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Lattice type and systematic absences
- Understanding the concept of lattice type and systematic absences in powder diffraction
- Explaining the conditions for observing reflections in different lattice planes
- Illustrating the origin of systematic absences in a powder diffraction pattern
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POINT LATTICES AND THE UNIT CELL Let’s consider the three-dimensional arrangement of points in Fig.15.This arrangement is called a point lattice. If we take any point in the point lattice it has exactly the same number and arrangement of neighbors(i.e.,identical surroundings) as any other point in the lattice. This condition should be fairly obvious considering our description of long-range order in Sec. 2.1 We can also see from Fig. 15 that it is possible to divide the point lattice into much smaller untils such that when these units are stacked in three dimensions they reproduce the point lattice. This small repeating unit is known as the unit cell of the lattice and is shown in Fig.16 A unit cell may be described by the interrelationship between the lengths(a,b,c) of its sides and the interaxial angles (α,β,γ)between them. (α is the angle between the b and c, axes,β is the angle between the a and c axes, and γ is the angle between the a and b axes.)The actual values of a,b,and c, and α,β and γ are not important, but their interrelation is. The lengths are measured from one corner of the cell, which is taken as the origin. These lengths and angles are called the lattice parameters of the unit cell, or sometimes the lattice constants of the cell. But the latter term is not really appropriate because they are not necessarily constants; for example, they can vary with changes in temperature and pressure and with alloying. [Note: We use a,b and c to indicate the axes of the unit cell; a,b and c for the lattice parameters, and a,b and c for the vectors lying along the unit-cell axes.]
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POINT LATTICES AND THE UNIT CELL Let’s consider the three-dimensional arrangement of points in Fig.15.This arrangement is called a point lattice. If we take any point in the point lattice it has exactly the same number and arrangement of neighbors(i.e.,identical surroundings) as any other point in the lattice. This condition should be fairly obvious considering our description of long-range order in Sec. 2.1 We can also see from Fig. 15 that it is possible to divide the point lattice into much smaller untils such that when these units are stacked in three dimensions they reproduce the point lattice. This small repeating unit is known as the unit cell of the lattice and is shown in Fig.16 A unit cell may be described by the interrelationship between the lengths(a,b,c) of its sides and the interaxial angles (α,β,γ)between them. (α is the angle between the b and c, axes,β is the angle between the a and c axes, and γ is the angle between the a and b axes.)The actual values of a,b,and c, and α,β and γ are not important, but their interrelation is. The lengths are measured from one corner of the cell, which is taken as the origin. These lengths and angles are called the lattice parameters of the unit cell, or sometimes the lattice constants of the cell. But the latter term is not really appropriate because they are not necessarily constants; for example, they can vary with changes in temperature and pressure and with alloying. [Note: We use a,b and c to indicate the axes of the unit cell; a,b and c for the lattice parameters, and a,b and c for the vectors lying along the unit-cell axes.]
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There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."
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英文の和訳をお願いします。 One of the most interesting and yet underexamined processes in bulimia is the acquisition of bulimic behavior, particularly binge eating. The few studies that have looked at this problem have focused almost exclusively on particular social groups, for example, dance camps and athletic teams. This focus is not an accident. I wish to argue that social groups are at the very heart of the issue of symptom acquisition. Symptoms are spread from one member to another in these groups, and group membership is at the heart of the transmission. Groups that are most likely to transmit the symptoms of bulimia, most notably binge eating, are groups that are made up almost entirely of women of the same age. This includes dance camps and athletic teams as well as sororities, all-women dormitories, or workplaces comprising mostly women. Social groups are important to us. They serve to tell us who we are, what to think, and how to behave. The more we value the social group, the more we are willing to be influenced by it. The power of a group may be measured by the attractiveness of the group for its members, lf a person wants to stay in a group, he will be susceptible to influences coming from the group, and he will be willing to conform to the rules which the group sets up."
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To readily calculate some of the physical characteristics of crystals, such as atomic density and density of three electrons, we must know the number of lattice points per cell. You may think that such a determination is quite trivial, but it is surprising how many people have difficulty with it! The number of lattice points per cell, N, is given by the equation N= Ni+ Ni/2+ Nc/8 Where Ni is the number of lattice points in the interior of the cell (these points “belong” only to one cells), Nf is the number of lattice points on faces (these are shared by two cells), and Nc is the number of lattice points on corners (these are shared by eight cells). For the three cubic unit cells the number of lattice points per cell is Primitive cubic (cubic P) 1 Body-centered cubic (cubic I) 2 Face-centered cubic(cubic F) 4 All primitive cells have one lattice point per cell. All nonprimitive cells have more than one lattice point per cell.
