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The Togoland Campaign (9–26 August 1914) was a French and British invasion of the German colony of Togoland in west Africa, which began the West African Campaign of the First World War. German colonial forces withdrew from the capital Lomé and the coastal province, to fight delaying actions on the route north to Kamina, where the Kamina Funkstation (wireless transmitter) linked the government in Berlin to Togoland, the Atlantic and South America. The main British and French force from the neighbouring colonies of Gold Coast and Dahomey, advanced from the coast up the road and railway, as smaller forces converged on Kamina from the north. The German defenders were able to delay the invaders for several days at the battles of Agbeluvhoe and Chra but surrendered the colony on 26 August 1914. In 1916, Togoland was partitioned by the victors and in July 1922, British Togoland and French Togoland were established as League of Nations mandates. The German Empire had established a protectorate over Togoland in 1884, which was slightly larger than Ireland and had a population of about one million people in 1914. A mountain range with heights of over 3,000 ft (910 m) ran south-east to north-west and restricted traffic between the coast and hinterland. South of the high ground the ground rises from coastal marshes and lagoons to a plateau about 200–300 ft (61–91 m) high, covered in forest, high grass and scrub, where farmers had cleared the forest for palm oil cultivation. The climate was tropical, with more rainfall in the interior and a dry season in August. Half of the border with Gold Coast ran along the Volta river and a tributary but in the south, the border for 80 mi (130 km) was beyond the east bank. The Germans had made the southern region one of the most developed colonies in Africa, having built three metre-gauge railway lines and several roads from Lomé the capital and main city. There was no port and ships had to lie off Lomé and transfer freight via surfboat. One line ran along the coast from Anekho to Lomé, one ran from Lomé to Atakpame and one from Lomé to Palime. Roads had been built from Lomé to Atakpame and Sokode, Palime to Kete Krachi and from Kete Krachi to Sansame Mangu; in 1914 the roads were reported to be fit for motor vehicles. German military forces in Togoland were exiguous, there were no German army units in Togoland, only 693 Polizeitruppen (paramilitary police) under the command of Captain Georg Pfähler and about 300 colonists with military training. The colony was adjacent to Allied territory, with French Dahomey on its northern and eastern borders and the British Gold Coast to the west. Lomé and the wireless station at Kamina about 62 mi (100 km) inland, which was connected to the coast by road and rail, were the only places of military significance. Kamina was near the town of Atakpame and had been completed in June 1914. The transmitter was a relay station for communication between Germany, the overseas colonies, the Imperial German Navy and South America.


