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18-1日本語訳

お願いします。  Prince Ashoka Maurya had two kinds of heroes.The first were the deities of the Vedic scriptures and the prince and princesses who served them in sacred texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.These religious heroes taught him the satisfaction of living with honor and justice(dharma),the excitement of money and succesr(artha),and the contentment of enjoying the world's beauties and pleasures(kama).They taught him that if he filled his life with these qualities of honor,excellence,and beauty,he would reach moksha,when the cycle of life,death,and rebirth would end.   That all sounded good to Prince Ashoka.But so did the adventures of his second kind of hero-the warrior heroes like his father,King Bindusara,and his grandfather,Chandragupta.Ashoka loved fighting,and he was good at it.He may well have gone to a military academy like the one in Taxila.Brahmins and Kshatriya came there from all over the subcontinent to learn military science,including the use of the eight major eapoms.Brahmins shot bows,the Kshatriya were swordsmen,the Vaishya used the lance,and the Shudra wielded the mace-a heavy,spiked,hammerlike weapon.The teacher was skilled in all those weapons plus the disk(chakra),the spear,and fighting with his bare hands.Brahmin and Kshatriya students were also trained to command a war elephant.  Military academies like the one in Taxila show how important war was to the people of Ashoka's time.Each town had its own central armory,a strong building for storing weapons,run by a superintendet.The government kept such tight control over its weapons that all soldiers had to return their arms to the armory after they practiced each morning.No one could carry a weapon unless he had special permit.

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 アショカ・マウリヤ王子には、2種類の英雄がいました。 1つ目は、ベーダ聖典の神々や、例えばマハーバーラタやラーマヤーナの様な聖典の中で彼らに仕えた王子や王女たちでした。 これらの宗教的な英雄は、彼に高潔で正義の生活を送る満足感(自然の法)、お金と成功の興奮(アルサ)、世界の美や喜びを楽しむ満足(カーマ)を教えました。彼が人生を名誉、優秀さ、美しさと言ったこれらの性質で満たすならば、彼が解脱に達し、その時は、生、死、再生の輪廻が終わるだろうと、彼らは彼に教えました。  それは、すべて、アショカ王子にはよいことに思えました。 しかし、彼の2番目の種類の英雄 ― 彼の父ビンドゥサラ王や彼の祖父チャンドラグプタの様な戦士の英雄 ― の冒険も素晴らしいように思えました。 アショカは戦うのが好きでした、そして、彼はそれが得意でした。 彼が、タキシラにある様な士官学校に行ったのももっともでした。バラモンやクシャトリヤが、8つの主要な武器の使用を含む軍事学を学ぶために、亜大陸中からそこに来ました。 バラモンは弓を射ました、クシャトリヤは剣士でした、バイシャは槍を使いました、そして、シュードラはメイス(槌矛) ― 大型の、釘の付いた、ハンマー状の武器 ― を用いました。教師は、それらすべての武器、さらに、円盤(チャクラ)、槍、素手での戦いに熟練していました。 バラモンとクシャトリヤの学生は、戦闘用の象を操る訓練もうけました。  タキシラにあるものような士官学校は、アショカ時代の人々にとって戦争がいかに重要かを示します。 それぞれの町は、そこ独自の中央兵器庫(武器を保存するための頑丈な建物)を管理者に運営させました。 毎朝、訓練したあとすべての兵士が兵器庫に彼らの武器を戻さなければならないと言うような武器に対する厳しいコントロールを、政府は維持しました。 特別な許可がない限り、誰も武器を持つことができませんでした。

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  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

  • 18-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  In about 269 BCE,Ashoka's father,King Bindusara,died.Ashoka was barely 30,but he had already proven himself a brilliant warrior.Ashoka's mother had not been his father's chief wife,so he had to compete with his half brothers for the throne.But by 265 BCE Ashoka had defeated all his rivals and was the unquestioned king of the dntire northern subcontinent.  He may have been king,but many of his people did not wish to be his subjects.They had lived in independent city-states for centuries and,and although a centralized state had its good points,like making the roads better and safer and increasing trade,they did not want to obey a king.Ashoka made royal visits to these regions to persuade his people to stay in the kingdom his father and grandfather had established.When persuasion didn't work,he sent his army.  Ashoka's grandfather,Chandragupta,ham united most of the northern subcontinent.His empire stretched“from the lord of the mountains[Himalayas],cooled by showers of the spray nf the divine steam[Ganga]playing about among its rocks.to the shores of the southern ocean marked by the brilliance of gems flashing with various colors.”Arhoka's father,Bindusara,had continued his father's tradition,earning himself the nickname“Slayer of Enemies.”But neither Chandragupta nor Bindusara had dared attack the territory of Kalinga in eastern India.  Kalinga was a particularly rich and powerful state.Its riches came from its trade with Southeast Asia.Merchants from Kalinga could be found as far away as Borneo,Bali,and Java.Although it had no king,Kalinga protected its riches with a huge and well-organized army,including an army of especially mighty war elephants.

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    お願いします。  Ashoka wanted Kalinga not only for its riches,but also because the highways that connected north and south India ran right through the middle of the state.And war elephants or no war elephants,what Ashoka wanted,he usually got.His attack was brutal and effective.By the time the war was over,one out of every four Kalingans was dead or wounded.Many more had been taken prisoner and were separated from what was left of their families.Those who survived faced lives as broken and barren as their wrecked houses and ruined fields.Ashoka reported that“150,000”were deported,100,000 were killed,and many more died(from other causes).”  As Ashoka stared out over the ruins left by his armies,something changed.He'd seen the agony of defeated people before,but this was different.He was different.He remembered the lessons of dharma,artha,kama,and moksha,and realized suddenly that there was nothing honorable,creative,beautiful,or peaceful about this victory.  So Ashoka,who called himself“Beloved of the Deities,”sent out a royal edict,a message,which he had proclaimed in every village and carved into rock pillars for all to see:“After the Kalingas had been conquered,Beloved of the Deities came to feel a strong inclination towards dharma,a love for dharma,and for instruction of dharma.Now Beloved of the Deities feels deep remorse for having comquered the Kalingas.”  Ashoka adopted a new philosophy,one he called“conquest by dharma,”instead of by arms.As he explained in one of his proclamations:  I have had this edict written so that sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests,or that if military conquests are made,that they be done with forbearance and light punishment,or better still that they consider making conquest by dharma only,for that bears fruit in this world and the next.May all their intense devotion be given to this which has result in this world and the next.

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