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Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.


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年齢層別化は、人々を彼らの年齢によって分類するシステムです。 すべての社会は、年齢によって(ならびに性別と社会経済地位によって、そして、しばしば人種によって)、その構成員を層別化します。 すべてのこれらの層別化システムにおいて、より高い層からより低い層へ、暗黙のあるいは明確な序列が存在します。 長老支配の社会では、老人が最も高い地位を持っています、そして、最も若い人々が最下位にいます。 我々の社会では、中年が最も多くの権力や信望を持っています、他方、子供たちにはそれらが最も少ないです。老人や若者はその中間に位置する傾向があります、そして、老人や若者がより年長の人よりも高い地位にランクされるかどうかは、どの様な特質が関係するか次第です。収入に関しては、高齢者の方が若者より高い位置にある傾向があります。 運動や娯楽に関しては、若者がより高い位置にある傾向があります。 年齢を基礎とした個人のそのような序列化は、層別化システムに伴う年齢差別の一形態です。 年齢基準は、年齢層すなわち人生での各段階に対する適切なあるいは正常な行動、義務、特権についての期待です。 たとえば、子供たちは、学校に通うことが期待され、両親に従う義務と彼らの両親に扶養される特権を持っています。対照的に、高齢者は引退することが期待され、彼らの健康や資産を管理する義務と社会保障給付金による支援を受ける特権を持っています。 どの程度そのような年齢基準が基礎となるかは、不利益になるものかどうか; そして、期待が現実的で適切であるかどうかと言うことです。 年齢対立は、2つもしくはそれ以上の年齢層が互いに衝突する年齢差別の最も極端な形態です。 若干の年齢対立は、多分すべての社会で生じ、年齢層別化の不可避の結果であるかもしれません。 他の形態の社会的対立と同様、年齢対立は、乏しい資源をめぐる、あるいは、価値観をめぐる闘いを含みます。年齢不平等は、年齢対立の主要な原因です。 不利益をこうむっている年齢グループがより多くの権力やその他の利益を要求し、他方、より利益を受けている年齢グループが、その特権を守ろうとする時、闘いが起こります。 しかし、そのような対立は、社会全体に広がるよりもむしろ、家族や職場と言ったような特定の枠組みに限定される傾向があります。 厳しい年齢対立を抑制しそうな多くの要因があります、厳しい年齢対立の例としては、様々な固定観念による年齢不平等の合法化、権力を握っている人々から痛みを伴う結果がもたらされるかもしれないと言う恐れ、愛情あるいは義務の結びつき、年齢グループの社会的な分離があります。 我々の社会に年齢対立がどれほどあるかは、時々誇張されています。 社会保障制度やその他の高齢者のためのプログラムに関する世代間の意見の相違はほとんどありません。 同様に、我々の基本的な価値体系については、世代間で一般的な意見が一致しています。 投票行動においても世代間の違いは、ほとんどありません。



  • この英文を訳してください><

    Many Americans believe that disputes should be settled by the disputing parties without outside help. Parents often send their children back to the playroom or playground with instructions to settle fights for themselves. Relatives and friends can be heard to say, "It's between the two of you. I'm not getting in the middle." Even psychologists tend to regard it as a sign of maturity when someone settles disputes without third parties, Whose participation may be regarded as unhealthy. Yet many peoples of the world expect conflicts to be resolved by third parties. This reflects an emphasis on harmony and interdependence:the tendency to see individuals as located in a social network,in contrast to the American tendency to over-emphasize independence and see the individual as the fundamental human unit. To manage disputes ranging from quarrels between family members to conflicts between villages, cultures develop informalrules and formal proceedings,just as Americans have assumptions about fairfights as well as legal trials.In contrast to the American Why of settling disputes, however,the participation ofthe community is an important part of the proceedings. Americans cannot simply adopt the rituals of another culture, but thinking about these rituals can give them ideas for devising their own new ways to manage conflicts. In native Hawaiian culture,there is a word, ho'oponopono ("to setthings right"),for a ceremony in Which family members invite an older person or a respected member of the community to watch overthe resolution of a dispute. The leader invites the disputing parties to talk about their feelings and encourages them to apologize to and forgive each other. The leader calls on a higher power -God and Church - to offer forgiveness, too. On the island of Tanna in the South Pacific, conflicts among villagers or between villages are discussed publicly by groups of adult men at special meetings that last all day. These meetings are very different from the American idea of conflict resolution in thatthey are not designed to reconcile the individual accounts of disputing parties and draw from them the truth of what happened. These meetings are not competitions or battles among opposing interests;they are joint journeys in Which all travelers reach the same destination. All the people present, disputing parties as well as others, come to a public agreement about what happened and how the conflict should be settled Usually, one party is not blamed;instead it is shown that both parties are somewhat responsible. These meetings do not always settle disputes once and for all, but atleast they offer an opportunity for settlement.

