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However,it was never the case,before Europe unified the globe,that relations between states or rulers that were members of different regional international systems could be conducted on the same moral and legal basis as relations within the same system,for this basis was provided in part by principles that were culturally particular and exclusive: the unity of Christendom, the community of the faithful in Islam, the conception of the Chinese Empire as the Middle Kingdom. よろしくお願いします


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  • 至急この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(*_*)m

    In this era preceding the emergence of a universal international society, what assumptions were made about the relationsbetween states or rulers that belonged to different regional international syrtems, as opposed to the much more intimate and continuous relations among states or rulers within the same system?This question has an important bearing on our study.We do not kmow enough to be able to provide a comprehensive answer to it,but certain things can be said.It is clearthat states or rulers have commonly enough entered into agreements with states or rulers-and indeed with merchants and other individuals and groups - outside their own regiomal international system and the civilization with which it is associated.

  • この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(**)m

    Nor should it be overlooked that the European states, as they evolved this non-hegemonial system in their relations with one another,at the same time established a number of empires which,while they were rival and competing,taken together amounted to a European hegemony over the rest of the world,which in the nineteenth century became an immense periphery looking to a European centre. Moreover,the non-hegemonial system among the Europeans themselves was evolved only slowly,and with great difficulty,after 1500. よろしくお願い致します

  • この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(*_*)m

    Among the regiomal international syrtems into which the world was divided that which evolved in Europe was distinctive in that it came to repudiate any hegemonial principle and regard itself as a society of states that were sovereign or independent. This non-hegemonial society was not without historical precedent:the city states of classical Greece,the Hellenistic Kingdoms between the death of Alexander and the Roman conquest, perhaps the 'period of warring states' in ancient China,may all be thought to provide examples.

  • 至急この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(*_*)m

    Societies which recognize that pacta sunt servanda among their own members,do not find it difficult to recognize the advantages of fulfilling obligations and contacts in dealings with individuals and groups in different societies.The fact that all societies appear to recognize that there is an obligation to fulfil contacts,alongwith prudential advantage in fulfilling them (just as,it is often argued,they all recognize rules that limit violence among their members and enjoin respect for rights of property) provides a basis for the extension of the principle of the sanctity of contracts beyond the bounds of particular societies.

  • 英文と和訳があります。和訳は正しいですか?

    It would be more accurate, if less colorful, to say that han bureaucracy was lord of all it could survey. For, in domain affairs as much as in their relations with the shogun, the daimyo were ‘’victims’’ of bureaucratization; most of the authority they had wielded at the beginning of the seventeenth century as personal rulers quickly passed to councils of hereditary ‘’clan elders’’ (karo). 和訳 藩の官僚が検分できるすべての君主であった、という方がたとえ面白みは減るにせよより的確であろう。それゆえ大名は、藩の事柄(内政)においても、将軍(幕府)との関係においてと同じくらい、領地問題では官僚化の「犠牲者」であった。すなわち、17世紀の初頭では個人的な支配者として彼ら大名が振っていた権限のその大半が急速に世襲の「藩の長老」(家老)たちの評議会へ移行していったのである。

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    The early speculator was harassed by no such scruples, and asserted as facts what he knew in reality only as probabilities. But we are not on that account to doubt his perfect good faith, nor need we attribute to him wilful misrepresentation, or consciousness of asserting that which he knew not to be true. He had seized one great truth, in which, indeed, he anticipated the highest revelation of modern enquiry -- namely, the unity of the design of the world, and its subordination to one sole Maker and Lawgiver. With regard to details, observation failed him. He knew little of the earth's surface, or of its shape and place in the universe; the infinite varieties of organized existences which people it, the distinct floras and faunas of its different continents, were unknown to him. But he saw that all which lay within his observation bad been formed for the benefit and service of man, and the goodness of the Creator to his creatures was the thought predominant in his mind. Man's closer relations to his Maker is indicated by the representation that he was formed last of all creatures, and in the visible likeness of God. For ages, this simple view of creation satisfied the wants of man, and formed a sufficient basis of theological teaching, and if modern research now shows it to be physically untenable, our respect for the narrative which has played so important a part in the culture of our race need be in nowise diminished. No one contends that it can be used as a basis of astronomical or geological teaching, and those who profess to see in it an accordance with facts, only do this sub modo, and by processes which despoil it of its consistency and grandeur, both which may be preserved if we recognise in it, not an authentic utterance of Divine knowledge, but a human utterance, which it has pleased Providence to use Providence a special way for the education of mankind.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします

