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Something must have caused languages, even in the past and under traditional conditions, to diverge and to remain separate, in the face of all that contact. Here's how it happens. Any of us over the age of 40 has observed that languages change even over the course of just a few decades, with some words dropping out of use, new words being coined, and pronunciation shifting. For instance, whenever I revisit Germany , where I lived in 1961, young Germans notice that they have to explain to me some new German words (e.g, the new word Handi for cell phones, which didn't exist in 1961), and that I still use some old-fashioned German words that have been going out of use since 1961(e.g, jener/jene for "that/those"). But young Germans and I can still mostly understand each other well. Similarly, you American readers under the age of 40may not recognize some formerly popular English words like "ballyhoo," but incompensation you daily use the verb "to Google" and the participle "Googling" which didn't exist in my childhood.


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 過去の伝統的な条件下でさえ、あれだけ接触をしておきながらも、何かが理由となって、言葉は、枝分かれし、別離している。  その過程はこうだ。40歳以上なら誰でも、僅か二三十年の間に、二三の言葉が使われなくなったり、新しい言葉が作られるのを、観察している。  例えば、私が1961年まで住んでいたドイツを訪れる度に、ドイツの若者は、私に新しいドイツ語の単語(例、1961年には無かった携帯電話は Handi という)の説明をし、1961年以来使われなくなっている古くさいドイツ語(例、あれ/あれら、を意味する jener/jene)を私はまだ使っている、と説明しなければならないことに気づく。  しかしそれでも、ドイツの若者と私とは、おたがいの話が殆ど通じあう。  それと同じように、40歳以下のアメリカ人の読者は、昔流行った "ballyhoo" などという英語は知らない代わりに、私が子どもの頃は無かった、"Google" という動詞や "Googling" と言う分詞を毎日のように使っているのである。



  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    申し訳ありませんが、お願いします。 There are soms things that I would not have done , and some things that I have failed to do that I would do. One of the things that I would have done if I had known the importance of it would have been to go to college.

  • 英文和訳お願いします!

    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • この文の和訳をお願いします><

    I have thought since of the wonderful godness of God to me, in preserving me in the use of my reason and senses, in that distressed time, that I did not use wicked and violent means to end my own miserable life. 要点だけでも構いませんので、誰かお願いします><

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    Are e-cigarettes the lesser of two evils, or just another method of nicotine exposure? It’s a question public health experts are debating. Some question the benefits of steering smokers towards less harmful products on the nicotine product spectrum. And a new study published in JAMA Pediatrics suggests what medical experts dread: that people who use e-cigarettes are also likely to be regular cigarette users. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke other tobacco products and regular cigarettes. The researchers surveyed 17,353 middle and high school students in 2011, and 22,529 young people in 2012 as part of the National Youth Tobacco Survey. Youth who reported ever using e-cigarettes or currently using them had a greater likelihood of experimenting with regular cigarettes, smoking on a regular basis, or being a current cigarette smoker. Among young people who had used tobacco cigarettes, trying an e-cigarette was linked to being an established smoker. The researchers also found that teens who used e-cigarettes were more likely to want to quit smoking the next year, but they were also less likely to abstain from cigarettes all together. The study didn’t look at whether young people are initiating smoking with regular cigarettes and then switching to e-cigarettes, or the other way around. However, e-cigarettes aren’t “discouraging use of conventional cigarettes,” the researchers say. In September, numbers from the CDC showed that the percentage of middle school and high school students who have tried e-cigarettes doubled from 3.3% in 2011 to 6.8% in 2012. “While much remains to be learned about the public health benefits and /or consequences of [electronic nicotine delivery systems] use, their exponential growth in recent years, including their rapid uptake among youths, makes it clear that policy makers need to act quickly,” Frank J. Chaloupka of the University of Illinois at Chicago wrote in a corresponding editorial. Most recently, Los Angeles extended its city-wide smoking ban to include e-cigarettes.

  • 【至急】英文の和訳です。よろしくお願いします。

    It is now generally accepted that the child's reading ability progresses through several periods of reading development. The first period, known as "reading readiness," begins at birth and continues normally until the age of about six or seven. Reading readiness includes the physical ability to see and hear, and the mental ability to remember words and their letters, and to use simple sentences. In the second period of reading development, children learn to read very simple materials. In the United States, children usually will be able to read perhaps 300 or 400 words by the end of the first year. By the end of this period., pupils are expected to be reading and enjoying simple books by themselves without help from teachers or parents.

  • 【至急】英文の和訳です。よろしくお願いします。

    In the third period, the child makes rapid progress in increasing his or her vocabulary and learning new skills in discovering the meaning of unfamiliar words by the way the words are used in the reading material. In addition, children during this period of reading development learn to read for different purposes and in different subjects, such as science and history. They learn that reading, besides being something that one dose at school, is also something that one can do alone,for fun, for factual information, or to learn more about the world in general. Finally, in the fourth period, the student improves the skills that have been leaned. He or she develops the ability to connect ideas from one piece of writing to another, and learns to compare the opinions of different writers on the same subject. Young persons should reach the fourth period of reading by the time they are 13 or 14 years old, and, if they try, they can continue to increase their reading ability for the rest of their lives. They can read by themselves and are prepared to learn more about reading.

  • この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。

    Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of communication-having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected. The explosion around the world in mobile phone use has some health professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phons are bad for your health. この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。できればいやくはしないでください。

  • 英文の和訳

    和訳をしていただけるかたのみで お願いできますでしょうか? 再び挨拶の部分に入ったようです。 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 Before I continue with the reading. Allow me to introduce you to the very methodical way I work. My work is different to that of most other astrologers. I regard astrology as a kind of advanced science. When I researched for the Soul Mate Chart as well uncovering the buried secrets of the ancient star law I worked in methodical scientific way. I compared the charts of many thousands of couples. Some were famous, some were utterly unknown, some happy some miserable. I did this to find out how the details and fate and looks of one partner could show up distinctly in the others chart. So that it could be predicted with reasonable accuracy. his endeavor was both monumental and rewarding.

  • 和訳お願いしますm(_ _)m

    Coming-of-Age Day Coming of Age Day is a national holiday which falls on January 15. This national holiday was created in 1948 and a described in the N ational Holidays Act as the day when young people are made aware of their achievement of adulthood and are congratulated. On this day large-scale ceremonies are held in all parts of Japan. The local cities and communities play host at the celbration ceremonies to all the young men and women who have had their twentieth birthday during the past year. The new adults gather together to hear congratulatory messages from the heads of their local government. Then one of the young people, speaking on behalf of the others, formally acknowledges that they have reached adulthood and pledges their determination to become good members of society. At the age of twenty young people receive the right to vote, smoke and drink, and obtain the freedom to marry without their parents' consent, but, at the same time, they must bear the responsibilities of adults.