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至急こちらをお願いします。続き At first,potters stacked coil of clay on top of each other and pinched and squashed the coils together to make smooth-walled pots.At some point people realized that it would be easier to work on all the sides of a pot if it were on a dish or platter that could be spun around.They also found that adding sand and fine gravel to the clay made pots strong enough to survive cooking fires-no more putting your hand in the flames to retrieve a fallen piece of meat.By abnut 3500-3300 BCE,potters had discovered that “throwing”-shaping their pots on the fast-turning disks-was faster than the coil method. The potter's wheel is a large,flat disk with a socket on the bottom that fits over a round spike set in the ground,like a cupped hand over a fist.The first wheels required a lot of strength and skill to spin,but potters had more control with a spinning wheel.They could make pots that were more even and had thinner walls than coil pots.After the potters shaped the pots,they sliced them ofe the wheels with pieces of thread that they held tightly between their hands.When the pots had dried,artisans coated the inside or outsidd with slip,finely ground colored clay mixed with water until it was about the thickness of cream.The coating of slip helped to seal all the tiny holes in the cilay and make the surface more waterproof.Sometimes artisans would decorate their pots and figures with brushes made from the tail hair of a goat and dipped into red,brown,black,or white slip.


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  • sayshe
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最初は、陶工は、互いの上に粘土の輪を積み重ねて、滑らかな側面の深鍋を作るために輪をつまみ合わせたり、押しつぶしたりしました。ある時点で、回転させることのできる皿や大皿の上に置けば、深鍋のすべての側面の作業がより簡単になるだろうと、人々は気付きました。彼らは、また、砂や細かい砂粒を粘土に加えることで、料理の火に耐えるのに十分強い深鍋になることもわかりました ― もはや、落ちた肉を取り戻すために手を炎に突っ込む必要がなくなるのです。紀元前約3500年~3300年頃までには、「ろくろを使う」  ― 速く回転する円盤の上で彼らの深鍋を形づくる ― 方が、粘土の環を積み重ねる方法より速いということを、陶工は発見していました。 陶工のろくろは、地面に設置したまるい太釘の上に覆いかぶさる底部に凹みのある平らな円盤で、拳の上の丸められた手のような形をしています。最初のろくろは、回すのに多くの力と技術が必要でしたが、陶工は、ろくろをもっとうまく使うようになりました。彼らは、粘土の輪を重ねた深鍋より均一で、より薄い側面の深鍋を作ることができました。陶工が深鍋の形を整えたあと、彼らは両手の間にきつく持った糸でろくろから深鍋を切り取りました。深鍋が乾くと、職人はその内部や外部を、それがクリーム程の粘り気になるまで、細かくすりつぶした色のついた粘土を水と混ざ合わせたものである、泥漿(でいしよう) 《陶土にうわぐすりを混ぜ,水で溶いたもの》で被膜を付けました。泥漿(うわぐすり)の被膜は、粘土の中のすべての小さい穴を塞いで、表面の水漏れを防ぐのに役立ちました。時々、職人は、彼らの深鍋や像をヤギの尻尾の毛から作られた羽毛で装飾を付けてから、赤、茶、黒、白の泥漿(うわぐすり)に浸しました。




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  • 日本語訳をお願いします 5

    お願いします!!続き When the marchants entered the city,inspectors stationed at the gates broke open the sealed bundles of trade goods to examine what the merchants had brought to sell.The merchants probably had to pay a tax for the right to sell their goods in the city.After the inspectors had decided how much tax to charge and the merchants had paid,they were free to take their goods to the market.When inspectors broke the clay sealing on a bundle of goods,they would throw it into the street,where it would dissolve with the rains.But sometimes the clay sealing was swept into the trash and burned.Archaeologists later found these hardened sealings. Customers bought things with grain and finished goods such as stone beads or textiles(cloth),which the merchant could trade somewhere else.When the day's trading was done,the merchant took his pay to the gateway.After the inspectors had examined and weighed the grain and finished goods,they may have sealed each bundle with a small lump of clay stamped with the city official's mark to show that the merchant had paid his exit taxes.Then the merchant could leave. By 2600 BCE,baked-brick houses filled Harappa and drains removed dirty water from the city.Each walled neighborhood had its own market and craft workshops.Potters and metalsmiths built their workshops at the ddges of the settlement,so that the cinders from their furnaces and kilns would not land on nearby houses.Copper craftsmen worked along the southern edge of the city.The winds usually came from the north and would blow the smoke and cinders away from the city. People built houses with small rooms,some of which were used for storing food.Households opened onto courtyards that served as kitchens and workshops.Some houses had two stories with stairs along one wall.Almost every house had a flat roof that people used for sleeping in the summer and as extra work space.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。3

