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お願いします (17) Thousands of workers descended on Amarna, intent on raising a city. Brick makers poured mud from the riverbank into wooden molds then turned the bricks out to dry in the desert heat. Stone workers cut blocks from the quarries with bronze chisels and wooden mallets. In just four years the city was in full operation with commuters riding their donkeys from the suburbs in the north and south to the center of the city. (18) The largest structure in Amarna was the royal residence, of course. Built half on one side of the road, and half on the other, the east and west wings of the palace were connected by an overpass. The overpass was called the "Window of Appearances." From there Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their children would greet the crowds gathered on the road below. (19) The new temple at Amarna was nothing like the old gloomy houses for the gods. The open courtyard allowed the Aten's rays to shine in. The rambling open-air place of worship stretched the length of two football fields, empty except for small stands to place food offerings, one for each day of the year.


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(17) 何千もの労働者が、都を建設するためにアマルナに大挙して押し寄せました。 レンガ作りの職人たちは、木の型に川岸から運んだ泥を注ぎこみ、そして砂漠の熱の中で乾かすために、それらのレンガをひっくり返して並べました。 石工は、青銅ののみと木槌で採石場からブロックを切り出しました。 ちょうど4年で、その都は、完全に機能するようになり、仕事に通う人々は、南北の郊外から都市の中心まで彼らのロバに乗って来ました。 (18) もちろん、アマルナ最大の構造物は、国王の住居でした。 道の一方の側に半分、もう一方の側に半分が建設され、宮殿の東西のウィングは、陸橋によってつながれました。 陸橋は、「お目見えの窓」と呼ばれていました。 そこから、アクエンアテン、ネフェルティティ、彼らの子供たちが、下の道路に集まった群衆に挨拶したものでした。 (19) アマルナの新しい神殿は、神々のための古くて暗い家の様なものではありませんでした。 広々とした中庭はアテン神の光線が中に照らされるようになっていました。むやみに広い屋外の礼拝所は、2面のフットボール競技場ほどの広さがあり、1年の1日ごとに1つずつ設けられた、食物のお供えを置く小さな台以外何もありませんでした。





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    Despite these losses the majority of the Ottoman armies had managed to withdraw relativity in one piece, but they had been split with no way for one to support the other if or when they were attacked. Further the Ottoman Seventh Army on the British right was cut off from the Palestinian rail network and all their supplies would have to be brought in by road. In preparation for the attack, against Jerusalem, the ANZAC Mounted Division and the 54th (East Anglian) Division, would form a defensive line on the coastal plain, while the XXI Corps moved into the Judaean Mountains. Instead of a direct assault on Jerusalem, Allenby planned to first cut off the city from their supply routes in the north. The plan was for two infantry division, the 75th Division on the left, the 52nd (Lowland) Division in the centre, with the horsemen from the Yeomanry Mounted Division on the right, to move on Jerusalem with the 75th using the main Jaffa–Jerusalem road. The two outer division's would circle around Jerusalem meeting at Bireh 10 miles (16 km) to the north of the city. In the way of the 75th Division was the village of Nebi Samwil also known as the "Tomb of Samuel", the traditional burial site for the biblical prophet Samuel. Nebi Samwil rests at the top of a hill 2,979 feet (908 m) above sea level, 3.1 miles (5.0 km) to the north of Jerusalem. From the village observers can see into Jerusalem and it controls the road from the coast to the west and the road from Samaria to the north into the city. The village was part of the Ottoman defences in front of Jerusalem and its capture was considered vital, to the eventual capture of the city. The attack began on 18 November, with the Australian Mounted Division clearing Latron, which was in the way of the 75th Division. The next day the Yeomanry Mounted Division with the furthest to go moved off first. Followed by the 52nd (Lowland) Division which departed from Ludd and the 75th Division from Latron. The two other divisions travelling astride nothing more than tracks, found it more difficult and their vehicles and heavy weapons had to turn back. The advance also coincided with the start of the winter rains, which not only affected the terrain, but also caused problems for the troops, who were only equipped for a desert war and lacked any winter clothing.

