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お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.


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 彼は、臣民が「自らの内部的価値の増加」に至るように暮らすことを望むと、臣民に話しました。 アショカは、また、彼の臣民が彼がしたのと同じ間違いをしないように、ブッダの教えを奨励し、彼の息子や彼の娘を含む伝道者を遥かスリランカの地まで行かせました。 彼は次の様に述べました、「すべての民は、わが子供なり。 余自身の子供たちに、彼らが現世と来世すべての福祉と幸福を受けられるよう、余が望むごとく、余は我が臣民全てにも同じことを望む。」  彼の改革の一環として、アショカは動物の生贄を禁じました。 これは、彼の臣民の多く、特に動物の生贄を行うことによってその生計を立てるバラモン、を混乱させて、怒らせました。 バラモンは強力な敵で、アショカの死後、マウリヤ帝国との関係を断ちました。 最後のマウリヤ朝の統治者は、彼の将軍の1人によって紀元前185年に暗殺されました ― この将軍は、それほど偶然の一致と言うわけではありませんが、バラモンでした。 他の王たちは従おうとしましたが、どの統治者も、1,600年間亜大陸の多くの人々を一つの政治的な国家に統一する程十分強力とは言えなかったでしょう。





  • 日本語訳を!c14-7

    お願いします!  By the third century BCE,even kings and queens were beginning to adopt the simple ways of Buddhism.In about 261 BCE,Emperor Ashoka,ruler of the Mauryan empire in India,converted to Buddhism and made it the state religion of his empire.He had stone columns and tablets carved with Buddhist ideas,such as“In India the deities who formerly did not mix with men now do so.This is the result of effort,and may be obtained not only by the great,but even by the small,through effort-thus they ay even easily win heaven.”Ashoka also built stupas,dome-shaped burial monuments,to house portions of the Buddha's ashes.  With Ashoka's help,Buddhism spread throughout the subcontinent and beyond,along the major sea and overland trade routes.Some traditions say that Ashoka's son became a monk and his father sent him as a missionary to Sri Lanka,an island off the coast of India.More missionaries traveled to Central Asia,Tibet and China,as well as Southeast Asia,where they converted many people to the gentle teachings of the Buddha.

  • 18-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Prince Ashoka Maurya had two kinds of heroes.The first were the deities of the Vedic scriptures and the prince and princesses who served them in sacred texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.These religious heroes taught him the satisfaction of living with honor and justice(dharma),the excitement of money and succesr(artha),and the contentment of enjoying the world's beauties and pleasures(kama).They taught him that if he filled his life with these qualities of honor,excellence,and beauty,he would reach moksha,when the cycle of life,death,and rebirth would end.   That all sounded good to Prince Ashoka.But so did the adventures of his second kind of hero-the warrior heroes like his father,King Bindusara,and his grandfather,Chandragupta.Ashoka loved fighting,and he was good at it.He may well have gone to a military academy like the one in Taxila.Brahmins and Kshatriya came there from all over the subcontinent to learn military science,including the use of the eight major eapoms.Brahmins shot bows,the Kshatriya were swordsmen,the Vaishya used the lance,and the Shudra wielded the mace-a heavy,spiked,hammerlike weapon.The teacher was skilled in all those weapons plus the disk(chakra),the spear,and fighting with his bare hands.Brahmin and Kshatriya students were also trained to command a war elephant.  Military academies like the one in Taxila show how important war was to the people of Ashoka's time.Each town had its own central armory,a strong building for storing weapons,run by a superintendet.The government kept such tight control over its weapons that all soldiers had to return their arms to the armory after they practiced each morning.No one could carry a weapon unless he had special permit.

  • 18-3日本語訳

    お願いします。  Ashoka wanted Kalinga not only for its riches,but also because the highways that connected north and south India ran right through the middle of the state.And war elephants or no war elephants,what Ashoka wanted,he usually got.His attack was brutal and effective.By the time the war was over,one out of every four Kalingans was dead or wounded.Many more had been taken prisoner and were separated from what was left of their families.Those who survived faced lives as broken and barren as their wrecked houses and ruined fields.Ashoka reported that“150,000”were deported,100,000 were killed,and many more died(from other causes).”  As Ashoka stared out over the ruins left by his armies,something changed.He'd seen the agony of defeated people before,but this was different.He was different.He remembered the lessons of dharma,artha,kama,and moksha,and realized suddenly that there was nothing honorable,creative,beautiful,or peaceful about this victory.  So Ashoka,who called himself“Beloved of the Deities,”sent out a royal edict,a message,which he had proclaimed in every village and carved into rock pillars for all to see:“After the Kalingas had been conquered,Beloved of the Deities came to feel a strong inclination towards dharma,a love for dharma,and for instruction of dharma.Now Beloved of the Deities feels deep remorse for having comquered the Kalingas.”  Ashoka adopted a new philosophy,one he called“conquest by dharma,”instead of by arms.As he explained in one of his proclamations:  I have had this edict written so that sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests,or that if military conquests are made,that they be done with forbearance and light punishment,or better still that they consider making conquest by dharma only,for that bears fruit in this world and the next.May all their intense devotion be given to this which has result in this world and the next.

