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The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers' offensive on the Eastern Front in the winter of 1915. The offensive was intended to advance beyond the Vistula River and perhaps knock Russia out of the war. The Central Powers planned four offensives on their Eastern Front in early 1915. The Germans, led by Paul von Hindenburg, would attack eastward from their front line in western Poland, which had been occupied after the Battle of Łódź in 1914, toward the Vistula River and also in East Prussia in the vicinity of the Masurian Lakes (site of the 1914 Battle of the Masurian Lakes). The Austro-Hungarians would emerge from the Carpathian Mountain passes to attack the Russians by driving toward Lemberg. They would be led by General Alexander von Linsingen. Further south General Borojevic von Bojna would attempt to relieve the besieged fortress at Przemysl. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn strongly believed that the war would be won on the Western Front. Nonetheless, he sent four additional army corps to Paul von Hindenburg, commander of their Eastern Front. By February 1915, thirty-six percent of the German field army was in the east. German Ninth Army attacked from Silesia into Poland at the end of January; they released tear gas, which stopped their assault by blowing back on the attackers. The Russians counterattacked with eleven divisions under a single corps commander, losing 40,000 men in three days. In East Prussia, further Russian incursions were blocked by trench lines extending between the Masurian Lakes; they were held by the German Eighth Army, commanded by General Otto von Below. The Eighth Army was reinforced by some of the newly arrived corps, while the rest of them became the German Tenth Army, commanded by Colonel-General Hermann von Eichhorn, which was formed on the German left. The Tenth Army was to be one wing of a pincers intended to surround their opponents: General Sievers' Russian Tenth Army. A new Russian Twelfth Army under General Pavel Plehve was assembling in Poland roughly 100 km (62 mi) to the southwest. The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes 第二次マズーリ湖攻勢

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>The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers' offensive on the Eastern Front in the winter of 1915. The offensive was intended to advance beyond the Vistula River and perhaps knock Russia out of the war. The Central Powers planned four offensives on their Eastern Front in early 1915. The Germans, led by Paul von Hindenburg, would attack eastward from their front line in western Poland, which had been occupied after the Battle of Łódź in 1914, toward the Vistula River and also in East Prussia in the vicinity of the Masurian Lakes (site of the 1914 Battle of the Masurian Lakes). ⇒「マズーリ湖の冬の戦い」としても知られる「第2次マズーリ湖の戦い」は、1915年冬の東部戦線における中央同盟軍の攻撃の北部局面であった。この攻撃は、ヴィスワ川を越えて進軍して、おそらくロシア軍を戦争(の場)からたたき出すことを目的としていた。中央同盟軍は1915年初頭に東部戦線で4回の攻勢を計画した。ポール・フォン・ヒンデンブルク率いるドイツ軍は、1914年の「ウッチの戦い」後に占領されていたポーランド西部の前線から東のヴィスワ川に向かって攻撃することにしていた。また、マズーリ湖(1914年の「マズーリ湖の戦い」の場所)の近くの東プロイセンでも攻撃することにしていた。 >The Austro-Hungarians would emerge from the Carpathian Mountain passes to attack the Russians by driving toward Lemberg. They would be led by General Alexander von Linsingen. Further south General Borojevic von Bojna would attempt to relieve the besieged fortress at Przemysl. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn strongly believed that the war would be won on the Western Front. Nonetheless, he sent four additional army corps to Paul von Hindenburg, commander of their Eastern Front. By February 1915, thirty-six percent of the German field army was in the east. ⇒オーストリア-ハンガリー軍はカルパチア山脈から現れ、レンベルクに向かって進撃することで、ロシア軍を攻撃する予定にしていた。彼らはアレクサンダー・フォン・リンシンゲン将軍が率いることになっていた。さらに南のボロエヴィッチ・フォン・ボイニャ将軍は、プルゼミスルにある包囲された要塞の救援を試みることとしていた。ドイツの参謀長エーリッヒ・フォン・ファルケンハインは、西部戦線での戦争に勝つことを強く信じていた。それにもかかわらず、彼は東部戦線の司令官ポール・フォン・ヒンデンブルクにさらに4個の軍団を送った。1915年2月のころは、ドイツ野戦軍の36%が東部にいた。 >German Ninth Army attacked from Silesia into Poland at the end of January; they released tear gas, which stopped their assault by blowing back on the attackers. The Russians counterattacked with eleven divisions under a single corps commander, losing 40,000 men in three days. In East Prussia, further Russian incursions were blocked by trench lines extending between the Masurian Lakes; they were held by the German Eighth Army, commanded by General Otto von Below. ⇒ドイツ第9方面軍は1月末にシレジアからポーランドに進撃した。彼らは攻撃隊を逆襲して催涙ガスを放出し、攻撃を食い止めた。ロシア軍は、1人の軍団司令官の下で11個師団をもって反撃し、3日で40,000人の兵士を失った。東プロイセンでは、マズーリ湖の間に伸びる塹壕戦線によってさらなるロシア侵略が阻止された。彼らはオットー・フォン・ベロー将軍が指揮するドイツの第8方面軍に拘束された。 >The Eighth Army was reinforced by some of the newly arrived corps, while the rest of them became the German Tenth Army, commanded by Colonel-General Hermann von Eichhorn, which was formed on the German left. The Tenth Army was to be one wing of a pincers intended to surround their opponents: General Sievers' Russian Tenth Army. A new Russian Twelfth Army under General Pavel Plehve was assembling in Poland roughly 100 km (62 mi) to the southwest. ⇒第8方面軍は新しく到着した軍団の一部によって強化され、軍団の残り部隊はドイツ軍の左翼に形成されたヘルマン・フォン・アイヒホルン大佐将軍が指揮する第10方面軍になった。第10方面軍は、敵軍勢のシーバース将軍のロシア第10方面軍をはさみ撃ち包囲することを目的として、その一方の翼(部隊)を担うことにした。パフェル・プレフェ将軍の指揮下にある新しいロシア第12方面軍は、ポーランドの南西約100キロ(62マイル)に集結した。

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