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お願いします (8) Much of what we know about the war with the Hyksos comes from the tomb of an Egyptian officer. Ahmose, son of Ibana, inscribed on the columns and walls of his tomb details of the many battles he fought with the Hyksos. "I was taken to the ship Northern, because I was brave. I followed the king on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence." Ahmose was rewarded for his valor, he "was appointed to the ship Rising in Memphis. Then there was fighting on the water...I made a seizure and carried off a hand." To keep track of the number of enemy soldiers killed, it was the custom to cut off a hand and present it to the king. (9) For his victories―and the hands that went with them―Ahmose, son of Ibana, was awarded seven times the medal of honor called the Golden Fly. The Golden Fly was a gilded pin shaped like a horsefly. Although the horsefly may seem like an odd shape for a war medal,the Egyptians chose it because the horsefly was the tormentor of beasts. This medal of honor was presented only to the bravest soldiers. (10) A Roman historian writing in the first century CE, Josephus, tells us how it turned out in the end for the Hyksos.  They enclosed Avaris with a high strong wall in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. The Egyptian king attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt. (11) Archaeologists working at Avaris don't see evidence of a mass slaughter. They believe the Hyksos were expelled and took their possessions with them. One way or the other the message was the same: Hands off Egypt.

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(8) 我々がヒクソス人との戦いについて知っている事の多くは、エジプトの将校の墓に由来しています。 イバナの息子のアアフメスは、彼がヒクソス人と戦った多くの戦闘の詳細について彼の墓の円柱や壁に刻みました。 「私は、勇敢だったので、ノーザンと言う船に乗せられました。 王が二輪戦車で走り回った時、私は徒歩で王の後を追いました。アバリスの町が包囲されたとき、私は、陛下の御前で、徒歩で勇敢に戦いました。」 アアフメスは、彼の勇気に対して褒美をもらいました、彼は「メンフィスでライジングと言う船に乗船せよと命じられました。」 それから、水上での戦闘もありました ... 私は取り押さえ、敵の手を切断しました。」 殺した敵兵の数を記録するために、手を切断して、それを王に示すことが、習慣でした。 (9) 彼の勝利 ― 彼が届けた手 ― に対して、イバナの息子アアフメスは、「金のハエ」と呼ばれている名誉の勲章を7回与えられました。 「金のハエ」は、ウシアブのような形をした金メッキを施したバッジでした。 ウシアブは、武勲の勲章としては変わった形のように思われるかもしれませんが、ウシアブが獣を苦しめるものであったので、エジプト人はそれを選びました。 名誉のこの勲章は、最も勇敢な兵士だけに贈られました。 (10) 紀元1世紀に著作のあるローマの歴史家ヨセフスは、戦闘の結果が、ヒクソス人にとって結局どの様であったかについて、我々に伝えています。 彼らは、すべての財産と戦利品を保護するために、アバリスを高く強固な壁で囲みました。エジプトの王は、包囲によって彼らを降伏させようとしました。そして、480,000人の軍勢で要塞を封鎖しました。 最後に、絶望して包囲をあきらめ、彼(エジプト王)は、彼ら(ヒクソス人)全員がエジプトから出国するという条約を結びました。 (11) アバリスで研究を続けている考古学者は、大規模な虐殺の証拠を目にしていません。 ヒクソス人は、追放され、財産を彼らと一緒に持って行ったと、彼ら(考古学者)は信じています。 いずれにしても、メッセージは同じでした: エジプトに手を出すな、でした。

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