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    お願いします (22) In his fervor for the Aten, Akhenaten forgot Egypt. The city of Amarna was like the royal firstborn son who took all the attention. The rest of Egypt became the second son, ignored and neglected. Egyptians outside Amarna were paying taxes to build a city they would never see, dedicated to a god they did not want. (23) Egypt's foreign subjects fell one by one to outside conquerors. The Amarna letters flooded in with pleas for help. They fell on deaf ears. One poor prince wrote at least 64 times, "Why will you neglect our land?" (24) Akhenaten had inherited an empire but left a country in decline. After his death the new capital was abandoned. The kings who followed Akhenaten demolished his temples and erased his name. Once Amarna had been stripped of stone it was forgotten and left to crumble. The sun had set on he Amarna Period.

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    お願いします (13) While waiting to come of age and take his rightful place as the king of Egyp, Thutmose III trained with the army. When Hatshepsut's 22-year reign ended in 1483 BCE he came to the throne a skilled and daring general. His military abilities were put to the test immediately. Expecting Egypt to be weak with a new and unproven king in charge, rebels took control of the city of Megiddo. Whoever controlled Megiddo controlled one of the most important trade routes in the world. Megiddo is located in what is today called the Jezreel Vally in modern Israel. The city, towering nearly a hundred feet above the valley, controlled the "Via Maris" (the Way of the Sea), which was the most important road running beteen Egypt in the south, and all of the countries to the north. Thutmose III's first military mission was to capture Megiddo. (14) Thutmose III joined his army at a fortress on Egypt's border and marched at a frantic pace toward Megiddo. On their way to the city they came to a place where the road divided in three. Here a decision had to be made. One road snaked north and east, ending miles away from Megiddo. One road meandered north and west, curving miles off course and also ending miles away from Megiddo. The third route was a direct route. It headed straight north, ending near the gates of the city. But there was a problem. The third route pinched a narrow pass that would force the army to march single file. This left them vulnerable. What if they were ambushed while they were strung out in a long line that couldn't be defended? The rebels would pick them off one by one. From inscriptions at Karnak we know Thutmose III's war council begged him, "do not make us go on the difficult road!" But of course the bold Thutmose III did.

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    The U-boat Campaign from 1914 to 1918 was the World War I naval campaign fought by German U-boats against the trade routes of the Allies. It took place largely in the seas around the British Isles and in the Mediterranean. The German Empire relied on imports for food and domestic food production (especially fertilizer) and the United Kingdom relied heavily on imports to feed its population, and both required raw materials to supply their war industry; the powers aimed, therefore, to blockade one another. The British had the Royal Navy which was superior in numbers and could operate on most of the world's oceans because of the British Empire, whereas the Imperial German Navy surface fleet was mainly restricted to the German Bight, and used commerce raiders and unrestricted submarine warfare to operate elsewhere.

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    The Austro-Hungarian forces retreated and Gorizia fell to the Italians. They, however, didn't succeed in forcing their way to Trieste, and were stopped northwest of Duino.Fighting culminated on 6 August, when Italian forces under general Luigi Capello launched an attack on Austro-Hungarian positions guarding the main transport road leading from the coast town of Duino to Gorizia. The main objective of the attack was to secure the transport road, thus securing their advance to Gorizia from the south. A plan was drafted by Italian general Luigi Capello, to split the army in half, with one side attacking straight at Austrian positions and the other to attack from the rear.

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    The number of Zurückgestellte increased from 1.2 million men, of whom 740,000 were deemed kriegsverwendungsfähig (kv, fit for front line service), at the end of 1916 to 1.64 million men in October 1917 and more than two million by November, 1.16 million being kv. The demands of the Hindenburg Programme exacerbated the manpower crisis and constraints on the availability of raw materials meant that targets were not met. The German army returned 125,000 skilled workers to the war economy and exempted 800,000 workers from conscription, from September 1916 – July 1917. Steel production in February 1917 was 252,000 long tons (256,000 t) short of expectations and explosives production was 1,100 long tons (1,100 t) below the target, which added to the pressure on Ludendorff to retreat to the Hindenburg Line.

