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Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.


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老人学は、老化の科学と定義されます。 実際、それは、生物学、心理学、社会学を含む多くの科学に由来する老化についての知識から成り立っています。 老人学者は、老化を研究する科学者です。 老人学者は、老化による機能低下や老人の特徴が高齢者の問題の主因であると考えることだけに集中すると言って、非難されてきました。 機能低下にそのように焦点を当てることは、高齢に対する偏見の巧妙な形です、と言うのは、高齢に対する偏見が経年に伴う成長や改善の可能性を無視するからです。高齢者の特徴が高齢者の問題の原因であると決めてかかることは、もう一つの高齢に対する偏見の巧妙な形です、と言うのは、どの程度我々の社会構造や文化に埋め込まれた高齢に対する偏見が高齢者の問題の原因となっているかをそれが無視しているからです。 どの程度老人学のいろいろな理論が高齢に対する偏見に関与するかについては、第6章で論じられます。 老人病医学は、老年の医学面の研究及び高齢者の間の病気の予防、診断、治療への老人学の応用です。 このように、老人学が老化のすべての面を扱うのに対して、老人病医学は医学面に限られています。 医者は、数種類の高齢に対する偏見の影響を受けるかもしれません。 病気と障害に集中するので、彼らは健康であることや能力があることが高齢者の間で普通であることを忘れるかもしれないのです。彼らは、あらゆる困難で特定しにくい病気の原因を老年のせいにしがちで、そうした病気については何もできないと思い込みがちかもしれないのです。 老人病医と他の高齢者に対するサービス提供者は、彼ら自身のサービスの役割を促進するために、年齢差や高齢者の必要を誇張するかもしれません。 老人学者の中には、老人学がますます「生物医学化」されていて、このことが、老化に対する否定的な見方を生み出すと非難する人もいます。 カリシュは、老人の擁護団体とサービス提供者の間で特に見うけられる「高齢に対する新たな偏見」があると示唆しました。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は、能力、健康、機敏さが最も低下しているのが高齢者の特徴であるとして、「高齢者」をステレオタイプ化します。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は高齢者を、事実上、施設や他の機関の支援サービスを必要とする比較的無力で依存している個人と考えるのです。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は、これらのサービスの結果が、利用者自身がその生活をコントロールする決定をする自由を縮小する一因となるかどうかに関して十分な気遣いをせずにサービスの開発を奨励します。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は高齢者虐待に関して社会全般と社会の中の特定の個人に対して容赦ない一連の批判を生み出し、高齢者が直面する不快な存在を強調するのです。 ☆訳文では、ageism を「高齢に対する偏見」と訳しましたが「高齢者差別」と訳しても良いと思います。



  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Senescence, according to the dictionary, simply means the process or condition of "growing old". However, to biologists and psychologists it connotes "those manifestations in structure and function of a declining or deteriorating nature which take place during the period of life when the mortality rate of a population is accelerated". It also implies progressive and irreversible deterioration. Thus, the connotations are entirely negative. It ignores all the recovery, restoration, growth, development, and improvement of abilities that are possible as humans age. The assumption that senescence or deterioration is all there is to human aging is a negative from of ageism. On the other hand, to deny the senescence or declines in function that usually accompany aging is a positive from of ageism. Senility is defined as "the physical and mental infirmity of old age. It is not actually a medical or scientific term, but it is often used by doctors and laypeople alike to "explain" the behavior and condition of older people. Many of the reactive emotional responses of older people, such as depression, grief, and anxiety, are labeled senility and mistakenly considered to be irreversible and untreatable. This is another form of ageism. Actual brain damage from cerebral arteriosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease probably accounts for only about half of the mental disorders in old age. Only 5 to 10 percent of those over 65 have mental disorders severe enough to interfere with normal function.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    以下の英文の和訳をお願いします。 Displacement is one means by which the dream does this. In the first place, it is the effect of feeling which is displaced, so that what appears to be most important and full of emotion in the dream may be really of least significance, whereas an apparently trifling matter may be pregnant with meaning. The emphasis of the dream is thus displaced and so eludes the censor.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いしますm(__)m

    以下の5文を訳してくださいm(__)m ▼Here in this area of overlap between the playing of the child and the Playing of the other person there is a chance to introduce enrichments. ▼The teacher aims at enrichment.By contrast,the therapist is concerned specifically with the child's own growth processes,and with the removal of blocks to development that may have become evident. ▼It is psychoanalytic theory that has made for an understanding of these blocks. ▼At the same time it would be a narrow view to suppose that psychoanalysis is the only way to make therapeutic use of the child's playing. ▼It is good to remember always that playing is itself a therapy.To arrange for children to be able to play is itself a psychotherapy that has immediate and universal application,and it includes the establishment of a positive social attitude towards playing.

