The Social Problem of Old Age: Isolation and Family Ties

  • This article explores the social problem of old age and the issue of isolation. It discusses the life of one individual who represents the challenges faced by many elderly people, including bereavement, lack of family support, infirmity, and social ostracism. The article raises questions about the extent of this problem in society and the changing role of families in providing care for the elderly. It emphasizes the need for more research and understanding of the role of relatives in supporting older adults.
  • The issue of provision for old age has become a problem due to the weakening of family ties and the emphasis on individual rights over obligations. Families used to take responsibility for their elderly members, but now they rely on the state for care. This article argues that the separation of older adults from their kin is a characteristic of industrialized societies, but questions whether this is true in Britain. It highlights the importance of studying the bonds of kinship and the role of relatives in supporting the elderly.
  • A pioneering study in Wolverhampton revealed the significant role played by relatives in caring for older people. However, there is still limited knowledge about their role and the extent of their influence. This article calls for more research to gain a better understanding of the factors contributing to the isolation of older adults and the impact of family support.
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この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.

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  • ddeana
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私はこの一人の人間の人生を描写することからこの本を始めることにしました。なぜなら彼は多くの観察者が高齢者の社会的「問題」とみなしている事柄の代表例だからです。彼のケースにおいて、私たちは近親者との死別、子供や親族のいないこと、(老齢による)慢性病、実質的な社会からの追放といったきわめて重大な事実を無視できないということを知るでしょう。もし私たちが地域社会からの隔離による何かを指すのであれば、彼は間違いなく私たちが心に留めておく種類の人間です。しかし彼のケースは例外や(何かの)法則でしょうか? 私たちの社会には彼のような人間が他に沢山いるのでしょうか? 多くの社会学者や行政官はそうだと信じています。一人の行政官はそれを次のような表現で述べました。 高齢者に対する対策は、家族の絆が弱くなってきたこと、個人的権利の主張、近年著しく問題となってきた義理人情の排除にたいする免責感などの為に大きく「問題」として浮かび上がってきました。かつて家族が年老いた彼らの家族にたいする責任を受け入れていたのに対し、現在彼らは国家が面倒を見るものだと本気で考えています。かつて家族が与えていた世話や思いやりはいくつか他の方法で(高齢者に)提供されなければなりません。 親族との別居は原始社会の時代から産業を差別化するのに寄与する機能のひとつとされています。しかしイギリスの年老いた人々は結婚した子供たちとの接触を失い、孤立した生活を過ごすのですか? 特に都市部において親族の絆はまったく重大性がないのでしょうか? 私たちはより多くの事実の値打ち(※1)を認識するために、ただこれらの疑問点を突きつけなければなりません。現在の沢山の推測を裏付ける何かがあるわけではありません。 先駆的研究においてシェルドン(※2)はウルバーハンプトンにおいて高齢者の親族が果たした重要な役割に注目し、彼らの役割についてあまりにも知られていないと述べています。 ※1:この場合は何かをした結果当然受け取るべき悪いほうの値打ちと考えます。 ※2:社会的責任論を論じた、O・sheldonのことかと考えます。 ___________________ 日本でも人事とはいえない重いテーマですが、考えさせながら訳させていただきました。


  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    There are therefore 192 subjects(forty per cent of the sample) whose happiness and domestic efficiency are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the ready accessibility of their children or other relatives. No solution of the problems of old age will be acceptable to the people themselves or to their children which does not take the family factor into account. King, Sir Geoffrey, formerly Permanent Secretary, Ministry, of Pensions and National Insurance, "Policy and Practice", Old Age in the Modern World, 1995. Studies in other places such as Hammersmith, Acton, and Northern Ireland have also produced some evidence of close ties between old people and their relatives and of a willingness to bear the burden of nursing care. But the evidence gained in these inquiries was incidental to their main purposes. There has been no specialized study of the place of the old person in the family. Yet such detailed knowledge may be fundamental to any understanding of old age or of its problems. That is the starting point of this study. How often do old people see their children and their brothers and sisters, and do they live near or far? What services do relatives perform for each other every day and at times of crisis? What is the differences in family role of an old man and an old woman? Can a more precise meaning be given to loneliness and social isolation and what does it mean to be widowed, single, or childless? Is the status of old people undergoing change? Which old people make the greatest demand on the State aid or replace the efforts of the family? These are some of the questions which will be discussed in this report.

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

  • 至急訳してください(>_<)!

