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There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."


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高齢者の特徴におけるこれらの改善が老化のより前向きな見方につながっているという証拠があります。過去30年~40年の間に、アメリカ社会が高齢者に対して否定的な固定観念を持つ状況から、高齢者が、彼ら自身での生活、自分たちの地域社会、そして、社会全般に貢献できていると見なされる前向きな見解を持つ状況に移行したとティビットは主張しました。ショーンフィールドは高齢者に対する否定的な態度と言う思い込みは、老年病学的文学によって恒久化された「社会的神話」であるとさえ主張しました。我々は第2章でこうした態度の詳細について検討することになりますが、否定的態度から積極的態度へ相当な変化が確かにある様に思われます。 身体的、精神的、社会的、そして、経済的な高齢者の特徴の改善はとても顕著で、また、高齢者だけのために開発されたプログラムやサービスがとてもたくさんあるので、多くの人々が、老人に有利な差別すなわち高齢者優遇差別であるとしてこれらのプログラムを批判し始めました。我々は、この本を通して高齢者優遇差別の例を検討することになるでしょう; しかし、これまでのところ最も多くの批判を招いた高齢者優遇差別は、メディケア・プログラム(高齢者向け医療保険制度プログラム)と給付金が生活費に連動して増加したり、ほとんどの高齢者にとって社会保障の給付金が税額控除されると言った様な社会保障制度のいくつかの特徴です。おそらく、それらが最も多くのお金に関係するので、これらのプログラムは最も批判されたのでしょう。 高齢者が経済的にもはや困窮していないのだから、また、昔に比べて彼らが、現在、精神的、身体的、そして、社会的にずっと裕福になっているのだから、高齢者だけが利用できるこれらの特別な支援やプログラムの巨額の出費を続けることは、もはや必要ではないし、公平でもないと批評家は主張し始めています。高齢者優遇差別を減らす方法は必要度に基づいてすべての年齢の人々が利用できるこれらの支援やプログラムを作ることであると主張する人もいます。たとえば、現在高齢者だけが享受している国民健康保険がすべての年齢の人々に広げられることを彼らは提言しています。 高齢者優遇差別が重要な問題になりつつあり、我々がより多くの高齢者と「高齢者だけ」のためのより高価なプログラムに直面するにつれて、高齢者優遇差別が一層重要(な問題)になるのが確実だと言うことは明らかです。



  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    英文の和訳をお願いします。 One of the most interesting and yet underexamined processes in bulimia is the acquisition of bulimic behavior, particularly binge eating. The few studies that have looked at this problem have focused almost exclusively on particular social groups, for example, dance camps and athletic teams. This focus is not an accident. I wish to argue that social groups are at the very heart of the issue of symptom acquisition. Symptoms are spread from one member to another in these groups, and group membership is at the heart of the transmission. Groups that are most likely to transmit the symptoms of bulimia, most notably binge eating, are groups that are made up almost entirely of women of the same age. This includes dance camps and athletic teams as well as sororities, all-women dormitories, or workplaces comprising mostly women. Social groups are important to us. They serve to tell us who we are, what to think, and how to behave. The more we value the social group, the more we are willing to be influenced by it. The power of a group may be measured by the attractiveness of the group for its members, lf a person wants to stay in a group, he will be susceptible to influences coming from the group, and he will be willing to conform to the rules which the group sets up."

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    But he postulated a change of human nature fostered by communism. It took many generations to prove him wrong. With the exception of a few diehards, none of today’s communist leaders hold to that orthodoxy. In the West, the moral validity of property rights is accepted, or at least acquiesced in, by virtually the whole of the population. This is true even in societies which are disdainful of competition. Attitudes toward property ownership are passed from one generation to the next through family values and education. These attitudes derive from the deepest values governing social interaction that people hold.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いしたいのですが・・・

    Lattice type and systematic absences In indexing the powder patterns it has been assumed that all the possible reflections are observed, that is, scattering from each of the different lattice planes is sufficiently intense to contribute to the diffraction profile. This is normally so for a primitive lattice, but for body centred and face centred lattices restrictions occur on the values that h, k and I may take if the reflections are to have any intensity. This results in certain reflections not being observed in the powder diffraction pattern and these are known as systematic absences. The origin of these absences can be illustrated with regard to Fig.2.3. という文章です。できれば翻訳サイト丸々ってのは控えてほしいです。

