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和訳してほしいです。 年齢差別についてです。

Our analysis of data from the Health Interview Survey since 1961 found that all measures of illness and disability showed decreasing disability for successive cohorts of people 65 and over relative to younger persons. Are these gains due primarily to reductions in ageism, to improved support and services for elders, or to cohort changes? They are probably due to a combination of these factors, but primarily to cohort changes. What are cohort changes? For our purposes, a cohort is a category of people born during a certain period. For example, the cohort of people born between 1920 and 1930 will be 60 to 70 years old in 1990. They are a more affluent, better educated, and healthier cohort than cohorts born before 1920. This is because the newer cohorts had more fortunate life experiences. They had more education as youth; did not suffer from loss of savings and unemployment during the Depression; and had better nutrition, sanitation, and health care throughout their lives. Thus, as the newer cohorts replace the older cohorts among those over 65. the average income, education, and health of elders improves. This is the primary explanation for the improvement in characteristics of elders.


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  • sayshe
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1961年以降の「健康面談調査」のデータを我々が分析して、病気と障害の全ての測定値が、若い人と比較して65歳以上の一連の集団で障害が減少していることを示していることが分かりました。 これらの改善は、主として、年齢差別の減少、高齢者に対する支援、サービスの改善、あるいは、集団が変化したことのためでしょうか?それらは、おそらく、これらの要因が組み合わさったものでしょうが、主として、集団が変化したためだと思われます。 集団の変化とは何でしょう?我々の目的にとって、集団は、ある時期に出生した人々のカテゴリーです。例えば、1920年から1930年に生まれた人々の集団は、1990年には60歳から70歳になっているでしょう。彼らは、1920年以前に生まれた集団よりも豊かで、教育程度も良く、健康な集団です。これは、より新しい集団がより幸運な人生経験をしたためです。彼らは、若い頃、より良い教育を受けました;大恐慌の時期にも貯蓄の減少や失業をこうむりませんでした;そして、彼らの生涯を通じて栄養、衛生面、健康管理は、より良かったのです。 この様に、より新しい集団が、65歳以上の人々で、より古い集団にとって代わるにつれて、高齢者の平均の収入、教育、健康が改善します。このことが、高齢者の特徴の改善に対する主たる説明となるのです。 ☆cohort と言う語を、「集団」と訳しましたが、統計学では、「群」と訳すこともあるようです。「群」と訳しても文章全体の意味は変わらないと思います。 <参考> cohort http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=cohort&ref=sa





  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

  • 和訳 困っています><

    SOCIAL LABELLING Dyson(1980) interviewed a large number of people about their experiences of retirement, and challenged the idea that people see it as a fair exchange. Dyson's respondents saw it as fair for old people in general, but not in their own personal cases. They felt that, for the most part, sosiety had thrown them on the junk heap too early, when they were still perfectly capable of making an active and useful contribution to society. But they did think it was probably fair for other old people, and for old people in general. Dyson's research gave some interesting hints about the emergence of a new perspective on ageing, which developed during the 1980s. This view sees the lower visibility of older people in society as a product of old people are very strong-even though most of us are personally acquainted with individuals who don't fit those stereotypes at all. But it is very difficult for an individual to berak through the social stereotyping and be regarded as an intelligent person with something useful to contribute, because too often they are seen as someone who is old, and therefore useless. Or they think this is how they will be seen, and so they don't bother trying.

  • 和訳お願いします(>_<)

    People in areas with a relatively cool climate think that they are free from catching malaria. However, recent changes in climate let mosquitoes move into parts of the world that used to be too cold for them to survive. For example, in Papua New Guinea, the higher mountain areas are becoming warmer, and mosquitoes may affect another two million people. As the world becomes warmer, the spread of malaria will be more and more of an urgent global concern.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.