    Japan has many social problems,and one of the greatest is the rapid increase in the number of old people. We know that more than one io four Japanese will be 65 years of age or older by 2025 and almost one in three by 2050. In 1996,fewer than one person in seven was a senior citizen. In the past,sons or the wives of sons,and daughters usually cared for their old parents. However,not many young people do this nowadays. It is difficult for young couples to manage even their nuclear families. So taking care of their old parents is too much for them,especially if their parents are physically weak and need constant care and help. Unfortunately,there are not enough nursing homes for old people and not enough home care workers to provide services for them. Although robots are now being developed to help ole people,those robots are not able to give as good care and attention as home care workers can. On the other hand,many ole people are able to work,and they want to have some kind of role in society,using their talents,skills,knowledge and experience. As the number of old people is quickly increasing,the Japanese government must take steps to help them lead a safe and comfortable life. とっても急いでいます!至急訳していただけませんか?(>_<)

  • 和訳してください。

    Or perhaps we should say rather that the dichotomy between primitive and revealed religions is false, for there is a sense in which all religious are religions of revelation; the world around them and their reason have everywhere revealed to people something of the divine, of their own nature and destiny.

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    翻訳サイトだと意味がおかしくなるので質問しました。 Later in this book I will describe information gained from other sources. Twelve old people in the sample were kind enough to keep a diary of their activities for a week in the spring of 1955. Four of these diaries are reproduced in an appendix. Special surveys were made of the social and family background of old people seeking help from the social services: a sample group of some 200 people originating in East London who spent the last period of their lives in L.C.C homes; and finally, 400 people being visited by home helps in Bethnal Green. The object of these surveys was, first, to explore the respective functions of relatives and of the social services in helping to meet the needs of old people, and second, to pinpoint those groups who make the heaviest demands on statutory and voluntary provision. In presenting the results I have tried throughout to keep individual people in the forefront. The research worker is so anxious to establish patterns, uniformities, and systems of social action that he is tempted to plan questionnaires that can be filled in simply and to confine his report largely to classificatory lists and tables of statistics. The uniqueness of each individual and each family is probably the fundamental difficulty about this. However those to be studied are selected, whether on grounds of likeness in age, situation, occupation, or class, once one meets them and behavior, relationships, attitude and interpretation. Standard questions, prepared beforehand, mean different things to different people; they are sometimes appropriate, sometimes inappropriate; by themselves they do not provide an adequate means of thoroughly investigating subjects as complex as this. Before one can apply or interpret the reliability of answers to set questions, one needs a fair idea of the most important relationships, activities, and characteristics of each person approached, important, that is, as they are judged by him. Too many of the principal features of social life might otherwise be missed or misrepresented. Although I believe with conviction that the methods of interviewing should be flexible and that reports on social research should convey the quality and diversity of individual and social behavior, I am not suggesting that the search for patterns of behavior, through statistical analysis and correlation, is not important. I am submitting only that once a social inquiry moves beyond simple description and measurement, for instance, of facts of a basically demographic kind, the build-up of statistics and indices of behavior becomes a subtle and complicated process that can only proceed in the context of a wide knowledge of the societies concerned. And such knowledge cannot be gained unless there is direct and continuous acquaintance with the people who are being studied.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • 和訳お願いします

    東日本大震災での話です。 On March 11, 2011 a magnitude-9 earthquake and tsunami struck the eastern part of Japan. An unbelievable number of people died and lost their homes, and about four hundred thousand people had to leave their hometowns. Many of the survivors lost family members and suffered mentally as well as physically. But even so, people helped each other and tried to keep a smile. In fact, the victims of the earthquake and tsunami have built a community to look after each other. Their efforts and perseverance surprised Japan and the world. People in other areas also wanted to find ways to do something. Some of them actually gave a helping hand to the victims by clearing the streets and serving hot meals. Millions of people have donated money and goods. Aid came from no only within Japan but from many other countries. There are lots of students who want to help poeple in need. You may not be able to take action right away, but there are many things that young people can do. Doing volunteer work during long vacations is one of them. Studying is another. It will help you to learn things to make this nation a safer place. We all saw tremendous power of nature. We now realize how small human beings are. However, if we can keep supporting each other not only for years but for decades to come, we can all be prond of the amazing power of people.

  • 和訳をお願いします

    和訳をお願いします 長くなってすみません(>_<) Our next opinion was sent in by Mark Navarrone, who writes: Pets make great companios, and that's the main reason why more than half of household in the United States have pets today, but there are also a number of problems associated with pet ownership. It would be great if everyone were responsible, but unfortunately many people don't take good care of their pets. Some people allow their pets to run loose in the neighborhood orabandon them when they move. Many people also fail to take measures to prevent their dogs or cats from reproducing. This lends to the birth of many unwanted puppies and kittens, which often end up at animal shelters or, even worse,are simply dumped in rural areas. These irresponsible pet owners are a big problem. There must be strict penalties for the abandonment of animals.

  • 英文和訳お願いします!

    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • 英文和訳お願いします。

    ニュアンスがわからず困ってます。。今度、海外に住む友人を訪ねる予定なのですが・・・ my plan is we could just stay in one of the pension house for a couple of days then we could go to the Island and maybe spend 2 to 3 days there. よろしくお願いします(。>_<。)