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Societies which recognize that pacta sunt servanda among their own members,do not find it difficult to recognize the advantages of fulfilling obligations and contacts in dealings with individuals and groups in different societies.The fact that all societies appear to recognize that there is an obligation to fulfil contacts,alongwith prudential advantage in fulfilling them (just as,it is often argued,they all recognize rules that limit violence among their members and enjoin respect for rights of property) provides a basis for the extension of the principle of the sanctity of contracts beyond the bounds of particular societies.


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それら自身のメンバーの中にその条約義務の厳守を認めて、個人との取り引きにおける義務と接触と異なった社会におけるグループを実現させる利点を認識するのが難しいのがわからない社会; すべての社会が接触を充足する義務があると認めるように見えるという事実、それら(それがしばしば論争されて、ちょうど、彼らが皆、彼らのメンバーの中で暴力を制限する規則を認識して、特性の権利のために敬意を言いつけるように)を実現させることにおけるalongwithの慎重な利点は特定の社会の領域を超えて契約法の高潔の原則の拡大の基礎を提供します。





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    Among the regiomal international syrtems into which the world was divided that which evolved in Europe was distinctive in that it came to repudiate any hegemonial principle and regard itself as a society of states that were sovereign or independent. This non-hegemonial society was not without historical precedent:the city states of classical Greece,the Hellenistic Kingdoms between the death of Alexander and the Roman conquest, perhaps the 'period of warring states' in ancient China,may all be thought to provide examples.

  • この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(**)m

    Nor should it be overlooked that the European states, as they evolved this non-hegemonial system in their relations with one another,at the same time established a number of empires which,while they were rival and competing,taken together amounted to a European hegemony over the rest of the world,which in the nineteenth century became an immense periphery looking to a European centre. Moreover,the non-hegemonial system among the Europeans themselves was evolved only slowly,and with great difficulty,after 1500. よろしくお願い致します

  • 至急この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(*_*)m

    In this era preceding the emergence of a universal international society, what assumptions were made about the relationsbetween states or rulers that belonged to different regional international syrtems, as opposed to the much more intimate and continuous relations among states or rulers within the same system?This question has an important bearing on our study.We do not kmow enough to be able to provide a comprehensive answer to it,but certain things can be said.It is clearthat states or rulers have commonly enough entered into agreements with states or rulers-and indeed with merchants and other individuals and groups - outside their own regiomal international system and the civilization with which it is associated.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Age stratification is the system that classifies people by their age. All societies stratify their members by age (as well as by sex and socioeconomic status, and often by race). In all these stratification systems, there is an implicit or explicit ranking from higher to lower strata. In gerontocratic societies, the old have the highest status and the youngest have the lowest. In our society, the middle-aged tend to have the most power and prestige, while children have the least. The old abd young tend to ve in between, and whether the old or the young are higher than the older depends on which dimension is involved. In terms of income elders tend to rank higher than the young. In terms of sports and entertainment the young tend to rank higher. Such ranking of individuals on the basis of their age is a form of ageism that accompanies stratification systems. Age norms are the expectations about the proper or normal behaviors, obligations, and privileges for the age strata or life stages. For example, children are expected to go to school, have theobligation to obey parents, and the privilege of being supported by their parents. In contrast, elders are expected to retire, have the obligation to take care of their health and assets, and the privilege of being supported by Social Security benefits. The extent to which such age norms are based are prejudicial or not; and whether the expectations are realistic and appropriate or not. Age conflict is an extreme form of ageism in which two or more age strata conflict with each other. Some age conflict probably occurs in all societies and may be an inevitable result of their age stratification. Like other forms of social conflict, age conflicts involve struggles over scarce resources or over values. Age inequalities are a major source of age conflicts. Struggles occur when the disadvantaged age group make claims for more power or other goods while the more advantaged seek to protect their privileges. However, Such conflicts tend to be confined to particular institutions like the family or the workplace, rather than becoming societywide. There are many factors that tend to check sharp age conflicts, such as the legitimation of age inequalities by various stereotypes, the fear of painful consequences from those in power, ties of affection or obligation, and social separation of age groups. The amount of age conflict in our society has sometimes been exaggerated. There is little disagreement between the generations about the Social Security system or other programs for elders. Similarly, there is general agreement between generations about our basic value system, There is little difference between generations in voting behavior.

  • 英文和訳お願いします!