  • 和訳をお願いします。(会話文)

    和訳をお願いします。(会話文) T:The Internet has given me the chance to be just like everyone else. Nobody cares how I walk and talk on the Internet. It is much easier for me to talk to people on the Internet. To them I am just another person. I know they are not staring at my appearance. They are looking at the person I am inside. G:How would you make the world more disabled-friendly? Personally,what role do you plan to play when you grow up? T:I want to make the world aware that not all people are the same. People must start caring for others. I also want to open doors for the disabled. I want to give them the right to work and to live like other people. G:What is it like in your country? T:In South Africa there is still a lot of discrimination against the disabled. A lot of old buildings aren't barrier-free. People often use the disabled parking spaces at public places. To tell the truth,black South Africans are often more understanding and kinder than people of my own race. They have also experienced discrimination. Before anything can change in South Africa,the minds of the people will have to change. Their attitude will have to change. G:What is your greatest wish? T:I want people to look beyond my disability and look at the person I am inside.

  • 和訳お願いしますm(_ _)m

    suggestible=被暗示性、という心理学用語ですm(_ _)m We are suggestible,ready to take ideas from others and make them our own. Suggestbility descnbes why people believe something that never happened. They become convinced because they are told about an event. They see it in movies,and they hear about it. So they combine theae thoughts into false memories―――but not real ones. Psychologists believe that many childhood memories are created by parents for their children. They tell the child that something happened: "Remember when we went to the seaehore?' And the child collects beach and vacation ideas into a memory. Propaganda is delibetately telling people ideas that you went them to believe. Advertising is another form of suggesting to people,and people of all ages tend to believe advertising. All of us are suggestible; children are particularly so.

  • 和訳していただけませんか?

    下の文を和訳していただけませんか? Altrhough tecnological changes seldom reverse, it is not necessarily true formegatrends that are triggered by social changes. When major changes in society occur that force people to think and act differently, they may be permanent, or they may late only a generation or two. The aging society is one example. Today, the population 65 and above is increasing in postindustrial countries worldwide, forcing governments, businesses, and families to change in order to care for the large number of senior citizens.

  • 和訳お願いします(>_<)

    The best way to prevent is to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are active at night,and people often get bitten while they are sleeping. They just need to hang a net around their bed,so it is very easy and inexpensive. Recently,a special kind of net was invented by a Japanese company. The fibers of the net contain a special insecticide that lasts for five years. There has been international suttort to deliver these nets to people in Africa.

  • 和訳して欲しいです。 年齢差別についてです。

    However, there have been few attemps to compare quantitatively the relative importance of these three kinds of prejudice and discrimination. We have analyzed the race, sex and age inequalities shown by the U.S. census statistics using the method of the Equality Index. We compared inequalities in terms of income, education, occupation, and number of weeks worked. The Equality Index summarizes the amount of similarity between the percentage distributions of two groups, such as the aged and non aged, on a given dimensions, such as income or years of education. We found that age inequality was greater than race and sex inequality in the number of years of education completed and in the number of weeks worked; that is, there was more discrepancy between the aged and non aged in their education and weeks worked, than there was between the whites and nonwhites, and between males and females. However, in terms of occupation, age inequality was less than racial and sex inequality. Age inequality was also greater than racial inequality in terms of income. When comparisons were made combining two of the factors, the joint effects were generally additive. The combination of all three factors produced the lowest quality in both income and occupation. Changes since 1950 show nonwhites and the aged gaining substantially more equality in income, occupation, and education; while women were barely maintaining their generally inferior status. The extent to which these inequalities are directly due to racism, sexism, and ageism, as opposed to biological or cohort differences, is difficult to determine. However, it is clear that the relative amounts of race, sex, and age inequality vary depending ono which inequality is being mesured.

  • 和訳おねがいします。

    和訳をお願いします。 for whom the bell tolls Understanding the global marketplace is only one reason why people study economics. Somepeople study economics becauce they hope to make money. Others worry that they will be illiterate if they cannot understand the laws of suppy and demand. People are also concerned to learn about how we can improve our environment or why countries like Russia and China are moving from a planned to a market economy よろしくおねがいします。