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>The Togoland Campaign ~ on Kamina from the north. ⇒「トーゴランド野戦」(1914年8月9日‐26日)は、西アフリカのドイツの植民地トーゴランドに対するフランスと英国の侵攻であり、これによって第一次世界大戦の「西アフリカ野戦」が始まった。ドイツの植民地軍は首都ロメと沿岸地域から撤退したが、それは北のカミナまでのルート上で戦闘を長引かせながら戦うためであった。そこにあるカミナ無線送信所が、ベルリンの政府とトーゴランド、大西洋、南アメリカを繋いでいた。ゴールド・コーストおよびダホミー近隣の植民地から来た英仏軍の主要部隊が、道路と鉄道で海岸から内地へ進むと同時に、北部からはより小さな部隊がカミナに集まった。 >The German defenders were able ~ for palm oil cultivation. ⇒ドイツ軍守備隊は、アグベルフォーとクラーの戦いで数日間侵略者を遅らせることができたが、1914年8月26日、植民地を明け渡した。1916年、トーゴランドは勝者によって分割され、1922年7月、国際連盟の委任統治領として英領トーゴランドと仏領トーゴランドが設立された。ドイツ帝国は1884年にトーゴランドに保護領を設立していた。それはアイルランドよりわずかに大きく、1914年には約100万人の人口を持っていた。3,000フィート(910 m)以上の高地のある山並が南東から北西に走り、海岸と後背地の間の交通が制約されていた。高地の南側では、地面は沿岸の湿地や沼沢地から高さ約200-300フィート(61-91 m)の高原まで、森林や高牧草や雑木で覆われた登り斜面になっているが、ヤシ油栽培のため農夫によって森が一掃されていた。 >The climate was tropical, ~ fit for motor vehicles. ⇒気候は熱帯性で、内地ほど雨が多く、8月は乾季であった。ゴールド・コーストとの国境の半分はヴォルタ川と支流に沿って走っていたが、南では、80マイル(130キロ)の国境が東岸を越えて通っていた。ドイツ軍は、ロメから出る3メートル軌条幅の鉄道線と数本の道路を建設して、南部地域をアフリカで最も発展した植民地の1つにした。港がなかったので、船舶はロメ沖に停留したままサーフボートを通じて貨物を積み下ろししなければならなかった。1本の戦線がアネコーからロメへの海岸沿いを走り、1本はロメからアタクパメへ、そして1本はロメからパリメへと走っていた。ロメからアタクパメおよびソコデへ、パリメからケテ・クラチへ、そしてケテ・クラチからサンサメ・マングまでの道路が建設された。それで1914年には、道路は自動車に適応していると報告された。 >German military forces ~ Navy and South America. ⇒トーゴランドではドイツ軍団の軍勢は乏しく、そこにはドイツ軍の方面軍部隊は存在せず、ゲオルク・プフェーラー大尉の指揮下に693人の警察保安隊(準軍事警察)と軍事教練を受けた約300人の入植者がいるだけであった。植民地は連合国の領土に隣接していて、仏領ダホメィが北と東の国境にあり、英領ゴールド・コーストが西にあった。ロメと内陸約62マイル(100キロ)のカミナにある無線局が道路や鉄道で海岸につながっていたので、唯一の軍事的に重要な場所であった。アタクパメ町の近くにあるカミナ(無線局)は1914年6月に完成した。その送信施設は、ドイツ、海外植民地、帝国ドイツ海軍、南アメリカの間(を結ぶ)通信のための中継局であった。 ※質問No.9639818は既決ですが、その前のNo.9639817は未決ですね。疑問等ありましたらどうぞコメントなさってください。





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    The Togoland Campaign (9–26 August 1914) was a French and British invasion of the German colony of Togoland in west Africa (which became Togo and the Volta Region of Ghana after independence), during the First World War. The colony was invaded on 6 August, by French forces from Dahomey to the east and on 9 August by British forces from Gold Coast to the west. German colonial forces withdrew from the capital Lomé and the coastal province and then fought delaying actions on the route north to Kamina, where a new wireless station linked Berlin to Togoland, the Atlantic and south America. The main British and French force from the neighbouring colonies of Gold Coast and Dahomey, advanced from the coast up the road and railway, as smaller forces converged on Kamina from the north. The German defenders were able to delay the invaders for several days at the battles of Bafilo, Agbeluvhoe and Chra but surrendered the colony on 26 August 1914. In 1916, Togoland was partitioned by the victors and in July 1922, British Togoland and French Togoland were created, as League of Nations mandates. The French acquisition consisted of c. 60 percent of the colony, including the coast. The British received the smaller, less populated and less developed portion of Togoland to the west. The surrender of Togoland marked the beginning of the end for the German colonial empire in Africa.

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    In 1916 the territory was divided into separate British and French administrative zones, and this was formalized in 1922 with the creation of British Togoland and French Togoland.The colony was established towards the end of the period of European colonization in Africa generally known as the "Scramble for Africa". Two separate protectorates were established in 1884. In February 1884, the chiefs of the town of Aného were kidnapped by German soldiers and forced to sign a treaty of protection.

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    Expanded to 144 members in 1894, operations against Kpandu and "a number of towns in central Togo which had resisted the government were attacked and razed to the ground, the property of the inhabitants confiscated and the people fined sums ranging from 200 marks to 1,110 marks." For the remainder of the decade, an additional 35 expeditions were authorised by the colonial government. In 1895 the capital Lomé had a population of 31 Germans and 2,084 natives. By 1913 the native population had swelled to 7,042 persons and 194 Germans, including 33 women, while the entire colony had a German population of 316, including 61 women and 14 children.

