• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


お願いします (13) While waiting to come of age and take his rightful place as the king of Egyp, Thutmose III trained with the army. When Hatshepsut's 22-year reign ended in 1483 BCE he came to the throne a skilled and daring general. His military abilities were put to the test immediately. Expecting Egypt to be weak with a new and unproven king in charge, rebels took control of the city of Megiddo. Whoever controlled Megiddo controlled one of the most important trade routes in the world. Megiddo is located in what is today called the Jezreel Vally in modern Israel. The city, towering nearly a hundred feet above the valley, controlled the "Via Maris" (the Way of the Sea), which was the most important road running beteen Egypt in the south, and all of the countries to the north. Thutmose III's first military mission was to capture Megiddo. (14) Thutmose III joined his army at a fortress on Egypt's border and marched at a frantic pace toward Megiddo. On their way to the city they came to a place where the road divided in three. Here a decision had to be made. One road snaked north and east, ending miles away from Megiddo. One road meandered north and west, curving miles off course and also ending miles away from Megiddo. The third route was a direct route. It headed straight north, ending near the gates of the city. But there was a problem. The third route pinched a narrow pass that would force the army to march single file. This left them vulnerable. What if they were ambushed while they were strung out in a long line that couldn't be defended? The rebels would pick them off one by one. From inscriptions at Karnak we know Thutmose III's war council begged him, "do not make us go on the difficult road!" But of course the bold Thutmose III did.


  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数55
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

(13) 成年に達して、エジプトの王としての彼にふさわしい地位につくのを待つ間、トトメス3世は、軍で訓練を受けました。 ハトシェプストの22年にわたる支配が、紀元前1483年に終わったとき、彼は、練達かつ大胆な将軍として王位につきました。 彼の軍を動かす能力は、すぐに試されることになりました。 エジプトが新しくまだ能力が証明されていない王を迎えて弱体化していると予想して、反乱軍が、メジッドの都を支配しました。メジッドを支配する者は誰でも、世界で最も重要な通商路の1つを支配しました。 メジッドは、現代のイスラエルで、今日、イズレエル渓谷と呼ばれている所に位置します。 その都市は、谷より約100フィート高くにあるので、「ヴィア・マリス」(海の道)を支配しました、この道は、南のエジプトと北の全ての国々の間に走る最も重要な道でした。トトメス3世の最初の軍事的使命は、メジッドを手に入れることでした。 (14) トトメス3世は、エジプト国境にある要塞で彼の軍に加わり、メジッドに向けてものすごい速さで進軍しました。 その都へ行く途中、彼らは、道が3つに枝分かれした場所に来ました。ここで、決定が、なされなければなりませんでした。 1つの道は北と東に蛇行していて、メジッドから数マイルのところで終わっていました。 さらに1つの道は、北と西に曲がりくねっており、カーブして進路から数マイル外れていました、そして、この道も、メジッドから数マイルの地点で終わっていました。 3つ目の道は、直通ルートでした。 それはまっすぐ北へ向かい、その都の入口の近くで終わっていました。しかし、問題がありました。 3つ目のルートは、道が狭まった部分があり、軍は、1列縦隊になって行軍せざるを得ませんでした。 これは、彼らを弱体化させました。 彼らが、防御できない長い直線に延び切っている時に、待伏せされたらどうなるでしょう?反乱軍は、1人ずつ彼らを狙い撃ちにするでしょう。 カルナック神殿の碑文によれば、トトメス3世の軍事委員会は、彼に懇願しました「我々を困難な道に進ませないでください!」しかし、もちろん、大胆なトトメス3世は、この道を進みました。