  • 英文の和訳

    英文の和訳をしていただけるかた のみで、お願いできますでしょうか? 再投稿ですが どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 Shyness with the opposite sex. Restraint in expressing your emotional, personal feelings and needs. You have much physical love to give and share and are not prudish. But the dictates of the heart are often suppressed by a fear of making demands or seeming too weak and needy for love. You area giver not a taker in love and you like your love affairs to be emotionally tidy. O have their own place in his life, you don’t let your emotions or dream spill over messily into his life. You keep things tidy you make no demands you are enchanted by the dream of love but are also, a realist in matters of love, The idealism and dream is just the coating you put on the reality. Inside yourself you are a hard task master and the soul mate has to meet to many special requirements, and has to be a unique man to win your heart. He needs to shine out or he is not good enough for you. Unless you can have your mate or ideal partner, you tend to sacrifice happiness, or prefer a life of freedom and inwardly reconcile yourself to spinsterhood. This is preferable to you, to being tied to someone in a marriage that is less than love; or who is not him.. Having tasted paradise, nothing else is good enough.

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Senescence, according to the dictionary, simply means the process or condition of "growing old". However, to biologists and psychologists it connotes "those manifestations in structure and function of a declining or deteriorating nature which take place during the period of life when the mortality rate of a population is accelerated". It also implies progressive and irreversible deterioration. Thus, the connotations are entirely negative. It ignores all the recovery, restoration, growth, development, and improvement of abilities that are possible as humans age. The assumption that senescence or deterioration is all there is to human aging is a negative from of ageism. On the other hand, to deny the senescence or declines in function that usually accompany aging is a positive from of ageism. Senility is defined as "the physical and mental infirmity of old age. It is not actually a medical or scientific term, but it is often used by doctors and laypeople alike to "explain" the behavior and condition of older people. Many of the reactive emotional responses of older people, such as depression, grief, and anxiety, are labeled senility and mistakenly considered to be irreversible and untreatable. This is another form of ageism. Actual brain damage from cerebral arteriosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease probably accounts for only about half of the mental disorders in old age. Only 5 to 10 percent of those over 65 have mental disorders severe enough to interfere with normal function.

  • これの和訳を教えてください。

    Recently, Nakagawa et al. have numerically studied the planetary growth and shown that the growth times of the Earth and Jupiter are orders 10^6~10~7 yrs and 10^7~10^8 yrs, respectively. But, for the case of Neptune, a very long time, which is comparable to or longer than the age of the solar system, is needed for the growth ( these growth times, nevertheless, are shorter by a factor of 10 or 100 than those obtained by Safronov). As they have pointed out for themselves, their results are not always final but tentative because in their calculation some assumptions and simplifications are made for the sake of convenience; one of these is that for the rates of collision and of gravitational scattering due to the mutual encounters between planetesimals, formulae in a free space (i.e., without the influence of the solar gravity) are used.

  • 英文和訳お願いします!

    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    Our need to affiliate - to feel connected and identified with others - boosted our ancestors' chances for survival, which may explain why humans in every society live in groups. When ostracized (excluded or shunned by others), people suffer from stress and depression - a real pain that increases activity in the same brain areas that respond to physical pain. Those who are socially secure in their friendships, families, or marriages tend to be healthier and to have lower levels of depression, suicide, and early death. When socially exclude, people may engage in self-defeating or antisocial behaviors.