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き Potters made more than pots.They also made small figures that were probably used for praying to the deities,as well as toys for their children.Archaeologists can't always tell the difference between objects meant for sacred rituals and those made tn be toys.Today in India,after a mother is finished praying with a clay figurine,she often gives it to her children to play with.Archaeologists have found many broken and thrown-away figurines that may have bedn used first for rituals and later as toys.Some animal figurines had holes at the bottom to attach wheels and a hole at the top for a pull string,just like the plastic and wooden toys that little kids like to pull around today. Archaeologists don't know who did what job.Most believe that women made the first coil pots,as they still do in some remote Indian villages.For one thing,women were in charge of cooking,so they were the ones who cared most about making it easier.For another,women probably made the baskets that came before the coiled pots,and their shapes are similar. But the potter's wheel changed things.It takes a lot of strength and regular practice to work the wheel.It's not the kind of job you can do it between chasing your children around,and most women of the ancient world spent much of their time and energy on the important work of raising,feeding,and clothing their families.In many parts of the world,men began to work as full-time potters after the invention of the potter's wheel.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-2

    お願いします!続き Jewelers weren't the only Late Harappan craftsmen who changed their ways.Potters developed a new kind of kiln that could get hotter faster.This kiln had a hollow center.Holes around the edge of the kiln floor let the fire into the chamber with the pottery.The higher temperatures made pots stronger.So did a new way of working the clay-craftsmen used a wooden paddle and a smalk lump of clay like an anvil to beat the clay walls of a pot and make the walls thinner and stronger.Working this way,potters could make pots with a rounded base instead of a flat base,which made them easier to balance on the hip or head and easier to pour from.The hot temperatures of the new kilns also let potters try out new kinds of black and red glazes and,in time,different designs.Did a clever,inventive potter bring about these changes? Or did new people moving to the city introduce them? Potters also began to make small figures of horses,donkeys,and two-humped camels-animals that until this period been used only high in the mountains of Central Asia.What's more,the people using these animals did not write Indus script,although they did use circular seals with geometric designs similar to those found on seals during the Harappan period. Over time,the new leaders who came to power kept neither written records nor made Harappan-style seals to stamp clay and seal trade goods.This may have been because the trade networks had collapsed,so there was no need for the records.Or it's possible that the new leaders decided not to write down their records.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    It ended with a Montenegrin victory.In the winter of 1915, the Army of Montenegro had been fighting Austro-Hungary for three months in Serbia. In January 1916 they had to resist the invasion of their own territory. The Montenegrin Army was weakened by the harsh weather and lack of supplies. On 5 January 1916, they received a command to protect the retreat of the Serbian army to Corfu via Albania.The fighting culminated on 6 and 7 January 1916 (on Orthodox Christmas; also known as 'Bloody Christmas').