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    Joffre set 14 August as the date when the First and Second armies were to invade Lorraine between Toul and Épinal, south of the German fortified area of Metz-Thionville. The First Army was to attack in the south with four corps, towards Sarrebourg 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Nancy and Donon 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Sarrebourg. Passes in the Vosges to the south of Donon were to be captured before the main advance began. The Second Army was to attack towards Morhange 45 kilometres (28 mi) north-east of Nancy, with two corps north of the First Army and three advancing successively behind the left flank of the corps to the south, to counter a German attack from Metz. The French offensive was complicated by the two armies diverging as they advanced, on difficult terrain particularly in the south, the combined fronts eventually being 150 kilometres (93 mi) wide. The advances of the First and Second armies were to attract German forces towards the south, while a French manoeuvre took place in Belgium and Luxembourg, to pierce a weak point in the German deployment and then destroy the main German armies.

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    Colonies and dependencies Main article: German colonial empire Europe Upon its founding in 1871, the German Empire controlled Alsace-Lorraine as an "imperial territory" incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germany's sovereign territory. Africa Germany held multiple African colonies at the time of World War I. All of Germany's African colonies were invaded and occupied by Allied forces during the war. Cameroon, German East Africa, and German Southwest Africa were German colonies in Africa. Togoland was a German protectorate in Africa.

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    In Central Europe Germany was to recognize the independence of Czechoslovakia and cede parts of the province of Upper Silesia. Germany had to recognize the independence of Poland and renounce "all rights and title over the territory". Portions of Upper Silesia were to be ceded to Poland, with the future of the rest of the province to be decided by plebiscite. The border would be fixed with regard to the vote and to the geographical and economic conditions of each locality. The province of Posen (now Poznań), which had come under Polish control during the Greater Poland Uprising, was also to be ceded to Poland. Pomerelia (Eastern Pomerania), on historical and ethnic grounds, was transferred to Poland so that the new state could have access to the sea and became known as the Polish Corridor. The sovereignty of part of southern East Prussia was to be decided via plebiscite while the East Prussian Soldau area, which was astride the rail line between Warsaw and Danzig, was transferred to Poland outright without plebiscite. An area of 51,800 square kilometres (20,000 square miles) was granted to Poland at the expense of Germany. Memel was to be ceded to the Allied and Associated powers, for disposal according to their wishes. Germany was to cede the city of Danzig and its hinterland, including the delta of the Vistula River on the Baltic Sea, for the League of Nations to establish the Free City of Danzig.Article 119 of the treaty required Germany to renounce sovereignty over former colonies and Article 22 converted the territories into League of Nations mandates under the control of Allied states. Togoland and German Kamerun (Cameroon) were transferred to France. Ruanda and Urundi were allocated to Belgium, whereas German South-West Africa went to South Africa and the United Kingdom obtained German East Africa. As compensation for the German invasion of Portuguese Africa, Portugal was granted the Kionga Triangle, a sliver of German East Africa in northern Mozambique. Article 156 of the treaty transferred German concessions in Shandong, China, to Japan, not to China. Japan was granted all German possessions in the Pacific north of the equator and those south of the equator went to Australia, except for German Samoa, which was taken by New Zealand.

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    The cost of the Nivelle Offensive in casualties and loss of morale were great but German losses were also high and the tactical success of the offensive in capturing elaborately fortified positions and defeating counter-attacks, reduced German morale. The German had been forced from three of the strongest positions on the Western Front and had failed to recapture them. Vimy Ridge, the Scarpe Heights, the caverns, spurs and plateau of the Chemin des Dames and the Moronvilliers massif had been occupied for more than two years, carefully surveyed by German engineers and fortified to make them impregnable. In six weeks all were lost and the Germans were left clinging to the eastern or northern edges of the ridges of the summits, having lost the western or southern sides. The French tactic of assault brutal et continu suited the German defensive dispositions, since much of the new construction had taken place on reverse slopes. The speed of attack and the depth of the French objectives meant that there was no time to establish artillery observation posts overlooking the Ailette valley, in the areas where French infantry had reached the ridge. The tunnels and caves under the ridge nullified the destructive effect of the French artillery, which was also inhibited by poor weather, which reduced observation and by German air superiority, which made French artillery-observation aircraft even less effective.

