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Allied countermeasures during this period had mixed success. Defensive measures, such as arming merchant ships, and advising them to either run, or turn towards the U-boat in order to ram, or force it to submerge, were the most effective. From arming ships for self-defence, the next step was arming ships for the purpose of engaging the U-boats in gun battles; 2 U-boats were sunk in 1915 whilst attacking trawlers so fitted. The following step was to arm and man ships with hidden guns to do so, the so-called Q ship. A variant on the idea was to equip small vessels with a submarine escort. In 1915 2 U-boats were sunk by Q-ships, and 2 more by submarines accompanying trawlers.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 Uボートに対抗するための手立てについて述べています。 >Allied countermeasures during this period had mixed success. ⇒この期間にとった連合国軍の対策は、さまざまな成功が混じっていた。 >Defensive measures, such as arming merchant ships, and advising them to either run, or turn towards the U-boat in order to ram, or force it to submerge, were the most effective. From arming ships for self-defence, the next step was arming ships for the purpose of engaging the U-boats in gun battles; 2 U-boats were sunk in 1915 whilst attacking trawlers so fitted. ⇒「商船を武装する」、「Uボートから逃げるか、突進して沈めるまで闘うと警告する」、といった防御用の手段は極めて効果的であった。自衛のために船舶を武装することから、次のステップは、銃撃戦においてUボートと対戦する目的で一般船舶を武装することであった。1915年に、2隻のUボートが、装備万端のトロール船を攻撃する間に沈められた。 >The following step was to arm and man ships with hidden guns to do so, the so-called Q ship*. A variant on the idea was to equip small vessels with a submarine escort. In 1915 2 U-boats were sunk by Q-ships, and 2 more by submarines accompanying trawlers. ⇒それに続く段階は、客船を隠された銃で武装する、いわゆるQシップ(Qボート)*にすることであった。そのアイデアのバリエーションとしては、護衛艦として潜水艦を装備することであった。1915年、2隻のUボートがQシップによって沈められ、トロール船に伴っていた潜水艦によってさらに別の2隻が沈められた。 *Q ship:第一次世界大戦で、英国が潜水艦撃沈のため商船に見せかけた武装船(偽装軍艦)。Q boatともいう。

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  • 以下の英文を訳して下さい。

    Another option was arming ships for self-defence, which, according to the Germans, put them outside the protection of the cruiser rules. Another option was to arm and man decoy ships with hidden guns, the so-called Q-ship. A variant on the idea was to equip small vessels with a submarine escort. In 1915, three U-boats were sunk by Q-ships, and two more by submarines accompanying trawlers. In June also U-40 was sunk by HMS C24 while attacking Taranaki, and in July U-23 was sunk by C-27 attacking Princess Louise. Also in July U-36 was sunk by the Q-ship Prince Charles, and in August and September U-27 and U-41 were sunk by Baralong, the former in the notorious Baralong Incident. There were, however, no means to detect submerged U-boats, and attacks on them were limited to efforts to damage their periscopes with hammers and dropping guncotton bombs. Use of nets to ensnare U-boats was also examined, as was a destroyer, Starfish, fitted with a spar torpedo. In all, 16 U-boats were destroyed during this phase of the campaign, while they themselves sank 370 ships totalling 750,000 GRT.

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    In 1916 the German Navy returned to a strategy of using the U-boats to erode the Grand Fleet's numerical superiority by staging a series of operations designed to lure the Grand Fleet into a U-boat trap. Due to the U-boats' poor speed compared to the main battle fleet these operations required U-boat patrol lines to be set up, while the High Seas fleet manoeuvred to draw the Grand Fleet to them. Several of these operations were staged, in March and April 1916, but with no success. Ironically, the major fleet action which did take place, the Battle of Jutland, in May 1916, saw no U-boat involvement at all; the fleets met and engaged largely by chance, and there were no U-boat patrols anywhere near the battle area. A further series of operations, in August and October 1916, were similarly unfruitful, and the strategy was abandoned in favour of resuming commerce warfare.

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