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この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

There are therefore 192 subjects(forty per cent of the sample) whose happiness and domestic efficiency are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the ready accessibility of their children or other relatives. No solution of the problems of old age will be acceptable to the people themselves or to their children which does not take the family factor into account. King, Sir Geoffrey, formerly Permanent Secretary, Ministry, of Pensions and National Insurance, "Policy and Practice", Old Age in the Modern World, 1995. Studies in other places such as Hammersmith, Acton, and Northern Ireland have also produced some evidence of close ties between old people and their relatives and of a willingness to bear the burden of nursing care. But the evidence gained in these inquiries was incidental to their main purposes. There has been no specialized study of the place of the old person in the family. Yet such detailed knowledge may be fundamental to any understanding of old age or of its problems. That is the starting point of this study. How often do old people see their children and their brothers and sisters, and do they live near or far? What services do relatives perform for each other every day and at times of crisis? What is the differences in family role of an old man and an old woman? Can a more precise meaning be given to loneliness and social isolation and what does it mean to be widowed, single, or childless? Is the status of old people undergoing change? Which old people make the greatest demand on the State aid or replace the efforts of the family? These are some of the questions which will be discussed in this report.


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幸福を感じたり、家庭内で効率的に物事が行えるかどうかが、多かれ少なかれ、子供たちや他の親類と容易に連絡が取れるかどうかにかかっている(高齢の)被験者が192名います(これは、調査サンプルの40%を占めています)。 家族の要因を考慮に入れない老年問題の解決策は、高齢者自身にも、彼らの子供たちにも、受け入れられないでしょう。 キング・ジェフリー卿(年金と国民保険制度省前終身長官)著、「方針と実行」現代の世界の老年、1995年 ハマースミス、アクトン、北アイルランドのような他の場所での研究は、また、高齢者と彼らの親類の間に緊密な関係があると言う、そして、介護の負担を引き受けようという意欲があると言う、証拠を示しました。 しかし、これらの質問において得られる証拠は、それらの主要な目的に付随したものでした。家庭内における高齢者の立場の専門研究は、これまでありませんでした。 それでも、そのような詳細な知識は、老年の、あるいは、その問題の、あらゆる理解の基本となるかもしれません。 それは、この研究の出発点です。 どれくらい頻繁に、高齢者は彼らの子供たちや彼らの兄弟姉妹に会っているでしょうか、また、彼らは近くに住んでいるのでしょうか、それとも、遠くに住んでいるのでしょうか?親類は、お互いのために、毎日、そして、危急の際に、どんな貢献を果たすのでしょうか? 高齢男性と高齢女性の家族内での役割の違いは何でしょうか? 孤独や社会的孤立にもっと正確な意味を与えることはできるでしょうか、また、連れ合いに先立たれた、独身である、子供がいない、と言うことは、どんな意味を持つでしょうか?高齢者の地位は、変化を受けているでしょうか? どの高齢者が、国家の援助や家族の努力に取って代わるものを最も必要としているでしょうか? これらが、この報告で論じられる問題のいくつかです。



  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.

  • 英文和訳お願いします!

    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 Later in this book I will describe information gained from other sources. Twelve old people in the sample were kind enough to keep a diary of their activities for a week in the spring of 1955. Four of these diaries are reproduced in an appendix. Special surveys were made of the social and family background of old people seeking help from the social services: a sample group of some 200 people originating in East London who spent the last period of their lives in L.C.C homes; and finally, 400 people being visited by home helps in Bethnal Green. The object of these surveys was, first, to explore the respective functions of relatives and of the social services in helping to meet the needs of old people, and second, to pinpoint those groups who make the heaviest demands on statutory and voluntary provision. In presenting the results I have tried throughout to keep individual people in the forefront. The research worker is so anxious to establish patterns, uniformities, and systems of social action that he is tempted to plan questionnaires that can be filled in simply and to confine his report largely to classificatory lists and tables of statistics. The uniqueness of each individual and each family is probably the fundamental difficulty about this. However those to be studied are selected, whether on grounds of likeness in age, situation, occupation, or class, once one meets them and behavior, relationships, attitude and interpretation. Standard questions, prepared beforehand, mean different things to different people; they are sometimes appropriate, sometimes inappropriate; by themselves they do not provide an adequate means of thoroughly investigating subjects as complex as this. Before one can apply or interpret the reliability of answers to set questions, one needs a fair idea of the most important relationships, activities, and characteristics of each person approached, important, that is, as they are judged by him. Too many of the principal features of social life might otherwise be missed or misrepresented. Although I believe with conviction that the methods of interviewing should be flexible and that reports on social research should convey the quality and diversity of individual and social behavior, I am not suggesting that the search for patterns of behavior, through statistical analysis and correlation, is not important. I am submitting only that once a social inquiry moves beyond simple description and measurement, for instance, of facts of a basically demographic kind, the build-up of statistics and indices of behavior becomes a subtle and complicated process that can only proceed in the context of a wide knowledge of the societies concerned. And such knowledge cannot be gained unless there is direct and continuous acquaintance with the people who are being studied.