  • 英文を和訳してください。

    次の英文を訳してください。 All Inuit live most of their lives close to salt water or fresh water. Their land has a wild look, but grass and flowers manage to live there. In the past the Inuit lived by hunting and fishing and moved all year. The Inuit year has two main seasons:a long,cold winter and a short, cool summer. Spring and fall are too short to be noticed. In summer,there is no snow on the land,and little ice on the sea. In winter the sea freezes and becomes vast ice fields.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    There are therefore 192 subjects(forty per cent of the sample) whose happiness and domestic efficiency are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the ready accessibility of their children or other relatives. No solution of the problems of old age will be acceptable to the people themselves or to their children which does not take the family factor into account. King, Sir Geoffrey, formerly Permanent Secretary, Ministry, of Pensions and National Insurance, "Policy and Practice", Old Age in the Modern World, 1995. Studies in other places such as Hammersmith, Acton, and Northern Ireland have also produced some evidence of close ties between old people and their relatives and of a willingness to bear the burden of nursing care. But the evidence gained in these inquiries was incidental to their main purposes. There has been no specialized study of the place of the old person in the family. Yet such detailed knowledge may be fundamental to any understanding of old age or of its problems. That is the starting point of this study. How often do old people see their children and their brothers and sisters, and do they live near or far? What services do relatives perform for each other every day and at times of crisis? What is the differences in family role of an old man and an old woman? Can a more precise meaning be given to loneliness and social isolation and what does it mean to be widowed, single, or childless? Is the status of old people undergoing change? Which old people make the greatest demand on the State aid or replace the efforts of the family? These are some of the questions which will be discussed in this report.

  • 【至急】英文の和訳です。よろしくお願いします。

    It is now generally accepted that the child's reading ability progresses through several periods of reading development. The first period, known as "reading readiness," begins at birth and continues normally until the age of about six or seven. Reading readiness includes the physical ability to see and hear, and the mental ability to remember words and their letters, and to use simple sentences. In the second period of reading development, children learn to read very simple materials. In the United States, children usually will be able to read perhaps 300 or 400 words by the end of the first year. By the end of this period., pupils are expected to be reading and enjoying simple books by themselves without help from teachers or parents.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    よろしくお願いします。 The term “business corporation” (excluding financial service institutions) means economic entities whose objective is to make a profit from such activities as the production and sale of goods or services . Business corporations invest funds in real assets (such as facilities and inventories) to carry out production and marketing activities on a continuing basis . Funds raised by business corporations are divided into internal funds (those generated in the ordinary course of the production and sale of goods or services) and external funds (those raised from external sources ) , according to the method employed to raise them . Technically , internal reserves and depreciation charges are included in internal funds. As the company is not required to repay the principal of , or pay interest or dividends on , such funds , they are considered the most stable means of corporate financing . In actuality , however , business corporations cannot meet their funding requirements with internal funds alone , and many of them have to rely on external funds . External funds are divided into the proceeds resulting from loans and the issuance of equity and debt securities , according to the method employed to raise them . Loans are obtained primarily from banking institutions . This method of raising funds with debt securities is termed “indirect financing” In addition to those issued at the time of their incorporation, business corporations issue additional equity shares(an increase of capital) to finance the expansion of their production capacity or for other purposes . As business corporations are not required to repay the principal thus raised, or pay interest thereon , the proceeds from the issuance of equity shares constitute the most stable form of funds among external funds . As is the case with equity shares , corporate debt securities are also an instrument for raising funds from the capital markets, and issuers have to redeem them on or by a predetermined date of redemption and pay a definite rate of interest on them . Corporate debt securities are largely divided into straight (SB), bonds with subscription rights, and structured bonds(see Chapter V). As the securities underlying equity shares or corporate debt are held directly by the providers of funds, this method of raising funds is called “direct financing”. A survey of changes that have occurred in the amount of funds raised from external sources as a percentage of the outstanding balance of financial debts shows that bank borrowings have tended to decrease since 1990. In the 2000s, funds raised through the issue of securities have outpaced those obtained through bank borrowings, suggesting that the weight of corporate financing structure has shifted from indirect to direct financing. This may be explained by the fact (1) that following the liberalization and internationalization of the financial markets, businesses have actively sought to raise funds be selling new shares and bonds on the market and (2) that particularly since 1980, in addition to reductions of inter-company credits that businesses had made under the pressure of recession, banks have curtailed their lending and businesses have repaid their debt banks in an effort to improve their financial positions. And these facts have combined to produce a synergistic effect. Most recently, the proportion of financing by loans has risen because of the decline in the functioning of the capital market caused by the financial crisis. However, with the establishment of emerging markets and the liberalization and abolition of regulations on the issue of debt securities, small-to-medium-sized firms can now obtain financing through the capital market. Consequently, if the capital market rebounds, the proportion of financing through the issue of securities will likely recover.