Are e-cigarettes the lesser of two evils, or just another method of nicotine exposure?

  • Debate surrounds the question of whether e-cigarettes are a better alternative to traditional cigarettes or just another way for people to be exposed to nicotine.
  • A study published in JAMA Pediatrics found that adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke regular cigarettes and other tobacco products.
  • The study also found that teens who use e-cigarettes are more likely to want to quit smoking the following year but are less likely to completely quit smoking.
  • ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


Are e-cigarettes the lesser of two evils, or just another method of nicotine exposure? It’s a question public health experts are debating. Some question the benefits of steering smokers towards less harmful products on the nicotine product spectrum. And a new study published in JAMA Pediatrics suggests what medical experts dread: that people who use e-cigarettes are also likely to be regular cigarette users. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke other tobacco products and regular cigarettes. The researchers surveyed 17,353 middle and high school students in 2011, and 22,529 young people in 2012 as part of the National Youth Tobacco Survey. Youth who reported ever using e-cigarettes or currently using them had a greater likelihood of experimenting with regular cigarettes, smoking on a regular basis, or being a current cigarette smoker. Among young people who had used tobacco cigarettes, trying an e-cigarette was linked to being an established smoker. The researchers also found that teens who used e-cigarettes were more likely to want to quit smoking the next year, but they were also less likely to abstain from cigarettes all together. The study didn’t look at whether young people are initiating smoking with regular cigarettes and then switching to e-cigarettes, or the other way around. However, e-cigarettes aren’t “discouraging use of conventional cigarettes,” the researchers say. In September, numbers from the CDC showed that the percentage of middle school and high school students who have tried e-cigarettes doubled from 3.3% in 2011 to 6.8% in 2012. “While much remains to be learned about the public health benefits and /or consequences of [electronic nicotine delivery systems] use, their exponential growth in recent years, including their rapid uptake among youths, makes it clear that policy makers need to act quickly,” Frank J. Chaloupka of the University of Illinois at Chicago wrote in a corresponding editorial. Most recently, Los Angeles extended its city-wide smoking ban to include e-cigarettes.

  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • ありがとう数0


  • ベストアンサー
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率80% (9441/11721)

以下のとおりお答えします。 電子タバコは、2つの害悪(本物タバコと電子タバコ)のうち害が少ないものなのか、それともただ単に別の仕方によるニコチン被毒なのか? それは公衆衛生の専門家が討論している問題である。有害性のより少ない、ニコチン製品類への転換の利点を疑う者がいる。JAMA*(米国医師会雑誌)で出版された新しい研究は、医学の専門家が恐れていることを示唆している。すなわち、電子タバコを使う人々は、タバコ常用者にもなりやすい、ということである。 * JAMA:「米国医師会雑誌」(Journal of the American Medical Association)。 電子タバコを使う思春期の子供は、他のタバコ製品や通常の紙巻タバコを吸うようになる傾向がある。研究者は、「全国青少年たばこ調査」の一環として、2011年に17,353人の中学・高校生を、2012年に22,529人の若い人々を調査した。 ずっと電子タバコを使ってきた、あるいは現在使っている、と報告した若者たちは、かつてタバコ喫煙者であった、基本的な喫煙者である、もしくは現在タバコを吸っているということの可能性がより大きい。かつて喫煙者であった若者の間では、電子タバコを試すことが確定的な喫煙者であることにつながった。研究者は、電子タバコを使っていたティーンズは、翌年は喫煙をやめたいと思う傾向があるにもかかわらず、タバコも一緒にすべてを断とうとする傾向はそれほどでもない、ということも発見した。 同研究では、若者が通常のタバコで喫煙し始め、それから電子タバコに切り換えるということも見られなかったし、何だかんだとやってみることも見られなかった。どの道、電子タバコは「喫煙癖をやめさせるための用途」にはならない、と研究者は言う。 9月に、CDC**(アメリカ疾病管理予防センター)から出された数値は、電子タバコを試した中学・高校学生の割合が、2011年の3.3%から2012年の6.8%まで、二倍になったことを示した。 **CDC:「アメリカ疾病管理予防センター」(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)。米国ジョージア州アトランタにある保健福祉省所管の感染症対策総合研究所。 「公衆衛生福祉および/または〔電子ニコチン配送システム〕使用の結果について学ぶべきことが多く残っている一方、若者間の急速な取り込みを含め、近年の急激な増加によって、政策策定者の迅速な行動の必要性が明らかになっている」と、シカゴ・イリノイ大学のフランク・J.チャルーカが該当する論説に書いた。ごく最近、ロサンゼルスは、都市規模の喫煙禁止に電子タバコを含めるように拡大した。 以上、ご回答まで。