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Senescence, according to the dictionary, simply means the process or condition of "growing old". However, to biologists and psychologists it connotes "those manifestations in structure and function of a declining or deteriorating nature which take place during the period of life when the mortality rate of a population is accelerated". It also implies progressive and irreversible deterioration. Thus, the connotations are entirely negative. It ignores all the recovery, restoration, growth, development, and improvement of abilities that are possible as humans age. The assumption that senescence or deterioration is all there is to human aging is a negative from of ageism. On the other hand, to deny the senescence or declines in function that usually accompany aging is a positive from of ageism. Senility is defined as "the physical and mental infirmity of old age. It is not actually a medical or scientific term, but it is often used by doctors and laypeople alike to "explain" the behavior and condition of older people. Many of the reactive emotional responses of older people, such as depression, grief, and anxiety, are labeled senility and mistakenly considered to be irreversible and untreatable. This is another form of ageism. Actual brain damage from cerebral arteriosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease probably accounts for only about half of the mental disorders in old age. Only 5 to 10 percent of those over 65 have mental disorders severe enough to interfere with normal function.

  • 和訳をお願いいたします。

    以下の英文を和訳していただけるかたに。 お願いできますでしょうか? 難解な部分は意訳大歓迎です。 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 Now Let us proceed to the next door of your of your horoscope. For some people children may not be greatly significant or important, for others the prospect of having ones own children, or the relationship with step children, and relatives little ones, may be a factor that can make or mar the future marriage and life together. It will be helpful to know, how your future soulmate views children.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    Our need to affiliate - to feel connected and identified with others - boosted our ancestors' chances for survival, which may explain why humans in every society live in groups. When ostracized (excluded or shunned by others), people suffer from stress and depression - a real pain that increases activity in the same brain areas that respond to physical pain. Those who are socially secure in their friendships, families, or marriages tend to be healthier and to have lower levels of depression, suicide, and early death. When socially exclude, people may engage in self-defeating or antisocial behaviors.

  • 和訳困っています、お願いします><

    We can see, then ,that each stage of the family life cycle involves defferent adjustments and new forms of learning. Although, inevitably, it doesn't fit every single family, identifying the different stages in this way has proved to be very useful for marriage guidance counsellors and other people who are either trying to help people to adjust to changes in their relationships, ore who are trying to do the adjusting themselves. Having said that, the number of modern families which fits this simple pattern is becoming increasingly few. Families break up and re-form with new members, single-parent families are increasing common, and people with grown-up children often find themselves in new relationships which involve bringing up much younger children. Models like Duvall's can be helpful, but they are not be any means the whole pattern of our life span family development. Insight The family life cycle model can help us understand the adaptations that parents must make. But modern families are not always so neat, with overlapping generations, stepchildren from previous relationships and other complications. So, relatively few families follow the pattern exactly the way that the theory proposes.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 Of the 203 people interviewed two-thirds were women, half of them widowed. Just under a firth had no surviving children. Table 1 outlines the numbers of different marital status, distinguishing those without children. The main interview lasted for an average of about two hours. After an explanation of the reasons for the call, the interview itself was not so much a search for short answers to formal questions as a guided conversation. An interview schedule was taken out and extensive notes taken. A kinship diagram was drawn for each informant, the Christian names, ages, occupations, and districts oof residence of husband or wife, children, grandchildren, brothers and sisters, and so on being noted down, together with an estimate of the frequency of contact with each of them. Information about the family often proved difficult to obtain sometimes because the number of relatives was very large, sometimes because people were infirm, deaf, forgetful, or unwilling. Too much should not be made of such difficulties. Most people were remarkably generous and indulgent and went to great lengths to find an answer to questions - searching out birth certificates, funeral cards, family photos, insurance agreements, and supplementary assistance books. The kinship diagram usually gave information about more than fifty relatives, including all those in frequent touch with the old person. Facts about income, health, household management, retirement, neighbours, and friends were also sought. After the interview a report of from two to four thousand words was written. A further note on method, together with examples of interview-reports, will be found at the end of this book. In the illustrations from interviews throughout the text fictitious names have been used and details have been altered to prevent identification. In the quotations no attempt has been made to convey dialect. Apart from a few early interviews all the people were seen between October 1954 and November 1995. I interviewed 160 myself and the remainder were interviewed by my colleague, Peter Marris. Nearly all were visited a second time, some three, four, or more times, partly to secure additional information. Separate interviews were also obtained with some relatives of the chief informants.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 

    この英文を和訳お願いします。  誤字があったらすみません。 The first describes the family life of people of pensionable age in a working-class borough of East London; the second discusses the chief social problems of old age against the background of family organization and relationships. Concern about the growing number of old people springs partly from an assumption that many of them are isolated from their families and from the community. It is widely believed that the ties of kinships are much less enduring than they once were and that as a consequence the immediate family of parents and unmarried children, of which the individual is a member for only part of his lifetime, has replaced the larger family of three or four generations, of which the individual is a member for the whole of his life, as the fundamental unit of society. Such an assumption is of very great importance and demands careful examination. The first trial interview i had when I started this study was with an old man whose situation suggested the assumption might be right. He was an old widower of seventy-six years of age who lived alone in two rooms on the third floor of a block of tenement flats. His wife had died two years previously and he had no children. He was a very thin, large-boned man with a high-domed forehead and a permanent stoop. His frayed waistcoat and trousers hung in folds. At the time of calling, 5.30 pm, he was having his first meal of the day, a hot-pot of mashed peas and ham washed down with a pint of tea from a large mug. The lining-room was dilapidated, with old black-out curtains covering the windows, crockery placed on newspapers, and piles of old magazines tucked under the chairs. In one corner of the room by an open fireplace (a kitchener) stood a broken meat-safe with scraps of food inside. There was a photo of his wife in her twenties on the mantel-piece tonight with one of a barmaid and a pin-up from a Sunday paper. His wife's coat still hung on a hook on the door and her slippers were tidily placed in the hearth.