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    お願いします!!続き If they arrived in the evening or early morning,they could have seen the fires of the coppersmiths and potters along the southern edge of the city.The wind blows from the north in Harappa.Limiting furnaces to the southern side of the city meant that their sparks would be blown away from the crowded city streets.As Sarang got closer to the city,he would have realized that the wind carried more than sparks.The leather dressers also worked on the ddge of the city,and the stink of dead animals,which in some poor neighborhoods were left to rot on the street,must have bden awful. Once inside the city gates,the sights and sounds of the crowded market would most likely have overwhelmed a farm boy like Sarang.One part of the city specialized in wood carving and carpentry.Here his mother could have bought cedar chests to keep the family's clothing safe from moths and insects.Stonecutters,who made everything from drills to grinding stones to sharp stone blades,lived in another quarter.Sarang would have seen booths selling carved ivory ornaments,polished until they were smooth as butter,and inlay for wooden furniture. Jewelers clustered at the center of the market,their workbenches glittering with gold and silver pendants inlaid with precious stones.Strings of beads carved from hard stones of every color hung in the stalls of bead makers.Sarang's family may have bought beads here,but they probably could not have afforded a belt of carnelian beads.Archaeologists estimate that,given the hardness of the drill bits available to the people of Harappa,bead makers would need more than three days to drill a hole in bead three and one-half inches long.Some of the carnelian beads found on belts are almost twice as long.From start to finish,including all the stages of making a belt,it would have taken one worker more than 480 working days to complete a belt of 36 beads.No wonder archaelogists have found only three carnelian belts.

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    The German Admiralty also decided that the Type UB II submarine would be ideal for Mediterranean service. Since these were too large to be shipped in sections by rail to Pola like the Type UB I, the materials for their construction and German workers to assemble them were sent instead. This meant a shortage of workers to complete U-boats for service in home waters, but it seemed justified by the successes in the Mediterranean in November, when 44 ships were sunk, for a total of 155,882 tons. The total in December fell to 17 ships (73,741 tons) which was still over half the total tonnage sunk in all theaters of operation at the time.

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    During the Battle of Arras the British Fifth Army was intended to help the operations of the Third Army, by pushing back German rear guards to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) and then attacking the position from Bullecourt to Quéant, which was 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from the main Arras–Cambrai road. The German outpost villages from Doignies to Croisilles were captured on 2 April and an attack on a 3,500-yard (3,200 m) front, with Bullecourt in the centre was planned. The wire-cutting bombardment was delayed by transport difficulties behind the new British front line and the attack of the Third Army, which was originally intended to be simultaneous, took place on 9 April. A tank attack by the Fifth Army was improvised for 10 April on a front of 1,500 yards (1,400 m) to capture Riencourt and Hendecourt. The attack was intended to begin 48 minutes before sunrise but the tanks were delayed by a blizzard and the attack was cancelled at the last minute; the 4th Australian Division withdrawal from its assembly positions was luckily obscured by a snowstorm.

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    British attacks in January 1917, had taken place against exhausted German troops holding poor defensive positions left over from the fighting in 1916; some troops had low morale and showed an unusual willingness to surrender. The army group commander Generalfeldmarschall Crown Prince Rupprecht, advocated a withdrawal to the Siegfriedstellung on 28 January, which was initially refused but then authorised on 4 February and the first "Alberich day" was set for 9 February. The British attacks in the Actions of Miraumont from 17–18 February and anticipation of further attacks, led Rupprecht on 18 March to order a withdrawal of about 3 miles (4.8 km) on a 15-mile (24 km) front of the 1st Army to the R. I Stellung, from Essarts to Le Transloy on 22 February. The withdrawal caused some surprise to the British, despite the interception of wireless messages from 20–21 February.