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この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.

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老人学は、老化の科学と定義されます。 実際、それは、生物学、心理学、社会学を含む多くの科学に由来する老化についての知識から成り立っています。 老人学者は、老化を研究する科学者です。 老人学者は、老化による機能低下や老人の特徴が高齢者の問題の主因であると考えることだけに集中すると言って、非難されてきました。 機能低下にそのように焦点を当てることは、高齢に対する偏見の巧妙な形です、と言うのは、高齢に対する偏見が経年に伴う成長や改善の可能性を無視するからです。高齢者の特徴が高齢者の問題の原因であると決めてかかることは、もう一つの高齢に対する偏見の巧妙な形です、と言うのは、どの程度我々の社会構造や文化に埋め込まれた高齢に対する偏見が高齢者の問題の原因となっているかをそれが無視しているからです。 どの程度老人学のいろいろな理論が高齢に対する偏見に関与するかについては、第6章で論じられます。 老人病医学は、老年の医学面の研究及び高齢者の間の病気の予防、診断、治療への老人学の応用です。 このように、老人学が老化のすべての面を扱うのに対して、老人病医学は医学面に限られています。 医者は、数種類の高齢に対する偏見の影響を受けるかもしれません。 病気と障害に集中するので、彼らは健康であることや能力があることが高齢者の間で普通であることを忘れるかもしれないのです。彼らは、あらゆる困難で特定しにくい病気の原因を老年のせいにしがちで、そうした病気については何もできないと思い込みがちかもしれないのです。 老人病医と他の高齢者に対するサービス提供者は、彼ら自身のサービスの役割を促進するために、年齢差や高齢者の必要を誇張するかもしれません。 老人学者の中には、老人学がますます「生物医学化」されていて、このことが、老化に対する否定的な見方を生み出すと非難する人もいます。 カリシュは、老人の擁護団体とサービス提供者の間で特に見うけられる「高齢に対する新たな偏見」があると示唆しました。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は、能力、健康、機敏さが最も低下しているのが高齢者の特徴であるとして、「高齢者」をステレオタイプ化します。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は高齢者を、事実上、施設や他の機関の支援サービスを必要とする比較的無力で依存している個人と考えるのです。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は、これらのサービスの結果が、利用者自身がその生活をコントロールする決定をする自由を縮小する一因となるかどうかに関して十分な気遣いをせずにサービスの開発を奨励します。 「高齢に対する新たな偏見」は高齢者虐待に関して社会全般と社会の中の特定の個人に対して容赦ない一連の批判を生み出し、高齢者が直面する不快な存在を強調するのです。 ☆訳文では、ageism を「高齢に対する偏見」と訳しましたが「高齢者差別」と訳しても良いと思います。

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  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

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