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この英文の和訳お願いします。 

この英文を和訳お願いします。  誤字があったらすみません。 The first describes the family life of people of pensionable age in a working-class borough of East London; the second discusses the chief social problems of old age against the background of family organization and relationships. Concern about the growing number of old people springs partly from an assumption that many of them are isolated from their families and from the community. It is widely believed that the ties of kinships are much less enduring than they once were and that as a consequence the immediate family of parents and unmarried children, of which the individual is a member for only part of his lifetime, has replaced the larger family of three or four generations, of which the individual is a member for the whole of his life, as the fundamental unit of society. Such an assumption is of very great importance and demands careful examination. The first trial interview i had when I started this study was with an old man whose situation suggested the assumption might be right. He was an old widower of seventy-six years of age who lived alone in two rooms on the third floor of a block of tenement flats. His wife had died two years previously and he had no children. He was a very thin, large-boned man with a high-domed forehead and a permanent stoop. His frayed waistcoat and trousers hung in folds. At the time of calling, 5.30 pm, he was having his first meal of the day, a hot-pot of mashed peas and ham washed down with a pint of tea from a large mug. The lining-room was dilapidated, with old black-out curtains covering the windows, crockery placed on newspapers, and piles of old magazines tucked under the chairs. In one corner of the room by an open fireplace (a kitchener) stood a broken meat-safe with scraps of food inside. There was a photo of his wife in her twenties on the mantel-piece tonight with one of a barmaid and a pin-up from a Sunday paper. His wife's coat still hung on a hook on the door and her slippers were tidily placed in the hearth.

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  • sayshe
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 第1は、労働者階級のイースト・ロンドン自治区で、年金を受ける資格のある年齢の人々の家庭生活を記述します; 第2は、家族構成や家族関係の背景にした老年の主要な社会問題を議論します。  増大する高齢者に対する懸念は、一つには、彼らの多くが、彼らの家族から、そして、コミュニティから孤立していると言う仮定から生じます。親類関係のつながりがかつてと比べてそれほど永続しない、そして、結果として、社会の基本単位として、個人がその生涯の一時期だけその家族の一員である両親と未婚の子供たちと言う肉親だけの家族が、個人がその生涯を通じてその家族の一員である3~4世代のより大きな家族にとって代わったと広く信じられています。そのような仮定は、非常に重要で、慎重な検証を必要とします。  この研究を始めたとき、私が行った最初の試験的面談は、仮定が正しいかもしれないことをその状況が示した老人との面談でした。 彼は、賃貸アパートの三階の2部屋で一人暮らしをしている76才の年をとった男やもめでした。 彼の妻は、2年前に死んでいました、また、彼には子供がいませんでした。彼は、額が禿げ上がって腰の曲がったとても痩せた、骨太な男性でした。 彼のすり減ったチョッキとズボンは、しわになっていました。 午後5時30分に訪問した時、彼はその日の最初の食事をとっていました。暖かい鍋に入ったつぶしたエンドウとハムを、大きなマグカップの1パイントの紅茶で流し込むように食べていました。古い遮光カーテンが窓を覆い、陶器類が新聞の上に置かれ、古雑誌の山が椅子の下に押し込まれ、食堂は荒廃していました。 部屋の一隅の、開いた暖炉(料理用)のそばには、食物の食べ残しが入った壊れた網戸棚がありました。この夜は、20代の彼の妻の写真が、日曜の新聞のホステスやピンナップの1つと共に、マントルピースの上にありました。 彼の妻のコートは、まだ、ドアのフックに掛けられており、彼女のスリッパは、炉の所にきちんと置かれていました。

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  • 回答No.1

呼称と異称 [編集] 不潔、不浄なイメージが強いため、日本も含め、多くの文化圏で婉曲表現が存在する。 日本には便所を意味する呼称や異称が多い。「厠(かわや)」は古く『古事記』にその例が見え、施設の下に水を流す溝を配した「川屋」だったことがわかる。あからさまに口にすることが「はばかられる」ために「はばかり」「手水(ちょうず)[1]」といったり、中国の伝説的な禅師の名から「雪隠(せっちん)」という語を使うようにもなった。昭和になると「ご不浄」から「お手洗い」「化粧室」としだいに表現がより穏やかなものが使われるようになり、主に女性を中心に、便所に行くことを「花を摘みに行く」と表現するようになっていった。戦後は「トイレ」や「W.C.(water closet の頭文字)」など外国語に由来する表現や男女を示すピクトグラムでその場所を表したりすることも増えた。 英語では、「トイレ」という表記の元の語「トイレット」 (toilet) 自体が「化粧室」を意味する場合もあるが、「便器」を意味する直截的な単語でもあるため、日常会話では、住居において同室に設置されることが多い風呂と合わせて「bathroom」と呼んだり、本来は「休憩室」を意味する「rest room」、あるいは「men's/lady's room」と婉曲的な表現を用いることが一般的である。 近年では、公衆便所を公衆トイレに変えるべきという議論を行った自治体もある。荒川区では「便という言葉に不潔なイメージがあり、語呂も悪い」という理由で、公衆トイレに変更する条例案が区側から提出されたため、荒川区議会で議論することとなり、条例案は賛成多数で可決、本会議で採決されることになった。また、荒川区職員からは「公衆便所は女性蔑視の差別用語でもある」などという発言も飛び出しており、区議側から非難されている。 しかし、現在は汚い語だと思われがちな「便所」自体も本来は直接的な呼称ではなく、「はばかり」などと同様に婉曲的な表現だった。便所の語源は「鬢所(びんしょ)」で、「鬢」とは頭部の左右側面の髪のことをさす。室町時代の貴族の家で、この鬢を整え身支度をする場所を鬢所と呼んでいたことがその語源。また、身支度に適した便利な場所という意味から「便利所・便宜所」が変化したという説もある。いずれの場合でも、現在使用されている「化粧室」に近い丁寧な表現だったことがわかる。

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