  • 和訳してほしいのですが

    サマリスというタバコのブランドの歴史が書かれた英文があるのですが、私の力では到底訳せません。英語に詳しい方ぜひ訳してください。英文は次のとおりです。 「At the beginning of the 20th Century most of the pure Turkish tobacco cigarette industry was concentrated in New york City. Immigrant Turkish,Egyptian ,and Greek tabacconists had been making their specialty cigarettes there since the Civil war.The different brands produced were low volume,and most were sold locally or,at most,regionally. Customers tended to be new emigrants or the wealthy carriage trade. Word-of-mouth advertising,advertising postcards,the occasional poster,and a few newspaper ads sufficed.These early factory made cigarettes were still considered a novelty among tobacco aficionados:sales were well behind those of chewing tobacco and cigars.Howevere,of those cigarettes that were bought,twenty-five percent were of the Turkish and Egyptian variety.The khedivial Company made their samaris and Oxford Cigarettes from pure Turkish tobacco in factory348,2nd District new york.」 英語に詳しいかたお願いします。

  • 英文和訳

    There are also diverse opinions on how great a role faith and religion play in happiness. Many researchers, however, agree that spirituality does play at least role. Fully rational people, they believe, are less likely to be happy. どなたかお願いしますm(__)m

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    In 1992, the event’s second year, a team of researchers at the Shiseido Research Center in Yokohama were accorded the Ig Nobel Prize for Medicine for their pioneering research study “Elucidation of Chemical Compounds Responsible for Foot Malodour,” especially for their conclusion that people who think they have foot odor do, and those who don’t don’t. Their paper attracted notice after it was published in the British Journal of Dermatology in June 1990. Abrahams pointed out that “approximately 50 percent” of eventual Ig winners come to the selection committee’s attention from published scientific papers. “We are always looking,” he told The Japan Times. “And anyone can send in a nomination. In a typical year we receive something like 7,000 new nominations. Between 10 and 20 percent of those are people who nominate themselves. But they almost never win. Winning an Ig Nobel Prize seems to be a side-effect. If it’s your main goal, you are very unlikely to succeed.”

  • この英文の和訳をお願いします。

        The numbers of collision orbits found in the present calculations are shown in Table 4 for the representative sets of (e,i). From these numbers we can expect the magnitude of statistical error in the evaluation of <P(e,i)> to be a few percent for small e, i and within 10% for large e, i for r_p=0.005 are shown in Table 5, together with those of the two-dimensional case. Interpolating these values, we have obtained the contour of <P(e,i)> and R(e,i) on the e-I plane. They are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. From Fig. 15 we can read out the general properties of the collisional rate in the three-dimensional case: (i) <P(e,i)> is enhanced over <P(e,i)>_2B except for small e and i, (ii) <P(e,i)> reduces to <P(e,i)>_2B for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4, and (iii) there are two peaks in R(e,i) near regions where e≒1 (i<1) and where i≒3 (e<0.1): the peak value is at most as large as 5.      In the vicinity of small v(=(e^2+i^2)^(1/2)) and i, R(e,i) rapidly reduces to zero. This is due to a singularity of <P(e,i)>_2B at v=0 and i=0 in the ordinary expression given by Eq. (29) and hence unphysical; the behavior of collisional rate in the vicinity of small v and i will be discussed in detail later. Thus, we are able to assert, more strongly, the property (i) mentioned in the last paragraph: that is, solar gravity always enhances the collisional rate over that of the two-body approximation.      One of the remarkable features of R(e,i) found in Fig. 15 is the property (ii). That is, the collisional rate between Keplerian particles is well described by the two-body approximation, for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4. This is corresponding to the two-dimensional result that R(e,0)≒1 for e≧4. よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    英文の和訳をお願いします。 One of the most interesting and yet underexamined processes in bulimia is the acquisition of bulimic behavior, particularly binge eating. The few studies that have looked at this problem have focused almost exclusively on particular social groups, for example, dance camps and athletic teams. This focus is not an accident. I wish to argue that social groups are at the very heart of the issue of symptom acquisition. Symptoms are spread from one member to another in these groups, and group membership is at the heart of the transmission. Groups that are most likely to transmit the symptoms of bulimia, most notably binge eating, are groups that are made up almost entirely of women of the same age. This includes dance camps and athletic teams as well as sororities, all-women dormitories, or workplaces comprising mostly women. Social groups are important to us. They serve to tell us who we are, what to think, and how to behave. The more we value the social group, the more we are willing to be influenced by it. The power of a group may be measured by the attractiveness of the group for its members, lf a person wants to stay in a group, he will be susceptible to influences coming from the group, and he will be willing to conform to the rules which the group sets up."

  • 英文和訳

    Calling to mind this city's revolutionary past, he says he would accept the nomination for president "on behalf of a new birth of freedom — on behalf of the middle class who deserve a champion, and those struggling to join it who deserve a fair shot; for the brave men and women in uniform who risk their lives every day and the families who pray for their return; for those who believe our best days are ahead of us." 1.who deserve a fair shot はどう訳すのですか? 2.who の先行詞は those (struggling to join it ) と思いますが、どうでしょう?

