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Senescence, according to the dictionary, simply means the process or condition of "growing old". However, to biologists and psychologists it connotes "those manifestations in structure and function of a declining or deteriorating nature which take place during the period of life when the mortality rate of a population is accelerated". It also implies progressive and irreversible deterioration. Thus, the connotations are entirely negative. It ignores all the recovery, restoration, growth, development, and improvement of abilities that are possible as humans age. The assumption that senescence or deterioration is all there is to human aging is a negative from of ageism. On the other hand, to deny the senescence or declines in function that usually accompany aging is a positive from of ageism. Senility is defined as "the physical and mental infirmity of old age. It is not actually a medical or scientific term, but it is often used by doctors and laypeople alike to "explain" the behavior and condition of older people. Many of the reactive emotional responses of older people, such as depression, grief, and anxiety, are labeled senility and mistakenly considered to be irreversible and untreatable. This is another form of ageism. Actual brain damage from cerebral arteriosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease probably accounts for only about half of the mental disorders in old age. Only 5 to 10 percent of those over 65 have mental disorders severe enough to interfere with normal function.


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老化は、辞書によれば、単に「年を取る」プロセスまたは状況を意味します。 しかし、生物学者や心理学者にとって、それは「人口の死亡率が速められるとき、人生のその時期に起こる、低下もしくは悪化する性質をもった構造や機能におけるそれらの挑候」を暗示します。それは、また、漸進的で不可逆の悪化を意味します。 このように、その言外の意味はまったく否定的です。 人間が年を取るにつれて可能となる、能力の回復、成長、発達、改善の全てを、それは無視します。 老化または悪化が人間が年を取ることに存在する全てであるという仮定は、年齢差別の否定的な形です。 他方、通常年を取ることに伴う機能の老化や低下を否定することは、年齢差別の前向きな形です。 老化は、「老年の肉体的および精神的な衰弱」と定義されます。 それは、実際には、医学用語や科学用語ではありません、しかし、高齢者の行動や状態を「説明する」ために医者によっても素人によっても同様にしばしば用いられます。落ち込み、悲しみ、不安と言った様な、高齢者の逆行感情的な反応の多くは、老化に分類されて、不可逆で治療不可能であると誤って考えられます。これは、年齢差別のもう一つの形です。 脳動脈硬化やアルツハイマー病による実際の脳障害は、おそらく、老年期における精神障害のわずか約半分を占めるにすぎません。 65歳以上の人々のわずか5~10パーセントが、通常の機能を妨げるほど深刻な精神障害を患うに過ぎません。



  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    There are therefore 192 subjects(forty per cent of the sample) whose happiness and domestic efficiency are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the ready accessibility of their children or other relatives. No solution of the problems of old age will be acceptable to the people themselves or to their children which does not take the family factor into account. King, Sir Geoffrey, formerly Permanent Secretary, Ministry, of Pensions and National Insurance, "Policy and Practice", Old Age in the Modern World, 1995. Studies in other places such as Hammersmith, Acton, and Northern Ireland have also produced some evidence of close ties between old people and their relatives and of a willingness to bear the burden of nursing care. But the evidence gained in these inquiries was incidental to their main purposes. There has been no specialized study of the place of the old person in the family. Yet such detailed knowledge may be fundamental to any understanding of old age or of its problems. That is the starting point of this study. How often do old people see their children and their brothers and sisters, and do they live near or far? What services do relatives perform for each other every day and at times of crisis? What is the differences in family role of an old man and an old woman? Can a more precise meaning be given to loneliness and social isolation and what does it mean to be widowed, single, or childless? Is the status of old people undergoing change? Which old people make the greatest demand on the State aid or replace the efforts of the family? These are some of the questions which will be discussed in this report.

