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お願いします (3) The first commemorative scarab from Year 2, 1385 BCE (two years into his reign would make Amenhotep III at most 14) is known as the Marriage Scarab. The inscription begins with all five of Amenhotep III's names. It then names his wife, "The great royal-wife Tiy... she is the wife of the mighty king...." The second scaraa, also commissioned in Year 2, announces Amenhotep's second love―big-game hunting, a favorite royal pastime. When the young king heard that wild bulls had been spotted, he traveled by night alomg the Nile for the hunt. The wild-bull-hunt scarab claims: "a marvelous thing took place." Although Amenhotep III probably looked regal in his chariot pulled by the most magnificent horses in the country, marvelous might be a bit much. The animals were penned, so the "hunt" didn't require much hunting. Still, shooting arrows and throwing javelins from a chariot racing full tilt takes skill. And Amenhotep III would want to spread the word that he was indeed a skilled hunter. Egyptians believed that if their king was successful as a hunter, he would be successful on the battlefield. Hunting meant much more than killing a beast, it meant winning against the forces of chaos. That's tall order for such a young man. It's no wonder he sent beetles scurrying throughout the ancient world to tell of his triumphs.

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(3) 紀元前1385年、治世2年目(彼の治世が始まって2年目であるから、アメンホテップ3世は、せいぜい、14才です)の頃からの最初の記念となるスカラベは、「結婚スカラベ」として知られています。 銘文は、全部で5つのアメンホテップ3世の名前から始まります。 それから、それは彼の妻の名前が書かれています「偉大な王室の妻ティイ ... 彼女は、強力な王の妻なり ....」 第2のスカラベは、また、就任2年目のものですが、― 国王の大好きな気晴らしである猛獣狩り ― すなわち、アメンホテプの2番目に大好きなことを発表しています。若い王は、野生の雄牛が見つかったと聞くと、彼は狩りのためにナイル川に沿って夜間旅行をしました。 野生の雄牛狩りを記したスカラベは、以下のように書いています: 「素晴らしいことが起こった。」 アメンホテップ3世は、その国の最も素晴らしい馬が引く彼の二輪戦車に乗って堂々と多分見えたでしょうが、少しありそうもないことかもしれません。動物たちは、囲いに入れられたので、「狩りをする」ことは多くの狩猟を必要としませんでした。 しかも、全速力で疾走する二輪戦車から矢を射て、槍を投げることは、技術が必要です。 だから、アメンホテップ3世は、彼が本当に熟練した狩人であるといううわさを広げたかったのでしょう。彼らの王が狩人として成功するならば、彼が戦場でも成功するだろうと、エジプト人は信じていました。 狩猟は、獣を殺すより遥かに多くのことを意味しました、それは、混沌の力に打ち勝つことを意味しました。 それは、そのような青年にとって難しい注文です。 古代世界の至る所に、彼の勝利について伝えるために、動き回るカブトムシを送ったことは、驚きではありません。 ☆先程病院から帰りました。あまり体調がよくないですが、出来るだけ訳しておきます。

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    お願いします (11) Some scholars believe that Amenhotep IV was a normal-looking young man. Their theory is that the distorted human forms artists began drawing at this time were the result of a new artists style. The bodies, neither male nor female, but a bit of both, were meant to show the king as "everything." Other scholars have a different theory. They believe that Amenhotep IV was deformed by disease. They believe the long spidery fingers nd toes, the head that looks like pulled taffy, and the stick arms, full breasts and sagging belly represent a true likeness. Amenhotep IV's mummy has never been found, but if one turns up with an unusual body shape, we'll know who it is. (12) Scholars aren't sure if Amenhotep IV ruled alongside his father for a short time or not. It would have been excellent on-the-job training for the inexperienced prince. It would also have made it crystal clear to anyone who might have designs on the throne that the job was filled. From Amenhotep III's mummy we know toward the end he was fat and in poor health. Two of his teeth on the right side were abscessed. He would have been in constant pain. With Amenhotep IV ruling beside latest painkiller from Cyprus―opium. If he had packed his teeth with opium, he would not have been able to make clear-headed decisions; a co-ruler would have been not only useful, but also necessary. (13) When Amenhotep III died, embalmers used a new method. They injected tree resin and salt under the skin to plump it up nd give the body a more life like look. This innovation was the first in increasingly drastic changes that marked the reign of the rebel Amenhotep IV―a short blip in Egypt's history we know as the Amarna Period.

