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お願いします。  All that is amazing enough.What is even more amazing is that a poem he wrote when he was not much more than a teenager explains all that he knew and learned without a single number,equation,or diagram.Aryabhate wanted his information to be easy to remember.So he put all the numbers into a code of letters and combinations of letters,which he explains at the beginning of the poem,called the Aryabhatiyam.Then,in 121 verses,he explains the way the planets move in the sky better than anyone else would for 1,000 years.For Aryabhate,astronomy was a way of understanding the deities.As he wrote,“One who knows these verses,one who knows the movements of planets and celestial spheres,goes much beyond them and attains the absolute Brahman.”  At first,people learned his poem and passed it on without writing it down.The fact that it wasn't written down at first may be one reason we still have it.Insects and mildew destroyed Indian manuscripts,which were written on birch bark or palm leaves,very quickly.  Oddly,Aryabhate seems not to have known about India's biggest contribution to math and science,although his students did.What is it? Zero.You know-nothing.Believe it or not,no one had ever considered zero a number before.Had that ever messed up their arithmetic!  If the number zero is nothing,why is it such a big deal? Because by using the number zero,people can write numbers in columns,which makes adding,subtracting,and especially multiplying and dividing much easier.


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 そのすべてが、十分に驚くべきです。 さらに驚くべきことは、一つの数字、方程式、図表もなしで、彼が知り、学んだすべてを、彼がティーンエイジャーになるかならない頃に書いた詩が、説明するということです。 アーリヤバーターは、自分の情報が覚え易いことを望みました。 それで、彼はすべての数字を文字と文字を組み合わせた符号に翻訳しました、そして、その符号をアーリヤバーティヤムと呼ばれる彼の詩の冒頭で彼は説明しています。それから、121節の詩で、1,000年の間他の誰もしなかったほど上手く、どの様に惑星が天空を移動するかを説明しています。 アーリヤバーターにとって、天文学は、神を理解する方法でした。 彼が書き記したように、「これらの詩句を知る人、惑星と天球の動きを知る人は、それらを遥かに越えて、絶対のブラフマン(宇宙の支配原理、宇宙我)を達成する。」  最初、人々は彼の詩を覚えて、それを書きとめることなく、後世に伝えました。 それが、当初、書きとめられなかったという事実が、我々がまだそれを持つ1つの理由かもしれません。 昆虫やカビが、インドの写本を瞬く間に台無しにしました、それらは樺の皮や椰子の葉に書かれていたからです。  奇妙にも、アーリヤバーターは数学や科学へのインドの最大の貢献を知っていなかったようです、しかし、彼の生徒達は知っていました。 それは何でしょう? ゼロです。 ご存じですね ― 何もないことです。 信じがたいかもしれませんが、誰もそれ以前にゼロを数字だとは考えませんでした。 そのことで、どれほど、彼らの計算がだいなしになったことでしょう!  ゼロという数字が何もないのであれば、なぜ、それはそのような一大事なのでしょうか? なぜならば、数字のゼロを用いることによって、人々が縦列に数字を書くことができるからです、こうすることで、足し算、引き算、そして、特に、掛け算、割り算がはるかに容易になりました。





  • 日本語訳を!c12-1

    お願いします!  Which of ancient India's treasures would you most like to take home with you? One of those cool carnelian belts? A rope of milky pearls? A personalized seal carved with your name and favorite animals? An intricately inlaid chest of shisham wood? Or perhaps a brightly glazed and gracefully shaped ceramic pot?  Many of the people who love ancient India would choose none of those things.They would vote for the narratives Mahabharata and the Ramayana,religious poems that are as widely read and loved today as they were when they were first composed thousands of years ago.  The hero of the Mahabharata is a great warrior named Prince Arjuna.He falls in love with Princess Draupadi,and wins her hand in marriage by stringing a massive bow that is too heavy for anyone else to use.Then he uses the bow to shoot out the eye of a golden fish spinning on top of a tall pole,while lonking at the fish's reflection in a vat filled with boiling water.  Despite his beautiful wife and fabulous archery skills,Prince Arjuna has a problem.He and his four brothers,the Pandavas,are at war with his cousins,the Kauravas.Arjuna wants to win tge war and defeat his evil cousins.But at the same time,he wants to be a good man,and good men don't go around making war on their relatives.In the Bhagavad Gita,a poem that is part of the Mahabharata,Arjuna tells his charioteer that“conflicting sacred duties confound my reason.”  Lucky for Prince Arjuna,his charioteer turns out to be Lord Krishna,who is an avatar of Vishnu,the deity who preserves life.Krishna explains to Arjuna that even though he may not want to hurt his cousins,it's Arjuna's duty-his dharma-to protect what is right.Krishna asks Arjuna what he thinks would happen to the world if the deities didn't do their duty,and dxplains that performing his dharma is the only path to peace and salvation.Otherwise,he will just be reborn endlessly until he gets it right.