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 Later in this book I will describe information gained from other sources. Twelve old people in the sample were kind enough to keep a diary of their activities for a week in the spring of 1955. Four of these diaries are reproduced in an appendix. Special surveys were made of the social and family background of old people seeking help from the social services: a sample group of some 200 people originating in East London who spent the last period of their lives in L.C.C homes; and finally, 400 people being visited by home helps in Bethnal Green. The object of these surveys was, first, to explore the respective functions of relatives and of the social services in helping to meet the needs of old people, and second, to pinpoint those groups who make the heaviest demands on statutory and voluntary provision. In presenting the results I have tried throughout to keep individual people in the forefront. The research worker is so anxious to establish patterns, uniformities, and systems of social action that he is tempted to plan questionnaires that can be filled in simply and to confine his report largely to classificatory lists and tables of statistics. The uniqueness of each individual and each family is probably the fundamental difficulty about this. However those to be studied are selected, whether on grounds of likeness in age, situation, occupation, or class, once one meets them and behavior, relationships, attitude and interpretation. Standard questions, prepared beforehand, mean different things to different people; they are sometimes appropriate, sometimes inappropriate; by themselves they do not provide an adequate means of thoroughly investigating subjects as complex as this. Before one can apply or interpret the reliability of answers to set questions, one needs a fair idea of the most important relationships, activities, and characteristics of each person approached, important, that is, as they are judged by him. Too many of the principal features of social life might otherwise be missed or misrepresented. Although I believe with conviction that the methods of interviewing should be flexible and that reports on social research should convey the quality and diversity of individual and social behavior, I am not suggesting that the search for patterns of behavior, through statistical analysis and correlation, is not important. I am submitting only that once a social inquiry moves beyond simple description and measurement, for instance, of facts of a basically demographic kind, the build-up of statistics and indices of behavior becomes a subtle and complicated process that can only proceed in the context of a wide knowledge of the societies concerned. And such knowledge cannot be gained unless there is direct and continuous acquaintance with the people who are being studied.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いしますm(__)m

    以下の5文を訳してくださいm(__)m ▼Here in this area of overlap between the playing of the child and the Playing of the other person there is a chance to introduce enrichments. ▼The teacher aims at enrichment.By contrast,the therapist is concerned specifically with the child's own growth processes,and with the removal of blocks to development that may have become evident. ▼It is psychoanalytic theory that has made for an understanding of these blocks. ▼At the same time it would be a narrow view to suppose that psychoanalysis is the only way to make therapeutic use of the child's playing. ▼It is good to remember always that playing is itself a therapy.To arrange for children to be able to play is itself a psychotherapy that has immediate and universal application,and it includes the establishment of a positive social attitude towards playing.

  • 英文の和訳お願いします

    とても長い文章ですがお願いします おかしなところがあればご指摘ください The report describes the other elements that have proved to be vital: a single, powerful national AIDS plan involving a wide range of actors; social openness, increasing the visibility of the epidemic and countering stigma; social policies that address core vulnerabilities; the engagement of all sectors (not just health); a recognition of the synergy between prevention and care; support to community participation; and targeting interventions to those who are most vulnerable, including young people before they become sexually active. Countries that have adopted forward-looking strategies to fight the epidemic are reaping the rewards in the form of falling incidence

  • 和訳

    World conditions are constantly changing, and attitudes must change with them. If they do not, catastrophe is bound to follow. The attitude that is now most in need of change is the way we view the relationship of ourselves and our countries to other lands. Not long ago it was impossible to see ourselves simply as citizens of one country and we regarded all other nations as potential enemies or at least hostile rivals. Such attitudes are dangerously out of date in a world in which the weapons of military destruction have become so terrible that their full use would destroy civilization and international economic relations have become so complex and interdependent that no country can stand alone. We must see ourselves as citizens of a world community of nations which cooperate with one another for their common good. For Japan, which has become one of the economic giants of the world, these new attitudes have to include a willingness to play a much larger role in world affairs than it has in the past. This is the true meaning of internationalization and world citizenship. 特に難しい語は無かったのですが、長い文が続いたので、上手く訳し難かったです。“Such attitudes~”と“For Japan~”の箇所です。スラッシュリーディングをしてみましたが、自然な日本語として訳すのが少し難しいです。 文中に出てくる代名詞が何を指しているかも含めて訳例をお願い出来ますでしょうか。

  • この英文の和訳をお願いします。

        The numbers of collision orbits found in the present calculations are shown in Table 4 for the representative sets of (e,i). From these numbers we can expect the magnitude of statistical error in the evaluation of <P(e,i)> to be a few percent for small e, i and within 10% for large e, i for r_p=0.005 are shown in Table 5, together with those of the two-dimensional case. Interpolating these values, we have obtained the contour of <P(e,i)> and R(e,i) on the e-I plane. They are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. From Fig. 15 we can read out the general properties of the collisional rate in the three-dimensional case: (i) <P(e,i)> is enhanced over <P(e,i)>_2B except for small e and i, (ii) <P(e,i)> reduces to <P(e,i)>_2B for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4, and (iii) there are two peaks in R(e,i) near regions where e≒1 (i<1) and where i≒3 (e<0.1): the peak value is at most as large as 5.      In the vicinity of small v(=(e^2+i^2)^(1/2)) and i, R(e,i) rapidly reduces to zero. This is due to a singularity of <P(e,i)>_2B at v=0 and i=0 in the ordinary expression given by Eq. (29) and hence unphysical; the behavior of collisional rate in the vicinity of small v and i will be discussed in detail later. Thus, we are able to assert, more strongly, the property (i) mentioned in the last paragraph: that is, solar gravity always enhances the collisional rate over that of the two-body approximation.      One of the remarkable features of R(e,i) found in Fig. 15 is the property (ii). That is, the collisional rate between Keplerian particles is well described by the two-body approximation, for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4. This is corresponding to the two-dimensional result that R(e,0)≒1 for e≧4. よろしくお願いします。