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

  • 英語:和訳

    英語のワークをしていて、どうしても和訳が上手くいかないところがあったので、ここに相談しにきました( ;´Д`) 誰か教えてください。お願いします(><;) ・These days it is fashionable to take about Japan's aging crisis.By now everyone knows the scenario.Early this century,people 65 or over will make up a quarter of the population.Worse yet,it is assumed that all these old people will be sick and their medical bills and pensions will become a burden on society. *aging crisis 高齢化問題 *scenario 予想される事態 *pension 年金

  • 英文和訳

    so intimate is the relation between a language and the people who speak it that the two can scarcely be thought of apart. A language lives only so long as there are people who speak it and use it as native tongue, and its greatness is only that given to it by these people. 質問部分 最後の部分greatness is only that given to it by these people.のitがなにを示しているのかがわかりません。 ちなみに参考書の和訳にはこういった人々によって与えられる偉大さにほかならない。と書かれています。 よろしくお願いします

  • 和訳お願いします><

    The stereotypes associated with old people are particularly unpleasant. They are often regarded as sick, stupid, or even dirty. Because a minority of old people become confused, or suffer from mental disorders such as Alzhimer's disease, it is assumed that any old person is likely to become mentally incapacitated -although, in fact, the evidence is very different. Because of this, the positive contributions which older people can make to social events and processes are often overlooked, or simply ignored. Recently, a number of organizations and individuals have begun to challenge these stereotypes about ageing, and there is some indication that attitudes are beginning to change. But there is still a long way to go. Insight The negative view that we have of old people is like other stereotypes, having a small grain of truth in some cases but a lot of exceptions. Interestingly , although old people also share this negative stereotype, they almost always see themselves as one of the exceptions. So who is left to fit the stereotype? RETIREMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY Some people who reach reach retiring age, though, still hold to the old negative ideas about retirement. Sometimes they feel that society has simply thrown them away, even though they are as fit as ever. But sometimes they interpret any aches and pains as being evidence that they are becoming old and useless, so they stop doing activities which would help them to keep fit. Anyone will grow infirm if they do nothing all day but sit in the house and watch TV- muscles need exercise to keep toned, and a healthy retirement means an active one. Also, feeling socially useless is a major source of stress and helplessness. Without another source of self-esteem, such as a hobby or voluntary work, people can become extremely depressed, and appear to give up on active living.

  • 和訳お願いします

    Welcome to your future life! You get up in the morning and look into the mirror. Your face is firm and young-looking. In 2035, medical science is better than ever. Many people your age could live to be 150, so at 40, you're not old at all. And your parents just had an anti-aging nanotechnology treatment. Now, all three of you look the same age!

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.

  • 和訳困っています><

    -Ageing- As we've seen, many people live healthy, happy and productive lives for many years after the standard retirement age. But sooner or later, barring accidents, we all become old. It used to be thought that ageing was a steady decline in functioning, with people going inevitably downhill from the age of 50 or so. But now we know that is not so. But now we know that is not so. The research evidence which suggested this pattern of ageing was seriously flawed in the way that it was done, and modern experiences show that ageing occurs quite differently. The general pattern seems to be that we have only a very gradual decline in our older years, and that decline can be slowed down by exercise and activity, but that eventually we reach a period of more rapid physical decline, which rarely lasts for more than about five years. Usually, the person dies at some point during the five-year period. In some old people, that decline is brought about by an accident-a fall or some similar event- which damages them physically but, more importantly, shakes their confidence and makes them feel unable to cope with life as they once did. How inevitable the decline is, once it has begun, is something nobady knows. We do know, though, that even old bodies can respond surprisingly well to exercises were found to be putting on muscle mass as a result - in other words, their muscles were responding to the exercise and becoming stronger. This finding has been repeated a number of times now, and it shows that the saying " it's never too late " may be even truer than we realize. The real danger in ageing, more than any other, seems to be the person's own beliefs about it. Someone who expects to decline and become incapable as they grow older is not likely to face their body or mind with extra challenges. Without exercise, our bodies have no incentive to grow stronger or to maintain their normal levels of strength; so they become weaker. This, to the person who expects to be weak as a result of age, is 'proof 'that they were right, and their belief in inevitable decline is confirmed. But really, it began as a self-fulfilling prophecy.