The Importance of Family in Old Age

  • 192 subjects in the sample depend on the accessibility of their children or relatives for their happiness and domestic efficiency.
  • The family factor must be taken into account when solving the problems of old age.
  • There is a need for a specialized study on the place of the elderly in the family, including their relationships with their children and siblings, the services provided by relatives, and the roles of old men and old women.
  • ベストアンサー

この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

There are therefore 192 subjects(forty per cent of the sample) whose happiness and domestic efficiency are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the ready accessibility of their children or other relatives. No solution of the problems of old age will be acceptable to the people themselves or to their children which does not take the family factor into account. King, Sir Geoffrey, formerly Permanent Secretary, Ministry, of Pensions and National Insurance, "Policy and Practice", Old Age in the Modern World, 1995. Studies in other places such as Hammersmith, Acton, and Northern Ireland have also produced some evidence of close ties between old people and their relatives and of a willingness to bear the burden of nursing care. But the evidence gained in these inquiries was incidental to their main purposes. There has been no specialized study of the place of the old person in the family. Yet such detailed knowledge may be fundamental to any understanding of old age or of its problems. That is the starting point of this study. How often do old people see their children and their brothers and sisters, and do they live near or far? What services do relatives perform for each other every day and at times of crisis? What is the differences in family role of an old man and an old woman? Can a more precise meaning be given to loneliness and social isolation and what does it mean to be widowed, single, or childless? Is the status of old people undergoing change? Which old people make the greatest demand on the State aid or replace the efforts of the family? These are some of the questions which will be discussed in this report.

  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • ありがとう数0


  • ベストアンサー
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

幸福を感じたり、家庭内で効率的に物事が行えるかどうかが、多かれ少なかれ、子供たちや他の親類と容易に連絡が取れるかどうかにかかっている(高齢の)被験者が192名います(これは、調査サンプルの40%を占めています)。 家族の要因を考慮に入れない老年問題の解決策は、高齢者自身にも、彼らの子供たちにも、受け入れられないでしょう。 キング・ジェフリー卿(年金と国民保険制度省前終身長官)著、「方針と実行」現代の世界の老年、1995年 ハマースミス、アクトン、北アイルランドのような他の場所での研究は、また、高齢者と彼らの親類の間に緊密な関係があると言う、そして、介護の負担を引き受けようという意欲があると言う、証拠を示しました。 しかし、これらの質問において得られる証拠は、それらの主要な目的に付随したものでした。家庭内における高齢者の立場の専門研究は、これまでありませんでした。 それでも、そのような詳細な知識は、老年の、あるいは、その問題の、あらゆる理解の基本となるかもしれません。 それは、この研究の出発点です。 どれくらい頻繁に、高齢者は彼らの子供たちや彼らの兄弟姉妹に会っているでしょうか、また、彼らは近くに住んでいるのでしょうか、それとも、遠くに住んでいるのでしょうか?親類は、お互いのために、毎日、そして、危急の際に、どんな貢献を果たすのでしょうか? 高齢男性と高齢女性の家族内での役割の違いは何でしょうか? 孤独や社会的孤立にもっと正確な意味を与えることはできるでしょうか、また、連れ合いに先立たれた、独身である、子供がいない、と言うことは、どんな意味を持つでしょうか?高齢者の地位は、変化を受けているでしょうか? どの高齢者が、国家の援助や家族の努力に取って代わるものを最も必要としているでしょうか? これらが、この報告で論じられる問題のいくつかです。


  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • 英文和訳お願いします!