  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします "Then his majesty commanded the entire army to march upon the road which threatened to be narrow. He went forth at the head of his army himself, showing the way by his own footsteps; horse behind horse, his majesty being at the head of his army." Thutmose III led his troops through the dangerous pass. (15) The rebel forces never expected the Egyptian army to choose the dangerous direct road. They had divided the bulk of their army between the other two roads, leaving the central pass virtually unprotected. When the Egyptians attacked, the enemy retreated to the city gates of Megiddo, "they fled headlohm to Megiddo with faces of fear. They abandoned their horses and chariots of gold and silver...." Slow runners found the gates already slammed shut and had to be pulled over the walls by their friends inside, using ropes made from clothes tied together. Thutmose III's daring dash worked. (16) Because the Egyptians stopped to collect the loot abandoned by the fleeing soldiers, victory was not theirs that day. They were forced to wait outsidd the city walls for what, according to the records, was a seven-month siege. But the day's events sent a message to the ancient world. The throme of Egypt was in capable hands with the warrior king Thutmose III in control. Egypt would flourish under him. Its territory would be greatly expanded. Ma'at would be maintained. For Egypt ht would be a golden age.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (17) Thousands of workers descended on Amarna, intent on raising a city. Brick makers poured mud from the riverbank into wooden molds then turned the bricks out to dry in the desert heat. Stone workers cut blocks from the quarries with bronze chisels and wooden mallets. In just four years the city was in full operation with commuters riding their donkeys from the suburbs in the north and south to the center of the city. (18) The largest structure in Amarna was the royal residence, of course. Built half on one side of the road, and half on the other, the east and west wings of the palace were connected by an overpass. The overpass was called the "Window of Appearances." From there Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their children would greet the crowds gathered on the road below. (19) The new temple at Amarna was nothing like the old gloomy houses for the gods. The open courtyard allowed the Aten's rays to shine in. The rambling open-air place of worship stretched the length of two football fields, empty except for small stands to place food offerings, one for each day of the year.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳を!(18)