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    Going to the shore on the first morning of the vacation, Jerry stopped and looked at a wild and rocky bay, and then over to the crowded beach he knew so well from other years. His mother looked back at him. “Are you tired of the usual beach, Jerry?” “Oh, no!” he said quickly, but then said, “I’d like to look at those rocks down there.” “Of course, if you like.” Jerry watched his mother go, then ran straight into the water and began swimming. He was a good swimmer. He swam out over the gleaming sand and then he was in the real sea. He saw some older, local boys — men, to him — sitting on the rocks. One smiled and waved. It was enough to make him feel welcome. In a minute, he had swum over and was on the rocks beside them. Then, as he watched, the biggest of the boys dived into the water, and did not come up. Jerry gave a cry of alarm, but after a long time the boy came up on the other side of a big dark rock, letting out a shout of victory. Immediately the rest of them dived and Jerry was alone. He counted the seconds they were under water: one, two, three… fifty… one hundred. At one hundred and sixty, one, then another, of the boys came up on the far side of the rock and Jerry understood that they had swum through some gap or hole in it. He knew then that he wanted to be like them. He watched as they swam away and then swam to shore himself. Next day he swam back to the rocks. There was nobody else there. He looked at the great rock the boys had swum through. He could see no gap in it. He dived down to its base, again and again. It took a long time, but finally, while he was holding on to the base of the rock, he shot his feet out forward and they met no obstacle. He had found the hole. In the days that followed, Jerry hurried to the rocks every morning and exercised his lungs as if everything, the whole of his life, depended on it.

  • 17-3日本語訳

    お願いします。  Because Ayurvedic doctors passed down their traditions orally for thousands of years before anyone wrote them down,no one knows about the doctors and nurses who helped develop them.We do know a little more about South Asia's greatest scientist,a man named Aryabhata,who was born in 476 CE.As a young boy,Aryabhate loved watching the stars.Even without a telescope,Aryabhate saw a lot.He saw that the moon was light on the side that faced the sun and dark on the side that faced away.He was the first person to come up with an accurate measurement for π,a number that is is used to calculate the length of curves.He realized that the earth and the other planets circled the sun,instead of the sun and the planets circling the earth.He also saw that the rising and the setting of the sun,the moon,and the starts was the result of the earth turning:“Just as a man in a boat moving forward sees the stationary objects(on either side of the river)as moving backward,just so are the stationary stars seen by the people at Lanka(i.e.,on the equator)as moving exactly towards the west.”  Because of what he saw and understood,he made a very accurate calendar-a great help to South Asians.All kinds of activities,from farming to religion to warfare,depended on knowing exactly what time of the year it was,or in other words,where the earth was in its yearly path around the sun.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