  • 次の英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Methylation is a chemical process in which a methyl(CH3)group is added to an atom or molecule. The resulting compound does not usually dissolve in water and is more easily absorbed into organisms such as plankton. Methylmercury is very dangerous because it enters the food chain as soon as it is absorbed into plankton. Next, it ends up in a fish that eats the contaminated plankton. After the contaminated fish is eaten by another fish, the methylmercury stays in the surviving fish's flesh, and the cycle may be repeated over and over. Once the mercury reaches the top of the food chain, for example in a 300-kilogram tuna, it will stay there for the rest of the fish's life. As a result, people are very worried about the effect of eating fish that are high on the food chain or very old. These fish may have very high accumulations of mercury, and thus may be dangerous to eat. Fish that are lower on the food chain, or younger, are seen as safer. As the article makes clear, an important first step is to discover the exact nature of the ocean's mercury methylation process. After the process is understood, it may be possible to control it. Until we can reduce the amount of mercury that accumulates in the ocean, it would be advisable to avoid fish that may be high on mercury, wouldn't it?

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • 至急この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(*_*)m

    Societies which recognize that pacta sunt servanda among their own members,do not find it difficult to recognize the advantages of fulfilling obligations and contacts in dealings with individuals and groups in different societies.The fact that all societies appear to recognize that there is an obligation to fulfil contacts,alongwith prudential advantage in fulfilling them (just as,it is often argued,they all recognize rules that limit violence among their members and enjoin respect for rights of property) provides a basis for the extension of the principle of the sanctity of contracts beyond the bounds of particular societies.

  • 和訳してほしいです。 年齢差別についてです。

    Our analysis of data from the Health Interview Survey since 1961 found that all measures of illness and disability showed decreasing disability for successive cohorts of people 65 and over relative to younger persons. Are these gains due primarily to reductions in ageism, to improved support and services for elders, or to cohort changes? They are probably due to a combination of these factors, but primarily to cohort changes. What are cohort changes? For our purposes, a cohort is a category of people born during a certain period. For example, the cohort of people born between 1920 and 1930 will be 60 to 70 years old in 1990. They are a more affluent, better educated, and healthier cohort than cohorts born before 1920. This is because the newer cohorts had more fortunate life experiences. They had more education as youth; did not suffer from loss of savings and unemployment during the Depression; and had better nutrition, sanitation, and health care throughout their lives. Thus, as the newer cohorts replace the older cohorts among those over 65. the average income, education, and health of elders improves. This is the primary explanation for the improvement in characteristics of elders.

  • 英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を助けてください

    英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えていただきたいです よろしくお願いします!! The dedication of a new labrum in the Forum Baths, dated to AD 3/4, may have been one consequence of it. The building of the Suburban Baths outside the Porta Marina may have been another. The reign of Augustus was a seminal phase in the history of Pompeii’s public landscape, but it merely marked the beginning of a development that continued under Augustus’s successors. Sometimes it is difficult to know whether buildings should be dated to the Augustan or Julio-Claudian periods. On the east side of the forum, for instance, the Building of Eumachia, whose precise function is uncertain but was certainly in some sense commercial, contained references to Augustan propaganda, including replicas of the statues of Aeneas and Romulus from the Forum Augustum in Rome, but its dedicatory inscriptions, which record that Eumachia constructed the building in her own name and that of her son, M. Numistrius Fronto, and dedicated it to Concordia Augusta and Pietas, fit a period early in the reign of Tiberius, and especially the years AD 22-24, when there was emphasis on the close relations between the emperor and his mother Livia, and concepts such as concord and filial devotion (pietas) would have been in fashion.

  • 和訳していただけませんか?

    下の文を和訳していただけませんか? Altrhough tecnological changes seldom reverse, it is not necessarily true formegatrends that are triggered by social changes. When major changes in society occur that force people to think and act differently, they may be permanent, or they may late only a generation or two. The aging society is one example. Today, the population 65 and above is increasing in postindustrial countries worldwide, forcing governments, businesses, and families to change in order to care for the large number of senior citizens.