  • 次の英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There was one large difference between the animal study and the human research projects mentioned in the article: the researchers controlled what the animals in the earlier studies ate, while the humans reported their eating behavior. Thus, as Dr. Bartke mentions, there is a question about the quality of the data. As long as the researchers kept careful records on what was fed to the animal subjects and prevented the animals from getting food from other sources, they could be confident of the food intake measurement. Humans, however, are not lab rats. It is not ethical, or generally possible, to completely control the environment that a human experiences. In this case, it was likely not economically feasible to control the diet for the subjects in the “diet group.” As a result, the researchers relied on self-reported data from these subjects. It is very unlikely that all of the members who reported that they cut their caloric intake by 30% actually did so. If the control their diet and observe their action, then we might be able to accept that the members of the group actually reduced their calories by 30%. However, one would then worry that a group of people who could take three months to go to a lab environment might not be representative of the general population.

  • この英文の和訳をお願いします。

         We evaluated <P(e, 0)> for 12 cases of e between 0 and 6: e=0.0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0. As for r_p, we considered three cases: r_p=0.005, 0.001, and 0.0002. These are representative values of radii of protoplanets at the Earth, Jupiter, and Neptune orbits regions, respectively. The numbers of collision orbits found by our orbital calculation are shown in Table 3 for representative values of e. From Table 3 we can expect the statistical errors in the evaluated collisional rate to be within 5% for the cases of e≦1.5 and within 8% for e=4 and 6; they are smaller than that of the previous studies by Nishida (1983) and by Wetherill and Cox (1985).    The calculated collisional rate is summarized in terms of the enhancement factor defined by Eq. (27) and shown in Fig.11, as a function of e and r_p. From Fig.11 one can see that the collisional rate is always enhanced by the effect of solar gravity, compared with that of the two-body approximation <P(e,0)>_2B. In particular, in regions where e≦1, R(e,0) is almost independent of e, having a value as large as 3. At e≦1, R(e,0) has a notable peak beyond which the enhancement factor decreases gradually with increasing e. For large values of e, i.e., e≧4, <P(e,0)> tends rapidly to <P(e,0)>_2B. As seen in the next section, we will find a similar dependence on e even in the three-dimensional case (i≠0) as long as we are concerned with cases where i≦2. お手数ですが、よろしくお願いします。

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    New research finds link between frequency of exercise and stroke risk Here’s yet another reason to get off the couch: new research findings suggest that regularly breaking a sweat may lower the risk of having a stroke. A stroke can occur when a blood vessel in the brain gets blocked. As a result, nearby brain cells will die after not getting enough oxygen and other nutrients. A number of risk factors for stroke have been identified, including smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes and being inactive. For this study, published in the journal Stroke, Michelle N. McDonnell, Ph.D., from the University of South Australia, Adelaide and her colleagues obtained data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. REGARDS is a large, long-term study funded by the NIH National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to look at the reasons behind the higher rates of stroke mortality among African-Americans and other residents living in the Southeastern United States. “Epidemiological studies such as REGARDS provide an important opportunity to explore race, genetics, environmental, and lifestyle choices as stroke risk factors,” said Claudia Moy, Ph.D., program director at NINDS. Over 30,000 participants supplied their medical history over the phone. The researchers also visited them to obtain health measures such as body mass index and blood pressure. At the beginning of the study, the researchers asked participants how many times per week they exercised vigorously enough to work up a sweat. The researchers contacted participants every six months to see if they had experienced a stroke or a mini-stroke known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). To confirm their responses, the researchers reviewed participants’ medical records. The researchers reported data for over 27,000 participants who were stroke-free at the start of the study and followed for an average of 5.7 years. One-third of participants reported exercising less than once a week. Study subjects who were inactive were 20 percent more likely to experience a stroke or TIA than participants who exercised four or more times a week. The findings revealed that regular, moderately vigorous exercise, enough to break a sweat, was linked to reduced risk of stroke. Part of the protective effect was due to lower rates of known stroke risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and smoking. “Our results confirm other research findings but our study has the distinct advantage of including larger numbers, especially larger numbers of women as well as blacks, in a national population sample so these provide somewhat more generalizable results than other studies,” said Virginia Howard, Ph.D., senior author of the study from the School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

  • 英文和訳です

    Understanding Animal Research (the successor organization to the Research Defence Society, a group mentioned in the article) is dedicated to educating the public about animal research policies and procedures. Animal rights activists are represented by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), a group who states that it “focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time : on factory farms, in laboratories, in the clothing trade, and in the entertainment industry.” Another group, the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), states its mission as “the total elimination of the need for any laboratory animal procedures, through the development, validation, and acceptance of replacement alternative methods.” Debate between public organizations such as those listed above has reduced the use of animals in experiments, led to refinements in procedures, and may well lead to the total replacement of animal models. Some extremists on the animal rights side, unfortunately, are not patient enough to work through this process. They “liberate” animals from research facilities, destroy labs and records, burn down houses of researchers and pharmaceutical company executives, and threaten further violence. The level of violence on the European continent increased in the first decade of the 21st century, and it is not clear if a crackdown on animal rights extremists in the UK contributed to this increase. よろしくお願いします^^;