    お願いします (1) North of the Nile Delta, across the Mediterranean Sea, the land of the Hittites juts out like the snout of a barking dog. From an area where a whisker might sprout, the people of an initially insignficant nation called Hatti, began to spread throughout the Near East. By the late second millenmium BCE, they had grown into a great power. Asian princes wrote time and again to Akhenaten, warning him that he had better stop the Hittites now, before it was too kate. The Hittites were chipping away at Egypt's control in Syria. But Akhenate ignored the letters and he ignored the Hittites. And the Hittites grew stronger. (2) In the 13th century BCE, during the early part of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, when Ramesses II was king, he Hittites could no longer be ignored. They controlled the city-state of Qadesh, and whoever controlled Qadesh controlled the trade route from the coast. It was a strategic position and Ramesses II knew it. "Now the vile enemy from Hatti had gathered together all the foreign lands as far as the end of the sea.... They covered the mountains and filled the valleys and were like locusts in thier numbers." In the spring of his regnal Year 5, Ramesses II led his army eastward on a mission to beat back the Hittites. (3) The Egyptians army was a fearsome force. Twenty thousand infantrymen and charioteers advanced toward Qadesh. Four divisions of highly trained soldiers, each unit named after a protective god―Amun, Re, Ptah, and Seth―marched east. Ox-drawn carts and donkeys loaded with food and weapons followed, kicking up dust as they went. Members of the royal family, priests, advisers, and diplomats accompanied the soldiers to meet an enemy that Ramesses II claimed outnumbered them two to one.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (10) The village chief greets the Egyptian traders with the question: "How have you arrived at this land unknown to the men of Egypt? Have you come down from the roads of the Heavens?" The chief's wife and children accompany him. The Egyptians give the natives gifts of beads and bracelets. The native guides lead the Egyptian traders into the heart of Punt, where they all work together collecting ebony and incense to bring home to Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut brags on her temple walls about all the wonderful things Egypt will enjoy because of her leadeship:  The loading of the ships very heavily with marvels of the country of Punt; all goodly fragrant woods...with ebony and pure ivory, with...eye-cosmetics, with apes, monkeys, dogs and with skins of the southern panther, with natives and their children. Never was brought the like of this for any king who has been scince the beginning. (11) Once back in Egypt the sailors unload. They wrestle with full-grown trees that have been transplanted into baskets and slung over poles for transport. Others shoulder pots and some herd animals. Hatshepsut accepts it all as her due, in the name of Egypt and her godly father Amun. A small figure in the background of one of the last scenes offers incense to the great god Amun. It is Thutmose III. But Thutmose III would not stay in the background forever. His turn on the throne was coming. (12) Just as Hatshepsut had a favorite story that showed us the character of her time in power, so did Thutmose III. His was the battle of Megiddo. Thutmose III's military victories were inscribed on the inner walls of the sanctuary at Karnak. The stories come from the journal entries of an army scribe. The scribe tells us, "I recorded the victories the king won in every land, putting them in writting according to the facts."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (22) In his fervor for the Aten, Akhenaten forgot Egypt. The city of Amarna was like the royal firstborn son who took all the attention. The rest of Egypt became the second son, ignored and neglected. Egyptians outside Amarna were paying taxes to build a city they would never see, dedicated to a god they did not want. (23) Egypt's foreign subjects fell one by one to outside conquerors. The Amarna letters flooded in with pleas for help. They fell on deaf ears. One poor prince wrote at least 64 times, "Why will you neglect our land?" (24) Akhenaten had inherited an empire but left a country in decline. After his death the new capital was abandoned. The kings who followed Akhenaten demolished his temples and erased his name. Once Amarna had been stripped of stone it was forgotten and left to crumble. The sun had set on he Amarna Period.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Despite these losses the majority of the Ottoman armies had managed to withdraw relativity in one piece, but they had been split with no way for one to support the other if or when they were attacked. Further the Ottoman Seventh Army on the British right was cut off from the Palestinian rail network and all their supplies would have to be brought in by road. In preparation for the attack, against Jerusalem, the ANZAC Mounted Division and the 54th (East Anglian) Division, would form a defensive line on the coastal plain, while the XXI Corps moved into the Judaean Mountains. Instead of a direct assault on Jerusalem, Allenby planned to first cut off the city from their supply routes in the north. The plan was for two infantry division, the 75th Division on the left, the 52nd (Lowland) Division in the centre, with the horsemen from the Yeomanry Mounted Division on the right, to move on Jerusalem with the 75th using the main Jaffa–Jerusalem road. The two outer division's would circle around Jerusalem meeting at Bireh 10 miles (16 km) to the north of the city. In the way of the 75th Division was the village of Nebi Samwil also known as the "Tomb of Samuel", the traditional burial site for the biblical prophet Samuel. Nebi Samwil rests at the top of a hill 2,979 feet (908 m) above sea level, 3.1 miles (5.0 km) to the north of Jerusalem. From the village observers can see into Jerusalem and it controls the road from the coast to the west and the road from Samaria to the north into the city. The village was part of the Ottoman defences in front of Jerusalem and its capture was considered vital, to the eventual capture of the city. The attack began on 18 November, with the Australian Mounted Division clearing Latron, which was in the way of the 75th Division. The next day the Yeomanry Mounted Division with the furthest to go moved off first. Followed by the 52nd (Lowland) Division which departed from Ludd and the 75th Division from Latron. The two other divisions travelling astride nothing more than tracks, found it more difficult and their vehicles and heavy weapons had to turn back. The advance also coincided with the start of the winter rains, which not only affected the terrain, but also caused problems for the troops, who were only equipped for a desert war and lacked any winter clothing.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Ottoman Empire constructed a branch railway line from the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway at Ramleh running south to reach Sileh about 275 miles (443 km) from the Suez Canal during the autumn of 1914. The 100 miles (160 km) stretch of the railway to Beersheba was opened on 17 October 1915. By May 1916 it had been extended on to Hafir El Auja then south across the Egyptian frontier, to almost reached the Wadi el Arish in December 1916 when the Battle of Magdhaba was fought. German engineers directed the construction of stone Ashlar bridges and culverts along this railway line built to move large numbers of troops long distances quickly and keep them supplied many miles from base. Ottoman military town of Hafir el Aujah, the Principal Desert Base Any attack on the Suez Canal would require artillery and a bridging train to be dragged across the desert. Two Ottoman divisions plus one more in reserve, with camel and horse units, were ready to depart in mid-January. The advance across the Sinai took ten days, tracked by British aircraft, even though German aircraft stationed in Palestine in turn aided the Ottomans and later flew some bombing missions in support of the main attack. Kress von Kressenstein's force moved south by rail, continuing on foot via el Auja carrying iron pontoons for crossing and attacking the Suez Canal at Serapeum and Tussum. It was known at Force in Egypt headquarters that the 10th, 23rd and 27th Division had assembled near Beersheba. By 11 January Nekhl had been occupied by a small Ottoman force. On 13 January 1915 it was known to the British that strong columns were passing through el Auja and El Arish. On 25 January one regiment was reported to be approaching Qantara. The next day a force of 6,000 soldiers was reported 25 miles (40 km) east of the Little Bitter Lake at Moiya Harab when defenders at Qantara were fired on by part of the approaching force. On 27 January the El Arish to Qantara road was cut 5 miles (8.0 km) to the east and Baluchistan and Kubri posts were attacked. The force had moved towards the Suez Canal in three echelons; the main group along the central route with smaller forces on the northern and southern routes. The northern group of about 3,000 men moved via Magdhaba to El Arish and thence along the northern route towards Port Said. The central group of about 6,000 or 7,000 men moved via the water cisterns at Moiya Harab and the wells at Wady um Muksheib and Jifjafa towards Ismailia. This was at the midpoint of the Suez Canal near the vital British railway and water pumping equipment. The main force marched from Beersheba through El Auja and Ibni, between the Maghara and Yelleg hills to Jifjafa and Ismailia. The third group of about 3,000 moved via Nekl southwards towards the town of Suez at the southern end of the Suez Canal.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.