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この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

There are therefore 192 subjects(forty per cent of the sample) whose happiness and domestic efficiency are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the ready accessibility of their children or other relatives. No solution of the problems of old age will be acceptable to the people themselves or to their children which does not take the family factor into account. King, Sir Geoffrey, formerly Permanent Secretary, Ministry, of Pensions and National Insurance, "Policy and Practice", Old Age in the Modern World, 1995. Studies in other places such as Hammersmith, Acton, and Northern Ireland have also produced some evidence of close ties between old people and their relatives and of a willingness to bear the burden of nursing care. But the evidence gained in these inquiries was incidental to their main purposes. There has been no specialized study of the place of the old person in the family. Yet such detailed knowledge may be fundamental to any understanding of old age or of its problems. That is the starting point of this study. How often do old people see their children and their brothers and sisters, and do they live near or far? What services do relatives perform for each other every day and at times of crisis? What is the differences in family role of an old man and an old woman? Can a more precise meaning be given to loneliness and social isolation and what does it mean to be widowed, single, or childless? Is the status of old people undergoing change? Which old people make the greatest demand on the State aid or replace the efforts of the family? These are some of the questions which will be discussed in this report.

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幸福を感じたり、家庭内で効率的に物事が行えるかどうかが、多かれ少なかれ、子供たちや他の親類と容易に連絡が取れるかどうかにかかっている(高齢の)被験者が192名います(これは、調査サンプルの40%を占めています)。 家族の要因を考慮に入れない老年問題の解決策は、高齢者自身にも、彼らの子供たちにも、受け入れられないでしょう。 キング・ジェフリー卿(年金と国民保険制度省前終身長官)著、「方針と実行」現代の世界の老年、1995年 ハマースミス、アクトン、北アイルランドのような他の場所での研究は、また、高齢者と彼らの親類の間に緊密な関係があると言う、そして、介護の負担を引き受けようという意欲があると言う、証拠を示しました。 しかし、これらの質問において得られる証拠は、それらの主要な目的に付随したものでした。家庭内における高齢者の立場の専門研究は、これまでありませんでした。 それでも、そのような詳細な知識は、老年の、あるいは、その問題の、あらゆる理解の基本となるかもしれません。 それは、この研究の出発点です。 どれくらい頻繁に、高齢者は彼らの子供たちや彼らの兄弟姉妹に会っているでしょうか、また、彼らは近くに住んでいるのでしょうか、それとも、遠くに住んでいるのでしょうか?親類は、お互いのために、毎日、そして、危急の際に、どんな貢献を果たすのでしょうか? 高齢男性と高齢女性の家族内での役割の違いは何でしょうか? 孤独や社会的孤立にもっと正確な意味を与えることはできるでしょうか、また、連れ合いに先立たれた、独身である、子供がいない、と言うことは、どんな意味を持つでしょうか?高齢者の地位は、変化を受けているでしょうか? どの高齢者が、国家の援助や家族の努力に取って代わるものを最も必要としているでしょうか? これらが、この報告で論じられる問題のいくつかです。

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  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.

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    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

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