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The numbers of collision orbits found in the present calculations are shown in Table 4 for the representative sets of (e,i). From these numbers we can expect the magnitude of statistical error in the evaluation of <P(e,i)> to be a few percent for small e, i and within 10% for large e, i for r_p=0.005 are shown in Table 5, together with those of the two-dimensional case. Interpolating these values, we have obtained the contour of <P(e,i)> and R(e,i) on the e-I plane. They are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. From Fig. 15 we can read out the general properties of the collisional rate in the three-dimensional case: (i) <P(e,i)> is enhanced over <P(e,i)>_2B except for small e and i, (ii) <P(e,i)> reduces to <P(e,i)>_2B for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4, and (iii) there are two peaks in R(e,i) near regions where e≒1 (i<1) and where i≒3 (e<0.1): the peak value is at most as large as 5. In the vicinity of small v(=(e^2+i^2)^(1/2)) and i, R(e,i) rapidly reduces to zero. This is due to a singularity of <P(e,i)>_2B at v=0 and i=0 in the ordinary expression given by Eq. (29) and hence unphysical; the behavior of collisional rate in the vicinity of small v and i will be discussed in detail later. Thus, we are able to assert, more strongly, the property (i) mentioned in the last paragraph: that is, solar gravity always enhances the collisional rate over that of the two-body approximation. One of the remarkable features of R(e,i) found in Fig. 15 is the property (ii). That is, the collisional rate between Keplerian particles is well described by the two-body approximation, for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4. This is corresponding to the two-dimensional result that R(e,0)≒1 for e≧4. よろしくお願いします。
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Consideration of diffraction from the 100 plane of a cubic material with a body centred lattice shows that X-rays diffracted at the Bragg angle from the 100 planes (the faces of the cube) will be, by definition, in phase. However, halfway between the 100 planes, as a result of the body centring, there is an identical plane of atoms shifted in the x and y directions by (1/2,1/2). この文章を翻訳サイト無しで和訳していただけませんか？
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What makes somebody attractive? And this can be asked at all sorts of levels but a simple level is what makes for a pretty face? So,these are,according to ratings,very attractive faces. They are not the faces of real people. What's on the screen are computer generated faces of a Caucasian male and a Caucasian female who don't exist in the real world. But through using this sort of computer generation,and then asking people what they think of this face,what they think of that face,scientists have come to some sense as to what really makes a face attractive,both within cultures and across cultures. And that's something which we're going to devote some time to when we talk about social behavior,and in particular,when we talk about sex .Not all attractiveness,not all beauty of course,is linked to sex. So,pandas for instance,like this panda,are notoriously cute,and I don't have anything to say about it really. It's just a cute picture(laughter).
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If I don't like living here,I will soon leave andeither go back to my own country of find another country where I can be more comfortable. It is true that some foreigners come to Japan to live but find that,after a short while, they don't like it and so decide to leave. But it seems to me that these people are few and the causes for their unhappiness in Japan are usually to be found in their own characters and not Japan itself. 和訳をお願いします＞＜ この英文の前にも文章がありますが、hereは「ここ」などと訳してもらって構いませんので。
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以下の文なのですが、訳せる方いらっしゃいましたらお願いします。 Photon Absorption Photovoltaic cells are designed to capture the photons of the solar spectrum. Energies in the visible range are especially important to consider, but energy is available in the near-infrared, as well. Solar cell designs that more efficiently absorb these photons must consider the specific energies of these wavelengths. Photons with energies equal to or greater than the bandgap are absorbed as their energy promotes electrons into the conduction band. If photons have energy exceeding the semiconductor’s bandgap, the excess is usually dissipated as heat and is thus wasted. Alternatively, photons whose energies are less than the bandgap are not absorbed at all, but are transmitted through the material and their energy is not used. If the photon’s energy is equal to the bandgap, the energy transfer, in terms of its photovoltaic usefulness, is as close to 100% efficient as is thermodynamically possible. 専門的な文章でなかなか難しいので、出来る方いましたらお願いします。
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