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お願いします (12) No Roman official could be brought to trial while still in office. Tiberius's enemies planned to attack him as soon as his term ended. But he shocked them by announcing his plan to run for re-election. This wasn't supposed to happen. Tribunes were supposed to serve for one year only. Many aristocrats believed that the plebs would soon proclaim Tiberius kind. Would a tyrant once again rule Rome? (13) A brawl broke out in the election assembly and Tiberius was killed in the street fighting that followed. For the first time in centuries, violence had entered Roman politics, and there it stayed until the fall of the Republic. (14) Tiberius had challenged the power of the Senate and won─even though he died in the process. His land reform had become law. A committee soon set to work distributing state-owned lands to the poor. Tiberius's brother Gaius was a member of that committee. In 123 BCE─ten years after Tiberius's death─Gaius followed in his brother's footsteps and was elected tribune. (15) Gaius was a true revolutionary, even more than Tiberius had been. The younger Gracchus was a great orator, and he pushed through some important reforms. His grain law, for example, kept the price of grain low enough that ordinary citizens could afford to buy bread for their families. (16) Like his brother, Gaius fought against the power of the nobles. He changed the jury system so that when senators were tried in the courts for corruption, the jurw would include some men who weren't members of the Senate. This change made it harder for corrupt senators to get away with their crimes. Although Gaius was re-elected, opposition to him grew among Rome's nobility. And like Tiberius, Gaius met his death in a street battle during his second term in office.


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(12) 在任中に、ローマの役人が、裁判にかけられることは、ありませんでした。チベリウスの敵は、彼の任期が終わるとすぐに、彼を攻撃することを計画しました。しかし、彼は、再選に打って出る計画を発表して、彼らに衝撃を与えました。こんなことは、起こるとは思われませんでした。護民官の任期は、1年だけと考えられていました。多くの貴族は、平民が、チベリウスを王であるとすぐにも宣言すると信じました。専制君主が、ローマを再び統治することになるのでしょうか? (13) 乱闘が選挙集会で勃発しました、そして、その後の街路での乱闘で、チベリウスは殺害されました。数世紀ぶりに、暴力が、ローマの政治に入って来ました、そして、この暴力は、共和制の崩壊までローマの政治にとどまりました。 (14) チベリウスは元老院の権限に異議を唱え、勝利しました ─ たとえ彼がその過程で死亡したとしてもです。彼の土地改革は、法律になりました。委員会が、国有地を貧しい者に分配する仕事にすぐにとりかかりました。 チベリウスの弟ガイウスは、その委員会のメンバーでした。チベリウスの死後10年目の ― 紀元前123年に、ガイウスは彼の兄の跡を継いで、護民官に選ばれました。 (15) ガイウスは本物の革命家でした、チベリウスと比べても一層革命家でした。この弟のグラックスは、偉大な雄弁家でした、そして、彼はいくつかの重要な改革を推し進めました。例えば、彼の穀物法は、普通の市民が、ゆとりを持って彼らの家族のためにパンを買えるように穀物の価格を低く維持しました。 (16) 彼の兄と同様、ガイウスは貴族の権力と戦いました。元老院議員が、汚職のかどで裁判にかけられる時、陪審に元老院議員ではない人々を含むように、彼は陪審制度を変えました。この変更は、汚職を犯した元老院議員が、彼らの犯罪から逃れることをより困難にしました。ガイウスは再選されましたが、彼に対する反対はローマの貴族の間で増大しました。そして、チベリウスと同様、 ガイウスは、彼の2度目の任期中に街路での乱闘で彼の死を迎えました。





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    お願いします (9) Knowing that he had very little support among the senators, Tiberius bypassed the Senate and took his proposal directly to the Assembly of the Plebs. He needed votes for his plan to become law, so he arranged for peasants to be brought in from the countryside to increase the number of votes in his favor. When another tribune, Octavius, tried to use his veto to stop the vote, Tiberius called for the Assembly to throw him out. According to Plutarch, one of Tiberius's servants dragged Octavius away. Luckily for Octavius, his rich pals rescued him from the angry mob. (10) With Octavius out of the way, the Assembly voted Tiberius's proposal into law. The senators tried desperately to block the actual transfer of land. They knew that it would involve a mass of paperwork, which is always expensive. All of the new farmers would need animals and tools. The total cost would be enormous. So the Senate refused to cover expense. That way, the hated law would be harmless─like a tiger without teeth. But Tiberius outsmarted them. He arranged to pay for the land transfers using money from a foreign kingdom. (11) Opinion in Rome was split. The way Tiberius had fought for his land reform, as much as thelaw itself, infuriated the senators. Tiberius had ignored the fact that the Senate was supposed to control Rome's finances. No wonder the nobleman hated him! But he became the common people's hero. This really worried the senators. They didn't want anyone to become too popular, especially with the Plebs. When Tiberius began to walk through Rome accompanied by bodyguards, the senators feared the worst. They thought he planned to take over the government by force and rule on his own, tossing aside written law and crippling the Senate's power.