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-3

    お願いします!!続き Other shops specialized in the ceramic art of faience,their shelves stocked with beads and bangles as welk as small bottles for perfume and medicines.Still others offered white soapstone beads and pendants,delicately fashioned inlay,and intricately carved and inscribed seals with geometric designs.At this same shop,merchants could have ordered inscribed reals with special animal designs that stood for their clan or religious beliefs. Seals show a person who talks to tigers from a thorny tree.Other seals and figurines show mother deities;a bearded,horned deity;or the ritual killing of a water buffalo.Many of these scenes include a holy man sitting on his heels and meditating in the shade of the pipal,or sacred fig,tree.Archaeologists believe that communities of holy men practiced the discipline of yoga in sacred groves outside the city walls.Sarang's family may well have gone to visit these holy men to bring them offerings as part of the harvest festival. Sarang's family certainly would have stopped in the potter's quarter to buy pots and small clay figurines for worship at the harvest festival.If Sarang had glanced into the courtyard behind any potter's shop,he might well have seen children at work.Artisans' shops were attached to their children would have helped with simple tasks,such as sweeping or fetching materials.Archaeologists have found that some of the flat clay disks that were used to cover pots have child-sized hand-and footprints pressed into them.Bead maker's children,with their small hands and good eyesight,probably also helped string tiny beads. Besides pots,potters made small figurines that were used as offerings to the deities.Even today,many Hindus use small clay or paper figures as part of their prayers and offerings to the deities.Could some of the deities they worship have come from Harappan times?No one knows.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    On the night between 31 October and 1 November 1918, a small Italian human torpedo called "Mignatta", which carried two men, entered the base of Pola and placed a limpet mine below the hull of the anchored battleship SMS Viribus Unitis. Unknown to them, the entire Austrian fleet had just been handed over to the new National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs; this had happened in the evening of 31 October, when the Italian ships assigned to the operation had already left the port, and thus could not be informed.  After placing the mines, the two Italian operators were captured, and they informed the crew that the ship was going to sink, although they did not reveal that they had placed mines on the hull; however, the explosions were delayed and the crew started reboarding the ship, believing they were lying. Shortly thereafter, the mines exploded, causing the Viribus Unitis to sink. The Slav National Council made no efforts to raise the ship, as Italy occupied the region only a few days later.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Second Army had to attack methodically after artillery preparation but managed to push back the German defenders. Intelligence reports identified a main line of resistance of the German 6th Army and 7th Army, which had been combined under the command of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria, close to the advanced French troops and that a counter-offensive was imminent. On 16 August, the Germans opposed the advance with long-range artillery fire and on 17 August, the First Army reinforced the advance on Sarrebourg. When the Germans were found to have left the city Joffre ordered the Second Army to incline further to the north, which had the effect of increasing the divergence of the French armies. A German counter-attack on 20 August forced separate battles on the French armies, which were defeated and forced to retreat in disorder. The German pursuit was slow and Castelnau was able to occupy positions east of Nancy and extend the right wing towards the south, to regain touch with the First Army. During 22 August, the right flank was attacked and driven back 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the position where the offensive had begun on 14 August. The First Army withdrew but managed to maintain contact with the Second Army and on 24 August, both armies began a counter-offensive at the Trouée de Charmes and regained the line of 14 August by early September.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    . As these orders were being dispatched, a report came in from Dallas that Ali Muntar had been captured, but this information did not change Chetwode's mind. It was not until some time later that he was informed of the capture of the entire ridge. Chetwode's orders were to break off the action after dark and withdraw. According to Christopher Pugsley, the Anzac Mounted Division "saw victory snatched away from them by the order to withdraw." This decision to withdraw was puzzling to many of those fighting in and near the town, as the infantry held Ali Muntar and 462 German and Ottoman army prisoners, including a general who was a divisional commander. They had also captured an Austrian battery of two Krupp 77mm field guns, along with a complete convoy. However, the whole attacking force was withdrawn to Deir el Belah and Khan Yunus on 27 and 28 March. The first units to withdraw were the slow moving wheels and camels, which received their orders at 17:00 from Desert Column. They move back to Hill 310 via Sheikh Abbas.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The French commanders were ordered by Joffre to continue the offensive on 23 August, as early as possible since his strategy depended on the success of the Third and Fourth armies. Ruffey replied in the morning that the attack could not begin until his divisions had reorganised and in the early afternoon, found that the Germans had forestalled another advance, by pushing the V Corps in the centre back for 8 kilometres (5.0 mi), which led to the rest of the army falling back level. In the Fourth Army area, the 33rd Division of XVII Corps had been routed and the rest of the corps had withdrawn during the night of 22/23 August. The 5th Colonial Brigade withdrew from Neufchâteau before dawn on 23 August, exposing the right flank of XII Corps, which also fell back. By the end of 23 August the survivors of the Third and Fourth armies were back to their jumping-off positions except for the XI and IX corps on the northern flank.