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    お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.

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    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

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年2(1385のBCE)(彼の支配への2年はアメンホテップ3世に多くても14を作る)からの最初の記念のスカラベは、結婚スカラベとして知られている。 銘は、アメンホテップ3世の名前の全5つから始める。 それは、それなら彼の妻(「大きな王室の妻Tiy...彼女は、強力な王の妻である」)の名前を挙げる.... 2匹目のスカラベ(また、年2に委任される)は、アメンホテップの2回目の愛大物さがし(大好きな国王の気晴し)を発表する。 若い王が聞いていたとき ― 野生の強気筋が汚されたと、彼は夜alomgによってハンチングのためにナイル川を旅した。 野生の-強気筋-ハンチング・スカラベは、以下のように主張する: 「素晴らしいものは起こった。」 地方の、素晴らしい力で最も素晴らしい馬によって引かれる彼の二輪戦車で王にふさわしくアメンホテップ3世が多分見えただろうが、少しひどすぎなさい。 動物は囲いに入れられたので、「狩りをする」ことは多くの狩猟を必要としなかった。 しかし、矢を射て、投げ槍を全力をあげて競争している二輪戦車から投げ出すことは、技術をとる。 そして、アメンホテップ3世は、彼が本当に熟練したハンターであったという知らせを広げたい。 エジプト人は思っていた ― ― 彼らの王がハンターとして成功しているならば、彼が戦場で成功しているだろうと。 狩りをして ― より非常に意味されて ― 獣を殺すより、それは混沌の軍隊に対して勝つことを意味した。 それは、そのような青年のための応じられぬほどの注文である。 驚きでない ― 彼がカブトムシを古代の世界中至る所に急いでいるのにしたことが ― 彼の勝利について話すために。

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    お願いします (1) Ancient Egyptians recognized the importance of the right name. It announced to the world who you were, where you came from, and what was expected of you. Almost all of the kings from the 18th dynasty had the birth names Amenhotep or Thutmose. Their names showed the world that they pleased the gods. Amenhotep links the king with the sun god Amun―it means, "Amen (or Amun, or Amon depending on how you choose to spell it) is satisfied." Thutmose links the king with the god of wisdom Thoth―it means "Thoth is born." By the Middle Kingdom, kings were adding four official names to their birth name, but they could add many, any more. If you could give yourself a few more names, what might you choose? Amenhotep III liked to call himself "The Dazzling Sun Disk." Historians have nicknamed him "Amenhotep the Magnificent." Not bad for a child-king who began his reign when he was only 10 or 12 yearr old. (2) If you were forced to pick one word to sum up the essence of a king's rule, you might pick "trade" for Hatshepsut's time in power, "conquest" for Thutmose III's reign, and for Amenhotep III the word might be "diplomacy." From the start Amenhotep III made sure the world knew about him. In a time without newspapers or television, getting the word out about your accomplishments wasn't easy. Amenhotep III used beetles. Not live beetles―fake beetles. These pocket-size, turquoise-glazed stones, carved in the shape of beetles called scarabs, bore testimony on their bellies. Details of Amenhotep III's big moments were inscribed on their undersides. Because dozens of these scarabs have been found in neighboring countries scholars call them imperial news bulletins.