    以下の文章です。 It is, of course, true that the emancipation of Asia and Africa and the development of the European crisis went hand in hand. Among the factors which facilitated the rise of independence movements in Asia and Africa, we must include the weakening of the grip of the European powers, Iargely as a consequence of their own discords and rivalries and of the wastage of resources in which their wars resulted. From the time of the First World War the incipient nationalist movements in the non-European world profited and the sudden collapse of the European empires after 1947 was to a large extent a consequence of external pressures and of the impact of world politics. In Asia neither the British nor the French nor the Dutch ever recovered from the blows inflicted by japan between 1941 and 1945; while in Africa and the Middle East they were checked and forced into retreat by pressures from the United States-acting directly and through the United Nations-which had a strong anti-colonial tradition of its own and was unwilling to stand aside while colonialism drove the peoples of Asia and Africa over to the side of the Soviet Union. Nationalism came to Asia a century later than it came to Europe and to black Africa fifty years later than to Asia. Two external events in the early years of the twentieth century were a powerful stimulus in its rise. The first was the victory of Japan over Russia in the war of 1904-5ー a victory hailed by dependent peoples everywhere as a blow to European ascendancy and proof that European arms were not invincible. Its impact was redoubled when, ten years later,the Japanese defeated the Germans in Shantung; and the successful campaigns of Kemal Ataturk against France in 1920 and Greece in 1922 were greeted in the same way as Asian victories over western military power. The second event was the Russian revolution of 1905ーa revolution which produced scarcely an echo in Europe but which, seen as a struggle for liberation from despotism, had an electrifying effect throughout Asia. The wave of unrest extended as far as Vietnam, and its impact, in sparking off the Persian revolution of 1906, the Turkish revolution of 1908 and the Chinese revolution of 1911, and in the new impetus it gave to the Indian Congress movement in 1907, was such that its consequences in Asia have been compared with those of the French revolution of 1789 in Europe.

  • 至急この英文の和訳をお願い致しますm(><)m

    In the European tradition ideas of a universal law of nations or law of nature were contested by doctrines of a fundamental division of humanity between Greeks and barbarians,Christians and infidels,Europeans and non-Europeans. Most importantly,there was no single,agreed body of rules and institutions operating across the boundaries of any two regional international systems,let alone thoughout the world as a whole,such as we imply when we speak of an international society. よろしくお願いします

  • 英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を助けてください

    英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えていただきたいです よろしくお願いします!! The building was sited away from other public buildings, in the eastern angle of the city. It is not certain whether, as often claimed, this was because the site in question was open land and thus available for development: recent excavations have indicated that the blocks in the eastern quarter were much more fully built up in their early stages than was later the case. Marginalizing the amphitheatre had the advantage of keeping potentially rowdy crowds away from the city-centre; at the same time, spectators from communities further up the Sarno valley, such as Nuceria, could be channeled in and out through the nearest city-gates. The oval auditorium, which was not supported on a network of concrete vaults like later amphitheatres, exploited the slope of the defensive ramparts on the south and east.

  • 英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えてください

    英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えていただきたいですよろしくお願いします!! The FDJ was founded on 7 March 1946 and systematically built up under the leadership of the later SED general secretary, Erich Honecker, as a youth organization allegedly ‘above party affiliation’. Honecker, a roofer born at Wiebelskirchen in the Saarland, had survived to be liberated by the Red Army on 27 April 1945. In May he joined the ‘Ulbricht Group’ and as youth secretary of the CC of the KPD built up the ‘Antifa’ youth committees, which led to the founding of the FDJ in 1946. According to official statistics, approximately 70 per cent of young people between 14 and 25 in the GDR were members of the FDJ. The proportion of school pupils and students was particularly high. The officials of the FDJ were often at the same time members of the SED.