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    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

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    お願いします (1) Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two Roman brothers who fought and died for the same cause. They even died the same way, murdered in violent stredt brawls. But the two Gracchi were very different in age and personality. Plutarch, the Greek writer who brought so many Romans to life through his biographies, describes them:“Tiberius, in his looks...and gestures...was gentle and composed. But Gaius was fiery and passionate.” When Tiberius gave a speech, he spoke quietly and never moved from one spot. But Gaius was like an actor. When he spoke to the people, he“would walk about, pacing on the platform. And in the heat of his orations, he would throw his cloak from his shoulders.” (2) The Gracchi brothers were noblemen whose family was well known in Rome. Their father had served two terms as a consul, the highest office in Rome. Their mother, Cornelia, was the daughter of the general Scipio Africanus, who had defeated Rome's great enemy, the Carthaginian general Hannibal. (A King of Egypt once proposed marriage to Cornelia, but she turned him down.) As children of such distinguished parents, the Gracchi brothers had not only social rank but also plenty of money. Still, they devoted themselves to improving the lives of the poor. (3) Tiberius and Gaius entered politics in difficult times. The Roman Republic was in trouble. Like a teenager who grows tall “overnight,” Rome had grown dramatically during the Punic Wars, from 264 to 146 BCE. And although 118 years is a long time for a person, it's a very short time for a city or empire. Rome entered the war years as a small city-state. It ended them as the ruler of the Mediterranean, controlling all of Italy, with conquered lands stretching from Africa and Spain to Greece. The once-poor farming community had mushroomed into a giant whose military conquests poured masses of gold, grain, and slaves into Italy.

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    お願いします (25) In spite of his poor health, Augustus lived to be 76 years old and reigned for 41 years as emperor. In the last years of his life, he realized that he must choose a successor. But whom? His beloved grandsons had both died young. With only one logical choice left, Augustus summoned his stepson Tiberius to Rome. He named this gloomy man as his co-ruler and successor. (26) In 14 CE, Augustus took a last journey by sea. He caught a chill in the night air and became quite ill. He called Tiberius to his bedside and spoke with him for a long time in private. Then, on August 19, knowing that the end was near, he called for a mirror and had his hair carefully combed. The biographer Suetonius tells the story: “he summoned a group of friends and asked ‘Have I played my part in the comedy of life believably enough?’” Then he added lines from a play: If I have pleased you, kindly show Appreciation with a warm goodbye. (27) Augustus Caesar had played many roles well: the dutiful heir of Julius Caesar; the victor over Antony; the reformer of Roman government; the generous sponsor of literature and art;and, in his final years, the kindly father figure of Rome─providing food, entertainment, and security to his people. Near the end of his life, he remembered: “When I was 60 years old, the senate, the equestrians, and the whole people of Rome gave me the title of Father of my Country and decreed that this should be inscribed in the porch of my house.” (28) When Augustus died, all Italy mourned, and the Senate proclaimed him a god. His rule marked a turning point in history. In his lifetime, the Roman Republic came to an end. but he rescued the Roman state by turning it into a system ruled by emperors─a form of government that survived for another 500 years. In an age in which many rules were called “saviors” and “gods,” Augustus Caesar truly deserved to be called the savior of the Roman people.

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    お願いします (21) Augustus was a hard-working emperor. He traveled to many of the provinces under his care, but he was sickly and didn't expect to live very long. After his military campaign in Spain, Augustus returned to Rome and, in 23 BCE, became quite illand began thinking about a successor to follow him as Rome's ruler. His first choice had been his nephew Marcellus, but Marcellus had died young─not long after he had married Julia, the emperor's only daughter. (22) Julia played the key role in her father's search for a successor. After Marcellus died, she had to marry again, to a man of her father's choice. For her next husband, Augustus chose his general Agrippa, his closet friend and advisor. Although Julia was much younger than Agrippa, she dutifully married him, and the couple had five children. Then Agrippa died. (23) Although Augustus adopted his young grandsons as his heirs, he still needed a husband for Julia to protect the boys in the event of his own death. So he forced his stepson Tiberius to divorce his wife, even though Tiberius loved her very deeply. (He used to follow his former wife on the streets, weeping.) The marriage between Julia and Tiberius was a disaster: Julia was unfaithful, and Tiberius went into exile on the Greek island of Rhodes. Augustus was forced to banish his own daughter from Rome for her crime of adultery. (24) Julia must have spilled many tears over her father's marriage choices for her─especially the last one. She hated Tiberius, and he felt the same way about her. Even so, she would never have questioned her father's right to select her husbands. This was a parent's duty, especially if dad happened to rule the Roman Empire.