    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • 英文和訳をお願いします

    Regrettably, the notion of rights of ownership of capital and other income-earning assets remains conflicted, especially in societies that still believe that profit seeking is not quite moral. A key purpose of property rights, after all, is to protect assets in order to use them to profit or personally benefit. Such rights are not supportable in a society that holds any significant remnant of the view of property as “theft.” That notion embraced by Karl Marx rests on the presumption that gained wide acceptance in the first half of the twentieth century that wealth created under a division of labor is produced jointly, and hence should be owned collectively.

  • 【至急】英文の和訳です。よろしくお願いします。

    In the third period, the child makes rapid progress in increasing his or her vocabulary and learning new skills in discovering the meaning of unfamiliar words by the way the words are used in the reading material. In addition, children during this period of reading development learn to read for different purposes and in different subjects, such as science and history. They learn that reading, besides being something that one dose at school, is also something that one can do alone,for fun, for factual information, or to learn more about the world in general. Finally, in the fourth period, the student improves the skills that have been leaned. He or she develops the ability to connect ideas from one piece of writing to another, and learns to compare the opinions of different writers on the same subject. Young persons should reach the fourth period of reading by the time they are 13 or 14 years old, and, if they try, they can continue to increase their reading ability for the rest of their lives. They can read by themselves and are prepared to learn more about reading.

  • この英文を和訳して欲しいです。

    Gerontology is defined as the science of aging. Actually it is made up of the knowledge about aging derived from many sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. Gerontologists are the scientists who study aging. Gerontologists have been accused of focusing only on the declines of aging, and of assuming that the characteristics of the aged are the primary causes of the problems of elders. Such a focus on declines is a subtle form of ageism because it ignores the possibilities of growth and improvement with age. The assumption that the characteristics of elders are the cause of the problems of elders is another subtle from of ageism, because it ignores the extent to which the ageism embedded in our social structure and culture contribute to the problems of elders. The extent to which various theories in gerontology may contribute to ageism is discussed in Chapter 6. Geriatrics is the study of the medical aspects of old age, and the application of gerontology to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness among older persons. Thus, while gerontology deals with all aspects of aging, geriatrics is limited to the medical aspects. Physicians may be subject to several kinds of ageism. Because they focus on illness and disability, they may forget that health and ability is normal among elders. They may be tempted to blame any difficult or obscure illness on old age and assume that nothing can be done about it. Geriatricians and other providers of service to elders may exaggerate age differences and needs of elders in order to promote their own service roles. Several gerontologists charge that gerontology is becoming increasingly "biomedicalized" and that this produces a negative view of aging. Kalish suggested that there is a "new ageism" found especially among advocates and service providers for the aged. It stereotypes the "elderly" in terms of the characteristics of the least capable, least healthy, and least alert of the elderly. It perceives the older person as, in effect, a relatively helpless and dependent individual who requires the support services of agencies and other organizations. It encourages the development of services without adequate concern as to whether the outcome of these services contributes to reduction of freedom for the participants to make decisions controlling their own lives. It produces an unrelenting stream of criticism against society in general and certain individuals in society for the mistreatment of the elderly, emphasizing the unpleasant existence faced by the elderly.

  • この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(**)m

    However,it was never the case,before Europe unified the globe,that relations between states or rulers that were members of different regional international systems could be conducted on the same moral and legal basis as relations within the same system,for this basis was provided in part by principles that were culturally particular and exclusive: the unity of Christendom, the community of the faithful in Islam, the conception of the Chinese Empire as the Middle Kingdom. よろしくお願いします

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    The drastic shift in economic climate forced the countries to re-evaluate their situation and to promote industries where they had fallen short. Austria and Czechoslovakia subsidised the mill, sugar and brewing industries, while Hungary attempted to increase the efficiency of iron, steel, glass and chemical industries. The stated objective was that all countries should become self-sufficient. This tendency, however, led to uniform economies and competitive economic advantage of long well-established industries and research fields evaporated. The lack of specialisation adversely affected the whole Danube-Carpathian region and caused a distinct setback of growth and development compared to the West as well as high financial vulnerability and instability. Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia had to assume part of the financial obligations of the former Kingdom of Hungary on account of the parts of its former territory that were assigned under their sovereignty. Some conditions of the Treaty were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. After the war, the Austro-Hungarian navy, air force and army were disbanded. The army of post-Trianon Hungary was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription. Heavy artillery, tanks and air force were prohibited. Further provisions stated that in Hungary, no railway would be built with more than one track, because at that time railways held substantial strategic importance economically and militarily. Hungary also renounced all privileges in territories outside Europe that were administered by the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Articles 54–60 of the Treaty required Hungary to recognise various rights of national minorities within its borders. Articles 61–66 stated that all former citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary living outside the newly defined frontiers of Hungary were to ipso facto lose their Hungarian nationality in one year.