about 18 years old when he died. He was thin, and five feet six inches all. Cause of death was never bonsidered.

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

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  (11)一部の学者は、アメンホテプIVが正常に見える若い男だったと信じています。彼らの理論は、歪んだ人間の姿アーティストが新しいアーティストのスタイルの結果があったこの時点で描き始めたということです。男性でも女性が、両方のビットのどちらの遺体は、王として表示するように意図された"すべてのものを。"他の学者は別の理論を持っている。彼らは、アメンホテプIVは病気によって変形していたと信じています。彼らは長いクモ指番目のつま先が、引っ張らタフィー、スティックの腕、胸いっぱいやたるみ腹のように見える頭が真らしさを表すと考えています。アメンホテプIVのミイラが発見されたことはありませんが、一つは珍しいボディ形状とターンアップした場合、我々はそれが誰であるか知っているよ。 (12)奨学生は、アメンホテプIVは短時間かどうかのために父親と一緒に判決を下したかどうかわからない。それは、経験の浅い王子のためのトレーニングオンザジョブ優れていただろう。また、ジョブが満たされたと王座にデザインをしているかもしれない誰にもそれは透き通っていただろう。アメンホテプ3世のミイラから、我々は、彼は太っていた終わりに向かって、貧しい人々の健康で知っている。右側の彼の歯の二つは膿瘍た。彼は一定の痛みであったであろう。キプロス·アヘンから最新の鎮痛剤横アメンホテプIVの判決である。彼はアヘンと彼の歯を詰めていたら、彼は頭脳明晰な判断を下すことができなかったでしょう。共同支配者は便利なだけでなく、必要なだけだっただろう。 (13)アメンホテプ3世が死んだときに、embalmersは、新しいメソッドを使用していました。彼らは、ndは身体の外観のようなより多くの生命を与え、それを膨らませるために、皮膚の下に木の樹脂と塩を注入した。この技術革新は、我々はアマルナ時代として知られているエジプトの歴史の中で反乱アメンホテプIV - 短いブリップの治世を迎え、ますます激変の第一号だった。  

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    お願いします (1) Imagine your father owned the richest and most powerful country in the world. Not just rain it, owned it. It wasn't only the land that belonged to him, but also all the gold and grain in the treasury. He owned every brick in every building and every cow on every farm. The people and all that they owned were his as well. All of it one day would be passed down―but not to you, to your older brother. Since birth, he had been in training for the job while you watched from the sidelines. Tutors and generals and government overseers prepared your older brother for the day when he would take the reins. Your father, the king, and your mother, the queen, focused their attentions on your older brother, fussing over his every move, while you went unnoticed. That was life for Amenhotep IV, the second son of Amenhotep III. (2) Getting the lion's share of attention wasn't all good. You both learned to read and write, but when your brother was struggling with the language of diplomats, you could swish your damp brush in the ink cake and practice your penmanship on sayings like, "Report a thing observed, not heard." You both learned to drive a chariot, but while your brother had to practice looking regal, you could flush grouse out of the papyrus patch. The vizier grilled him on how each department in the government worked while you grilled the grouse. (3) When Amenhotep IV was a young boy, Egypt was...well, simply fabulous. The mid-1300s BCE was the golden age―literally. Gold flowed in from the Nubian mines so steadily that envious foreign leaders peevishly observed, "in my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dirt."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします。 (10) If all went in the hall of judgment, the spirits moved on to the final test―and this is where Anubis came in. Anubis had the body of a human and the head of a jackal. One of his official titles was "Lord of the Mummy Wrappings." It was Anubis who administered the final test. On one side of a balance scale, he would place the dead person's heart and, on the other, a feather that symbolized truth and justice. The god Thoth, who was the scribe of the gods, stood by with his pen ready to write down the test results. Would the heart weigh heavy with sin? Or would it balance with truthfulness and justice? If it balanced, the deceased was given a plot of land in the Field of Reeds. But if the balance tipped, the deceased met a very different fate. Near the scales a fierce monster called "The Eater of the Dead" waited―and he was hungry. Anubis fed the Eater of the Dead the hearts of those who failed the final test. Without a heart, the dead person was doomed. Egyptians believed that the three spirits needed their whole body to live in the Field of Reeds. If they were missing any essential part, they would spend eternity as evil spirits haunting the living. Naturally, the living did everything they could to preserve the body.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(6)

    お願いします。  Would Imhotep have saved the best for last? Would it have been at the end of the tour when he led King Djoser across the courtyard to the tomb? Finally they would have reached the base of the world's first pyramid and the world's first building constructed out of stone. Did Imhotep unroll a papyrus scroll and point to where he had planned the stacking of solid rectangles, each just a bit smaller than the one under it until a staircase rose 200 feet toward the sky? Would the construction noise have faded for King Djoser as he stood at the base of his eternal home? Even a god-king must feel awe at the sight of a structure larger than anything built before it―a structure built not from mud brick that crumbles and decays with time, but built from stone, a monument built to be everlasting.  The laborers ten stories above King Djoser and Imhotep would have looked like ants pushing stones and fitting them into that highest step. Perhaps it didn't happen on a day that King Djoser was there, but it did happen all too often―a loose stone would fall. Dropping from that height even a pebble could be deadly. Scuffed loose, it would seriously wound someone below if it struck him. Imhotep had set up a small hospital for his workers. Anyone injured on the job would be cared for. Imhotep was not only an architect; he was a doctor as well. He wrote detailed directions on how to recognize an injury and how to treat it. The oldest known medical document is believed by some to have been written about 3000 BCE by Imhotep. It is called the Edwin Smith Papyrus, named after the Egyptologist Edwin Smith who bought the papyrus in 1862. One of the many instructions in the papyrus is what to do if a stone falls on a worker's head:  Title:Instructions concerning a wound in his head penetrating to the bone of his skull.  Treatment:... bind it with fresh meat the first day and treat afterward with grease, honey and lint every day until he recovers.

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