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    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (1) Imagine your father owned the richest and most powerful country in the world. Not just rain it, owned it. It wasn't only the land that belonged to him, but also all the gold and grain in the treasury. He owned every brick in every building and every cow on every farm. The people and all that they owned were his as well. All of it one day would be passed down―but not to you, to your older brother. Since birth, he had been in training for the job while you watched from the sidelines. Tutors and generals and government overseers prepared your older brother for the day when he would take the reins. Your father, the king, and your mother, the queen, focused their attentions on your older brother, fussing over his every move, while you went unnoticed. That was life for Amenhotep IV, the second son of Amenhotep III. (2) Getting the lion's share of attention wasn't all good. You both learned to read and write, but when your brother was struggling with the language of diplomats, you could swish your damp brush in the ink cake and practice your penmanship on sayings like, "Report a thing observed, not heard." You both learned to drive a chariot, but while your brother had to practice looking regal, you could flush grouse out of the papyrus patch. The vizier grilled him on how each department in the government worked while you grilled the grouse. (3) When Amenhotep IV was a young boy, Egypt was...well, simply fabulous. The mid-1300s BCE was the golden age―literally. Gold flowed in from the Nubian mines so steadily that envious foreign leaders peevishly observed, "in my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dirt."

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    お願いします (13) Hippopotamus accidentally splattered the beautiful slippers. Rhodopis cleaned them carefully and put them in the sun to dry. "As she was continuing with her chores, the sky darkened and as she looked up, she saw a falcon sweep down, snatch one of her slippers, and fly away." Could that be the god Horus who had taken her shoe? Rhodopis put the one slipper into her tunic and returned to her chores. (14) At the banquet the king was staring out at the crowd. He was thinking he would much rather be out hunting in the desert than hosting a party when "suddenly the falcon swooped down and dropped the rose-red golden slgpper in his lap." Knowing this was a sign from Horus, the king "sent out a decree that all maidens in Egypt must try on the slipper, and the owner of the slipper would be his queen." (15) As you may have now guessed, the king traveled his kingdom by chariot searching high and low. Maidens everywhere tried to squash their wrong-sized feet into the slipper. Then he took to the Nile on his royal barge and one day he docked near the home of Rhodopis. The servant girls who tormented Rhodopis recognized the slipper at once but said nothing. One after another they tried to cram their feet into the golden slipper and one after another they failed. The king saw Rhodopis hiding in the rushes and asked her to come forward and take her turn at the slipper. "She slid her tiny foot into the slipper and then pulled the other from her tunic."  And as if it were a golden rule...the king and Rhodopis lived happily ever after.

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    お願いします (4) Ramesses III's inscription tells us that he raced with his army toward southern Palestine to stop the Sea Peoples before they stepped on Egyptian soil. Every ship was sent to the mouth of the Nile, until Ramesses III had filled "the harbor-mouths, like a strong wall, with warships, galleys and barges." Ramesses III knew that he must draw a defensive line. The Egyptians believed this enemy had toppled empires. Egypt would not be one of them. He spared nothing outfitting his fleet. "They were manned completely from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of the choicest of Egypt..." Along the shore, Ramesses III positioned charioteers. "Their horses were quivering in their every limb, ready to crush the countries under their feet." (5) The Sea Peoples approached from the northeast. They came in waves. A vast horde advanced by land, a massive fleet bore down by sea―all headed straight for Egypt. Thousands marched―young, old, families with wagons piled high with their belongings pulled by humpbacked oxen, soldiers in chariots, soldiers on foot―driven by the common goal of claiming Egypt's prosperous land for their own. (6) The first wave of Sea People attacked by land. From the scenes drawn at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we see the chaotic mass of enemy soldiers as they launched themselves at the Egyptians. Some wore horned helmets. Others wore feathered helmets. Charioteers, three to a chariot, forced their horses into the fray. Swordsmen charged, slashing long, tapered swords. The infantry thrust their javelins and spears. Against them Ramesses III stood firm. King, chariot, and horses are shown in perfect alignment whereas the Sea Peoples are a chaotic jumble, facing slaughter, surrender, or flight. Ramesses III's troops fought with chins raised and lips pressed together in grim determination. The Sea Peoples scattered. Their soldiers turned and fled.

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