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お願いします (4) Ramesses III's inscription tells us that he raced with his army toward southern Palestine to stop the Sea Peoples before they stepped on Egyptian soil. Every ship was sent to the mouth of the Nile, until Ramesses III had filled "the harbor-mouths, like a strong wall, with warships, galleys and barges." Ramesses III knew that he must draw a defensive line. The Egyptians believed this enemy had toppled empires. Egypt would not be one of them. He spared nothing outfitting his fleet. "They were manned completely from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of the choicest of Egypt..." Along the shore, Ramesses III positioned charioteers. "Their horses were quivering in their every limb, ready to crush the countries under their feet." (5) The Sea Peoples approached from the northeast. They came in waves. A vast horde advanced by land, a massive fleet bore down by sea―all headed straight for Egypt. Thousands marched―young, old, families with wagons piled high with their belongings pulled by humpbacked oxen, soldiers in chariots, soldiers on foot―driven by the common goal of claiming Egypt's prosperous land for their own. (6) The first wave of Sea People attacked by land. From the scenes drawn at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we see the chaotic mass of enemy soldiers as they launched themselves at the Egyptians. Some wore horned helmets. Others wore feathered helmets. Charioteers, three to a chariot, forced their horses into the fray. Swordsmen charged, slashing long, tapered swords. The infantry thrust their javelins and spears. Against them Ramesses III stood firm. King, chariot, and horses are shown in perfect alignment whereas the Sea Peoples are a chaotic jumble, facing slaughter, surrender, or flight. Ramesses III's troops fought with chins raised and lips pressed together in grim determination. The Sea Peoples scattered. Their soldiers turned and fled.

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(4) ラムセス3世の碑文は、海の民がエジプトの地に足を踏み入れる前に彼らを食い止めるために、ラムセス3世が彼の軍隊と競う様に南パレスチナに向かったと、我々に語っています。あらゆる艦艇が、ナイル川河口に派遣されました、そしてついに、ラムセス3世は「港の入口を強固な壁の様に、軍艦、ガレー船(大きな船)、荷船で満たしました。 ラムセス3世は、彼が防衛線を引かなければならないということを知っていました。エジプト人は、この敵が多くの帝国を倒したと信じていました。 エジプトは、それらの仲間入りをするわけにはいきません。 彼は、艦隊を装備するものを何も節約しませんでした。 「艦隊には、船首から船尾まで完全に、武器を携えた勇敢な戦士、エジプトの精鋭兵士が配備されていました...」 岸に沿って、ラムセス3世は、二輪戦車の兵士を配備していました。 「彼らの馬は、どの脚も震えて、その足の下に諸国を今にも押しつぶしそうでした。」 (5) 海の民は、北東から接近しました。 彼らは、波状攻撃を仕掛けてきました。 大群が陸路で前進し、大艦隊が、海から押し寄せました ― 全てが、まっすぐにエジプトに向かっていました。数千人が行進しました ― 若者、老人、所有物を高く積み上げ猫背の雄牛が引く荷車に乗った家族、二輪戦車の兵士、歩兵 ― 彼らは、エジプトの繁栄する土地を彼ら自身のものであると要求する共通の目標に駆り立てられていました。 (6) 海の民の第一波は、陸路で攻撃してきました。 ラムセス3世が埋葬される神殿に描かれた場面から、敵兵の雑然とした大群がエジプト軍に向かってくるのが分かります。 角の付いた兜をかぶった兵士もいます。羽飾りのついた兜をかぶった兵士もいます。 二輪戦車の兵士は、1台の二輪戦車に3人乗り、馬を戦場へと駆り立てていました。 剣士たちが突撃し、長い、先細の剣で切りつけてきました。 歩兵部隊は、彼らの投げ槍や槍で突いてきました。彼らに対して、ラムセス3世は、一歩も引きませんでした。 王、二輪戦車、馬が、申し分のない隊列で示されています、他方、海の民は、無秩序な混乱状態で、虐殺、降伏、逃走に直面していました。 ラムセス3世の軍隊は、堂々と戦い、断固たる決意で口を真一文字に結んでいました。 海の民は、散り散りになりました。 彼らの兵士は、向きを変え、逃走しました。

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    お願いします (7) But now the battle moved to the Mediterranean. Egypt was not known for having much of a navy. Its navy was essentially the army with a little training at sea. Egyptians hated the sea―or the "Great Green" as they called it. Now they must fight the Sea Peoples on the Great Green. (8) From the text inscribed at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we know that the Sea Peoples "penetrated the channels of the Nile Mouths" and that Ramesses III attacked "like a whirlwind against them." Although the Egyptian seamen were not as skilled as the Sea Peoples, their boats had oars―not just sails like the Sea Peoples' vessels. On open waters the Egyptian navy wouldn't have had a chance, but in the confined river mouths they could maneuver using oars. The Egyptian warships herded the Sea Peoples' boats closer and closer to land, where Ramesses III had lined the shore with archers. When the enemy ships were forced within firing range, the Egyptian archers let go volley after volley of arrows. The air filled with the hiss of their flight and the thwack of their landing. Egyptian marine archers joined the land archers firing from the boat decks in unison. Arrows fell like rain on the Sea Peoples who, armed with only swords and spears, cowered helplessly.