    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 Later in this book I will describe information gained from other sources. Twelve old people in the sample were kind enough to keep a diary of their activities for a week in the spring of 1955. Four of these diaries are reproduced in an appendix. Special surveys were made of the social and family background of old people seeking help from the social services: a sample group of some 200 people originating in East London who spent the last period of their lives in L.C.C homes; and finally, 400 people being visited by home helps in Bethnal Green. The object of these surveys was, first, to explore the respective functions of relatives and of the social services in helping to meet the needs of old people, and second, to pinpoint those groups who make the heaviest demands on statutory and voluntary provision. In presenting the results I have tried throughout to keep individual people in the forefront. The research worker is so anxious to establish patterns, uniformities, and systems of social action that he is tempted to plan questionnaires that can be filled in simply and to confine his report largely to classificatory lists and tables of statistics. The uniqueness of each individual and each family is probably the fundamental difficulty about this. However those to be studied are selected, whether on grounds of likeness in age, situation, occupation, or class, once one meets them and behavior, relationships, attitude and interpretation. Standard questions, prepared beforehand, mean different things to different people; they are sometimes appropriate, sometimes inappropriate; by themselves they do not provide an adequate means of thoroughly investigating subjects as complex as this. Before one can apply or interpret the reliability of answers to set questions, one needs a fair idea of the most important relationships, activities, and characteristics of each person approached, important, that is, as they are judged by him. Too many of the principal features of social life might otherwise be missed or misrepresented. Although I believe with conviction that the methods of interviewing should be flexible and that reports on social research should convey the quality and diversity of individual and social behavior, I am not suggesting that the search for patterns of behavior, through statistical analysis and correlation, is not important. I am submitting only that once a social inquiry moves beyond simple description and measurement, for instance, of facts of a basically demographic kind, the build-up of statistics and indices of behavior becomes a subtle and complicated process that can only proceed in the context of a wide knowledge of the societies concerned. And such knowledge cannot be gained unless there is direct and continuous acquaintance with the people who are being studied.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 少し量多いですが… They are not easy questions to answer. One area was sought in which a detailed study could be made. The metropolitan borough of Bethnal Green was chosen, partly because a companion inquiry into family life had already started there, undertaken by my colleagues, Michael Young and Peter Willmott. In many respects the two studies are complementary. One considers family life through the eyes oof middle-aged couples with children and the other largely through the eyes of the elderly. Both lay great emphasis on intensive interviews with random samples of the population. The two studies were planned together but the subsequent work was carried out, and the reports written up, independently. My colleagues and I have, quite deliberately, made no attempt to reconcile the findings in the two books. Since our chief informants belonged to different age-groups, the impressions we gained were also bound to be different. Any reader(if there be any with the stamina) who studies both books side by side will therefore notice the disagreement on certain subject as well as the great measure of agreement on most of the important features of the local kinship system. The borough where the studies were carried out is relatively small, is near central London, and has a predominantly working-class population. In 1951 fourteen per cent of the people were of pensionable age - the same proportion as for the Country of London and England and Wales. The borough had lost population to new housing estates on the outskirts of London, and a small minority of people were Jewish. With these two reservations there was no reason to suppose that family life would be very different from that in other long-settled working-class urban areas. After trial interviews had been carried out in Westminster and Hampstead the names of individuals of pensionable age in Bethnal Green were obtained at random from the records of general practitioners. Seven of the general practices in the borough were themselves selected at random for this purpose. The procedure was to work through the medical cards for all patients on a doctor's list, picking out every tenth card and, where the card referred to a man aged sixty-five or over, a woman aged sixty or over, or a person whose age was not specified, to note down the name and address. After eliminating those who were subsequently found to be below pensionable age(or to have died before the sample was drawn) 261 names remained. The result of visits paid to all the addresses was as follows.

  • 【至急】英文の和訳です。よろしくお願いします。

    It is now generally accepted that the child's reading ability progresses through several periods of reading development. The first period, known as "reading readiness," begins at birth and continues normally until the age of about six or seven. Reading readiness includes the physical ability to see and hear, and the mental ability to remember words and their letters, and to use simple sentences. In the second period of reading development, children learn to read very simple materials. In the United States, children usually will be able to read perhaps 300 or 400 words by the end of the first year. By the end of this period., pupils are expected to be reading and enjoying simple books by themselves without help from teachers or parents.

  • 英文の和訳

    和訳をしていただけるかたのみで お願いできますでしょうか? 身内についての説明文かもしれませんが、 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 n the previous two readings I told you of your future partners Mother and then his Father In this reading to complete the picture I will tell you something of the rest of his family. His siblings or other close relatives. It is the parents who always show most distinctly and clearly, because their influence on your partners early fate and background in generally the stronger, but some details about the rest of the family do show. The reason I only reveal his background step by step, when it is there to be found, is simply that while to you it may just be one paragraph that is quickly read, it takes a long time to detangle his family relationships from the web of fate in your chart. so there is only enough time to include a fragment in each reading, if we are to allow room for other important things.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 Of the 203 people interviewed two-thirds were women, half of them widowed. Just under a firth had no surviving children. Table 1 outlines the numbers of different marital status, distinguishing those without children. The main interview lasted for an average of about two hours. After an explanation of the reasons for the call, the interview itself was not so much a search for short answers to formal questions as a guided conversation. An interview schedule was taken out and extensive notes taken. A kinship diagram was drawn for each informant, the Christian names, ages, occupations, and districts oof residence of husband or wife, children, grandchildren, brothers and sisters, and so on being noted down, together with an estimate of the frequency of contact with each of them. Information about the family often proved difficult to obtain sometimes because the number of relatives was very large, sometimes because people were infirm, deaf, forgetful, or unwilling. Too much should not be made of such difficulties. Most people were remarkably generous and indulgent and went to great lengths to find an answer to questions - searching out birth certificates, funeral cards, family photos, insurance agreements, and supplementary assistance books. The kinship diagram usually gave information about more than fifty relatives, including all those in frequent touch with the old person. Facts about income, health, household management, retirement, neighbours, and friends were also sought. After the interview a report of from two to four thousand words was written. A further note on method, together with examples of interview-reports, will be found at the end of this book. In the illustrations from interviews throughout the text fictitious names have been used and details have been altered to prevent identification. In the quotations no attempt has been made to convey dialect. Apart from a few early interviews all the people were seen between October 1954 and November 1995. I interviewed 160 myself and the remainder were interviewed by my colleague, Peter Marris. Nearly all were visited a second time, some three, four, or more times, partly to secure additional information. Separate interviews were also obtained with some relatives of the chief informants.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.

  • 和訳をお願いいたします。

    以下の英文を和訳していただけるかたに。 お願いできますでしょうか? 難解な部分は意訳大歓迎です。 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 Now Let us proceed to the next door of your of your horoscope. For some people children may not be greatly significant or important, for others the prospect of having ones own children, or the relationship with step children, and relatives little ones, may be a factor that can make or mar the future marriage and life together. It will be helpful to know, how your future soulmate views children.