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    (On 20 April, the 11th Regiment was relieved but the rest of the 33rd Division remained until 1 May.) The 16th Division on the left of VIII Corps, consolidated during 18 April. At 1:00 a.m. on 18/19 April, another counter-attack was repulsed on the right of the VIII Corps area by the 34th Division. Later in the morning, the reserve battalions of the 34th Division captured part of the south end of the Düsseldorf communication trench and all of Offenburg Trench but were repulsed from Hönig Trench. Further up the hill, the French held a trench descending from the summit and the southern crest of Mont Cornillet, the east end of Flensburg Trench and the summit of Mont Blond. The French took 491 prisoners two field guns, eight mortars and eighteen machine-guns. Aubérive redoubt fell at dawn, to attacks by the XII Corps divisions and at 3:30 p.m., Aubérive was found abandoned and swiftly occupied by detachments of the 24th Division, which had crossed from the right bank of the Suippes and by Territorials of the 75th Regiment; the Germans had withdrawn to a redoubt south of Vaudesincourt. In the centre, Posnanie and Beyrouth trenches and the Labyrinth redoubt were still occupied by German troops, in front of the Main Boyau trench, the last defensive position running down from the Moronvilliers Hills to the Suippes south of Vaudesincourt.[19] In the XVII Corps area, part of Fosse Froide Trench was captured by the 45th Division, which endangered the communications of the German garrison on Mont Perthois.

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    The German forces in Flanders were homogeneous and had unity of command, against a composite force of British, Indian, French and Belgian troops, with different languages, training, tactics, equipment and weapons. German discipline and bravery was eventually defeated by the dogged resistance of the Allied soldiers, the effectiveness of French 75 mm field guns, British skill at arms, skilful use of ground and the use of cavalry as a mobile reserve. Bold counter-attacks by small numbers of troops in reserve, drawn from areas less threatened, often had an effect disproportionate to their numbers. German commentators after the war like Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant-Colonel) Konstantin Hierl criticised the slowness of the 6th Army in forming a strategic reserve which could have been achieved by 22 October rather than 29 October; generals had "attack-mania", in which offensive spirit and offensive tactics were often confused. Casualties From 15–31 October the III Corps lost 5,779 casualties, 2,069 men from the 4th Division and the remainder from the 6th Division. German casualties in the Battle of Lille from 15–28 October, which included the ground defended by III Corps, were 11,300 men. Total German losses from La Bassée to the sea from 13 October – 24 November were 123,910. The Battle of Messines was fought in October 1914 between the armies of the German and British empires, as part of the Race to the Sea, between the river Douve and the Comines–Ypres canal. From 17 September – 17 October the belligerents had made reciprocal attempts to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joseph Joffre, the head of Grand Quartier Général (Chief of the General Staff) ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the 6th Army, by transferring by rail from eastern France from 2–9 September. Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Oberste Heeresleitung (German General Staff) ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. By the next day French attacks north of the Aisne, led to Falkenhayn ordering the 6th Army to repulse French forces to secure the flank. The Battle of Messines メセンの戦い

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    The 20th Regiment captured redoubts around Bois du Chien, after fighting all day and then began preparing a dawn attack Le Casque. The 45th Division attacked Mont Blond, by advancing between the Prosnes–Nauroy track, Bois de la Mitrailleuse and Bois Marteau, to the south-east of Mont Perthois but was held up in the evening of 17 April, at the Konstanzlager, which lay on the road from Prosnes, at the junction with the Nauroy–Moronvilliers road, midway between Mont Blond and Mont Haut. The capture of the Konstanzlager was vital to the possession of Mont Blond and the final objectives along the twin summits of Mont Haut, the north-west trench of Le Casque and Mont Perthois to the south, between Mont Haut and Le Casque. The advance had begun while the German front-line infantry was still sheltering underground and the German artillery did not begin barrage-fire until 5:05 a.m. The advance towards Bois-en-Escalier in the centre began well and several field-gun batteries stood by to follow the advance, after a short delay at the German first line in Bois-en-Escalier, where the Germans were outflanked from the north and killed or captured. Erfurt Trench was overrun and then the Konstanzlager was attacked from the west. Later in the day, reserves from the 34th Division were sent forward and when part of Erfurt Trench fell, the Konstanzlager was attacked from the east.