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    お願いします (1) In February of 44 BCE, the Roman Senate declared Julius Caesar dictator of Rome for life. According to the Greek writer Plutarch, the Senate also offered Caesar a crown, but he turned it down. Caesar knew how much Romans had hated the idea of kinds since the reign of Tarquin the Proud, 500 years before. (2) One month later, Julius Caesar was dead, murdered in the Senate. Why? This ancient coin may provide the answer. (3) On it, we see the face of Julius Caesar, a thin, handsome man with fine features, the perfect image of a noble Roman. Caesar himself had ordered the coin to be made, so it probably looks very much like him. He was the first living Roman to be depicted on a coin─by tradition, leaders and heroes received this honor only after their deaths. On the dictator's head is a laurel wreath, a symbol of victory. When Caesar's enemies was this coin, they began to question his plans. Did he intend to become Rome's king after all? Did he plan to set up a monarchy with his children and grandchildren ruling after him? This fear haunted many senators as they watched Caesar's power and popularity grow. (4) Soon after the coin appeared, a group of senators met to plot his murder. (5) In early March, people reported bizarre happenings: strange birds seen in the Forum and odd sounds heard there. Then, when Caesar was sacrificing to the gods, one of the animals was found to have no heart! Many believed that these happenings were omens─warnings of disasters to come.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (17) Patriotic writers like Livy took great pride in telling about brave Horatius and how he stopped the foreign attackers. Livy knew that the story was exaggerated and that his first-century readers wouldn't completely believe it. But he wasn't telling it to get the facts straight. He told it because it painted a picture of Roman courage at its best. Horatius represented the “true Roman.” (18) Even though Rome had abolished kingship, the Senate had the power to appoint a dictator in times of great danger. This happened in 458 BCE when the Aequi, an Italic tribe living west of Rome, attacked. The Senate sent for Cincinnatus, a farmer who had served as a consul two years earlier. The Senate's messengers found him working in his field and greeted him. They asked him to put on his toga so they might give him an important message from the Senate. Cincinnatus “asked them, in surprise, if all was well, and bade his wife, Racilia, to bring him his toga.... Wiping off the dust and perspiration, he put it on and came forward.” than the messengers congratulated Cincinnatus and told him that he had been appointed dictator of Rome.

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    お願いします (13) Octavian wanted everyone to know that he had brought peace to Rome after decades of civil war. He called it the Pax Romana, the Roman Peace, and built an elaborate Altar of Peace on the main road leading into Rome to celebrate his accomplishment. Octavian also demonstrated his victory by closing the doors of the temple of Janus─the god with two faces who guarded the doors of homes and cities. By tradition, these doors were kept open in times of war so that Janus would be free to help Rome against its enemies. In 500 years of almost-constant war, the temple doors had only been closed twice. (14) Rome was at peace, but its government was a mess. Enemies alo the frontiers had taken advantage of Rome's turmoil by rebelling against its control or refusing to pay its taxes. Octavian had to overcome these troublesome neighbors, but he also had to quiet the quarrels among the leaders of Rome. It was tricky to keep the senate on his side while attacking corruption within it. (15) Hundreds of senators had died in the civil wars. Octavian filled their place with men who had been loyal to him over the years. Many of these new Senate members were not from Rome, but from other Italian cities. Men like Octavian's best friend, his general Agrippa, formed the new ruling class. Octavian chose them not for their family ties, but for their ability and loyalty. (16) Although Octavian was wise enough to avoid the title of King, he accepted thename of Augustus in 27 BCE. After I had put out the fires of civil war,…I transferred the Republic from mw power to the control ofthe Senate and people of Rome. For this…I was named Augustus by the Senate…. From this time on, I topped everyone in influence.

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    お願いします (6) On March 15, the day known in Rome as the Ides of March, Caesar went to a meeting of the Senate. As usual, he had no bodyguards. On the way, a soothsayer─a “truth teller” who can tall the future─stopped him with a warning: “Caesar, beware the Ides of March.” (The Romans called the middle day of the month the “Ides”; it usually fell on the 15th.) The dictator ignored him and walked on. But when he arrived at the meeting place, a group of senators─mostly old friends and men he had pardoned and promoted─surrounded him. They quickly closed in and, drawing their knives, began to stab him. Bleeding from 23 brutal wounds, Caesar fell and died at the base of a statue he had commissioned: a statue of Pompey─his rival and friend. (7) Who was this man who stirred such a powerful mix of love, admiration,fear, and hatred? (8) Julius Caesar was born into a noble family, but he always supported the rights of the common people. He was the plebeian's favorite politician. They believed that he understood and cared about their needs. He did, but he was no saint. He was practical, strong willed, and hungry for power. Street-smart, he made very few mistakes, and he knew how to take advantage of the mistakes of his enemies. (9) In 60 BCE, Julius Caesar wanted to become a consul, but he was broke. He had already spent everything he had (or could borrow) to pay for his political career up to that point. He needed money and he needed help. So he made a bargain with two other men who also needed something: Cicero's friend Pompey and Crassus, the richest man in Rome. The three formed the First Triumvirate.