  • 18-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  In about 269 BCE,Ashoka's father,King Bindusara,died.Ashoka was barely 30,but he had already proven himself a brilliant warrior.Ashoka's mother had not been his father's chief wife,so he had to compete with his half brothers for the throne.But by 265 BCE Ashoka had defeated all his rivals and was the unquestioned king of the dntire northern subcontinent.  He may have been king,but many of his people did not wish to be his subjects.They had lived in independent city-states for centuries and,and although a centralized state had its good points,like making the roads better and safer and increasing trade,they did not want to obey a king.Ashoka made royal visits to these regions to persuade his people to stay in the kingdom his father and grandfather had established.When persuasion didn't work,he sent his army.  Ashoka's grandfather,Chandragupta,ham united most of the northern subcontinent.His empire stretched“from the lord of the mountains[Himalayas],cooled by showers of the spray nf the divine steam[Ganga]playing about among its rocks.to the shores of the southern ocean marked by the brilliance of gems flashing with various colors.”Arhoka's father,Bindusara,had continued his father's tradition,earning himself the nickname“Slayer of Enemies.”But neither Chandragupta nor Bindusara had dared attack the territory of Kalinga in eastern India.  Kalinga was a particularly rich and powerful state.Its riches came from its trade with Southeast Asia.Merchants from Kalinga could be found as far away as Borneo,Bali,and Java.Although it had no king,Kalinga protected its riches with a huge and well-organized army,including an army of especially mighty war elephants.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The response of the Duma, urged on by the Progressive Bloc, was to establish a Provisional Committee to restore law and order; meanwhile, the socialist parties re-established the Petrograd Soviet, first created during the 1905 revolution, to represent workers and soldiers. The remaining loyal units switched allegiance the next day. The Army Chiefs and the ministers who had come to advise the Tsar suggested that he abdicate the throne. He did so on 15 March [O.S. 2 March], on behalf of himself and his son, Tsarevich Alexei. Nicholas nominated his brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, to succeed him. But the Grand Duke realised that he would have little support as ruler, so he declined the crown on 16 March [O.S. 3 March], stating that he would take it only if that was the consensus of democratic action by the Russian Constituent Assembly, which shall define the form of government for Russia.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(7)

    お願いします。  Despite Harkhuf's major expeditions and all the riches he and other traders brought back to Egypt―from Nubia with all its gold, Sinai with all its turquoise, and Punt with all its incense―it was this dancing pygmy that captured the heart of Pepi II. And the letter written by the boy-king remained so important to Harkhuf that at he end of his days he chose to record it on his tomb. If you were the supreme ruler of Egypt 4,000 years ago, what kinds of letters would you write? What songs would you sing to the Nile? Think about it while your servants fan you with ostrich feathers. But you might want to be careful how you order your teachers around.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (25) In spite of his poor health, Augustus lived to be 76 years old and reigned for 41 years as emperor. In the last years of his life, he realized that he must choose a successor. But whom? His beloved grandsons had both died young. With only one logical choice left, Augustus summoned his stepson Tiberius to Rome. He named this gloomy man as his co-ruler and successor. (26) In 14 CE, Augustus took a last journey by sea. He caught a chill in the night air and became quite ill. He called Tiberius to his bedside and spoke with him for a long time in private. Then, on August 19, knowing that the end was near, he called for a mirror and had his hair carefully combed. The biographer Suetonius tells the story: “he summoned a group of friends and asked ‘Have I played my part in the comedy of life believably enough?’” Then he added lines from a play: If I have pleased you, kindly show Appreciation with a warm goodbye. (27) Augustus Caesar had played many roles well: the dutiful heir of Julius Caesar; the victor over Antony; the reformer of Roman government; the generous sponsor of literature and art;and, in his final years, the kindly father figure of Rome─providing food, entertainment, and security to his people. Near the end of his life, he remembered: “When I was 60 years old, the senate, the equestrians, and the whole people of Rome gave me the title of Father of my Country and decreed that this should be inscribed in the porch of my house.” (28) When Augustus died, all Italy mourned, and the Senate proclaimed him a god. His rule marked a turning point in history. In his lifetime, the Roman Republic came to an end. but he rescued the Roman state by turning it into a system ruled by emperors─a form of government that survived for another 500 years. In an age in which many rules were called “saviors” and “gods,” Augustus Caesar truly deserved to be called the savior of the Roman people.

  • 日本語訳を!c11-2

    お願いします!続き Imagine a 12-year-old boy named Kumar who was getting ready to study the Vedas.On a typical day,Kumar awoke to the sounds of his mother getting breakfast ready and his older sister sweeping the kitchen in preparation for the morning rituals.The kitchen would have been located in an open courtyard in the northeastern part of the house,the purest and most holy part of the home.The sun hit this area first,warming the mud-plastered walls and bringing light to the courtyard.On cold mornings,Kumar might well have wished that he had been born a girl.His sister got to stay at home and help their mother in he warm kitchen,but he had to bathe in the ice-cold river in the fog before his morning worship of the sun deity Surya. One of the first things Kumar learned as a child was that there were four different varna,or classes of people.In reality,society was a lot more complex,with many different communities.The Vedas taught that the four varna came from the body of Purusha,the cosmic being whose sacrifice resulted in the creation of the universe.The Brahmins,the class of priests,came from the head of Purusha.The Kshatriyas,the warriors and kings,came from his arms,while the Vaishyas,or merchants,came from his thighs,and the Shudras,or peasants,from his feet. The peoples of the late Vedic period believed that people were born into the varna they deserved.If people lived good lives,they would be reborn into a higher class.When people kived such good lives that they became perfect,they united with the cosmic being.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.