  • 日本語訳を!c12-4

    お願いします!続き  The bravest and the cleverest of the monkeys is Hanuman.Hanuman helps Rama find Sita and tries to rescue her from Ravana.Hanuman uses his coiled tail to lift himself up until he is as high as the king's throne.Each time the king raises his throne to be higher than the captured monkey,  Hanuman lifts himself higher with his tail.In the end,the demons are so angry that they tie an oil-soaked rag to his tail and light it on fire.Hanuman races through the palace lighting the whole building on fire before he flies to the snowy Himalayas and buries his burning tail in the snow of a high mountain.When he gets up to leave,he ends up pulling down the top of the mountain.Today the mountain is called Bandar Poonch-the mountain of the Monkey's Tail.  In the end,Rama and Ravana fight a huge battle that spills over into the heavens:  Rama sent a crescent-shaped arrow which sliced off one of Ravana's heads and flung it far into the sea,and this process continued;but every time a head was cut off,another one grew in its place.Rama lopped off his arms but they grew again and every lopped-off arm hit Matali and the chariot and tried to cause destruction by itself,and the tongue in a new head wagged,uttered challenges,and cursed Rama. Rama eventually triumphs,and everything ends happily,with Sita and Rama reunited and Rama crowned as king.Hanuman loved Rama so much that it is said that he is present every time the Ramayana is told.

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    He counted how long he could hold his breath. Each day he improved his time. Even back at home he timed himself by the clock, and was proud to find he could hold his breath for two minutes. The authority of the clock brought close the adventure that was so important to him. The day after tomorrow, his mother reminded him casually one morning, they must go home. He swam straight out to the rock and looked down into the water. This was the moment when he would try. If he did not do it now, he never would. He filled his lungs, started to count, and dived to the bottom. He was soon inside the dark, narrow hole. The water pushed him up against the roof. The roof was sharp and hurt his back. He pulled himself along with his hands — fast, fast. His head knocked against something; a sharp pain dizzied him. He counted: one hundred… one hundred and fifteen. The hole had widened! He gave himself a kick forward and swam as fast as he could. He lost track of time and said one hundred and fifteen to himself again. Then he saw light. Victory filled him. His hands, reaching forward, met nothing; and his feet propelled him out into the open sea. He floated to the surface, pulled himself up onto the rock and lay face down, catching his breath. After a time he felt better and sat up. Then he swam to shore and climbed slowly up the path to the house. His mother came to meet him, smiling. “Have a nice time?” she asked. “Oh, yes, thank you,” he said. “How did you cut your head?” “Oh, I just cut it.” They sat down to lunch together. “Mom,” he said, “I can hold my breath for two minutes — three minutes.” “Can you, darling?” she said. “Well, you shouldn’t overdo it. You look a bit pale. I don’t think you ought to swim any more today.” She was ready for a battle of wills, but he gave in at once. It was no longer of the least importance to go to the bay.

  • 日本語に訳してください

    上手く翻訳できません。 意訳でも構いません宜しくお願いします。 He is a man who is delicate and refined. He is given to study, and is exceptionally good at what he studies and interests himself in. A strange quiet man. He will seem aloof. He is timid and hesitant with people and quite insular underneath. Like one who has something of an inferiority complex but hides it. Well respected, but underneath he has a lot of self doubts. He gives the impression of distance. He is sensitive and perceptive, can understand the depths concealed in others and what lies behind things but can seem shy or awkward almost on the surface. He is intuitive and not very materialistic, but he will succeed in the material world, through a special subject or talent. Her may be too easily daunted by people, and this is his biggest obstacle. His inner feelings of inadequacy and the tendency to want to avoid people and problems at all costs. He has deep feeling emotions, so much more under the surface of him than he shows. Many of his decision and judgment are based on emotion. He likes to be on his own, but solitariness does not bring out the best in his character, it makes him more insular, more suspicious more inward turned and unstable and escapist. It is the sociability with others that he seeks to avoid that brings out the confidence and kindness and generosity and best in him. He is mature, not too moody or touchy despite his depth of feeling he manages to remain calm and optimism wins through in time of trouble. He is able to summon strength and endurance when he needs it most. He likes routine and familiar things and familiar patterns in his life. Not so fond of the insecurities and uncertainty of change.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    For most conspicuous bravery. Finding that, after being heavily attacked in an advanced and isolated position, the enemy were working round his flanks, Captain Bloomfield evacuated his wounded, and subsequently withdrew his command to a new position, he himself being amongst the last to retire. On arrival at the new position he found that one of the wounded—No. 2475 Corporal D. M. P. Bowker—had been left behind. Owing to very heavy fire he experienced difficulties in having the wounded Corporal brought in.