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    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

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    お願いします。  If you had an important story to tell, but most of your audience couldn't read, you might tell the story by drawing it in pictures. If you wanted the story to last a very long time, you might draw those pictures in stone. That's what an Egyptian storyteller did, and his work has lasted more than 5,000 years. It's the story of the first king of Egypt. And the stone is called the Palette of Narmer.  Long before the first king, before there were people of great power, before there were towns to lead, before there were villages with headsmen, the people of Egypt lived like all prehistoric peoples. They lived in small groups on the move. They followed the food.  Ten thousand years ago the area around the Nile hadn't dried up into desert yet. Rain fell more often and fields of grass grew. Elephants plodded about, flapping their ears in the heat. Giraffes nibbled on thorny trees. Vultures rode the warm air currents in search of something dead to eat. The people of Egypt hunted gazelle and dug root vegetables.  By 6,000 years ago, the people of Egypt had begun to herd cattle. When the Nile swelled and flowed over its banks, the people would follow their cattle away from the river. Extended families sometimes joined other groups while the cattle munched in the grasslands. By the end of summer, the heat and the lack of rain shriveled the grass, and the herderr brought the cattle back to the edge of the floodplain―back to the Nile. They planted seeds and grew an early form of wheat called emmer. They grew peas, barley, and melons.  Small villages began to crop up along the Nile, just out of reach of the floodwaters. When the people argued, someone from the group would step in to solve the problem. Pretty soon they would look to that person to solve all of the problems. Power was born.

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    お願いします (12) The first soldiers to reach Ramesses II's camp burst into the command tent, shouting that the Hittite army was right behind. Ramesses grabbed his battle armor and stepped out of the tent to see his camp already in chaos. The Hittites had broken through the defensive line. Ramesses realized he was isolated from his elite guards in the midst of the enemy with only his shield bearer, Menna, at his side. "When Menna saw so great a number of chariots had ringed about me, he felt faint, and fear entered his limbs. Thus he spoke to his majesty,‘We stand alone in the middle of the enemy. The infantry and the chariots have abandoned us.... Let us also leave unharmed.'" Ramesses stood firm and answered, "Steady your heart, Menna. I shall move among them just as a hawk." (13) The battle scenes carved on the walls of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel show Ramesses single-handedly taking down the Hittite army:  There was no officer with me, no charioteer, no soldier. My infantry and my chariotry had run away before the enemy and no one stood firm to fight.... I found that my heart grew stout and my breast swelled with joy. Everything which I attempted I succeeded.... I found the enemy chariots scattering before my horses. Not one of them could fight me. Their hearts quaked with fear when they saw me and their arms went limp so they could not shoot.... I made them plunge into the water like crocodiles. They fell on their faces, one on top of another. I slaughtered them at will.... Behold, I am victorious, me alone!

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    お願いします (4) Ramesses II and his faithful shield bearer, Menna, led the troops, riding front and center in a golden chariot. Tall and dignified, with flaming red hair and a prominent, hooked nose, the king looked exactly as a pharaoh should, heading out to vanquish his enemies. He indeed was Ramesses the Great. (5) The march through Canaan and southern Syria along the coastal road would take a month. It is likely that Ramesses had a timetable to meet. As was the custom, the time and place of the battle had probably been agreed upon. They were to arrive at Qadesh in May. (6) The city of Qadesh lay tucked into a crook formed by a fork in the Orontes River. A moat connected the two prongs of river, creating an island city. The water barrier made Qadesh easier to defend. (7) One day's march from Qadesh, in the Wood of Labwi, Ramesses and his men halted. They needed to rest before crossing the Orontes River and facting the Hittite army. A refreshed army was a strong army. While setting up camp, Egyptian sentries found two men hiding in the trees. The men claimed to have deserted the Hittite army and professed profusely their allegiance to the great and powerful Ramesses II. When questioned, they told Ramesses that the Hittite king had stalled 120 miles north of Qadesh. "He was too frightened to proceed southwards when he heard that the Pharaoh had come northwards." (8) Believing the story completely (flattery will get you everywhere) and without making any attempt to be sure it was true, Ramesses took one division, the Army of Amun, and crossed the river. The single division advanced quickly on Qadesh. The king anticipated an easy victory. Without the Hittite army there would be little opposition. Ramesses prepared for a sunrise surprise attack. But it was Ramesses who was in for the surprise.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."