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The actions of the Hohenzollern Redoubt took place on the Western Front in World War I from 13 to 19 October 1915, at the Hohenzollern Redoubt (Hohenzollernwerk) near Auchy-les-Mines in France. In the aftermath of the Battle of Loos (25 September – 8 October 1915), the 9th (Scottish) Division captured the strongpoint and then lost it to a German counter-attack. The British attack on 13 October failed and resulted in 3,643 casualties, mostly in the first few minutes. In the History of the Great War, James Edmonds wrote that "The fighting [from 13 to 14 October] had not improved the general situation in any way and had brought nothing but useless slaughter of infantry".In the summer of 1915 the German armies continued the strengthening of front trenches, communication trenches and strong-points ordered by Chief of the General Staff General Erich von Falkenhayn, who on 25 January had also ordered the building of more defensive lines behind the front trench. Crown Prince Rupprecht the Sixth Army commander and some Western Front generals had objected to this policy, as an invitation to German troops to retreat rather than fight. After the experience of the Battle of Festubert, where Allied artillery had proved capable of destroying a great width of front trench, opposition had been abandoned and the work carried on as quickly as possible. In early May Falkenhayn had also ordered that a second defensive position be built 2,000–3,000 yd (1.1–1.7 mi; 1.8–2.7 km) behind the whole of the Western Front, to force an attacker to pause to move artillery forward into range. Plans to exploit the Franco-British superiority in numbers on the Western Front, while one third of the German army was on the Russian Front were agreed at a Conference by Joffre and French at Chantilly on 14 September. The British New Armies had begun to arrive, the number of heavy guns had increased since the offensives of May and June and by concentrating resources at the points of attack an even greater numerical superiority could be obtained over the Germans. An unprecedented preliminary bombardment of the German defences would be possible and make attacks by the greater number of Allied infantry decisive. Simultaneous offensives would be mounted from Champagne and Artois towards Namur, the principal attack being made in Champagne. The attack by the French Tenth Army on Vimy Ridge in May and June had failed, which left the German Sixth Army in control of the high ground below which the French were to have assembled a mass of artillery and infantry. It was agreed that in Artois a Franco-British offensive would be mounted towards Douai, by the French Tenth and the British First armies, co-ordinated by General Foch on a front of 20 miles (32 km) between Arras and La Bassée canal.[3] The British First Army was to attack between Grenay and La Bassée canal on a 6-mile (9.7 km) front, with six divisions and three in reserve. The Cavalry Corps and Indian Cavalry Corps were to be held ready to exploit a German collapse. The Franco-British armies were to attack towards Tournai, Valenciennes and Le Quesnoy and subsidiary attacks were to be made by the rest of the Franco-British armies to pin down German reserves.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 >The actions of the Hohenzollern ~ useless slaughter of infantry". >ホーエンツォレルン砦の戦闘行動は、第一次世界大戦の西部戦線で1915年10月13日から19日にかけて、フランスのオシー・レ・ミーヌ近くのホーエンツォレルン砦(ホーエンツォレルンヴェルク)で行われた。「ルーの戦い」(1915年9月25日-10月8日)の余波で、第9(スコットランド)師団が強化点を攻略したが、ドイツ軍の反撃によって敗北した。10月13日の英国軍の攻撃は失敗し、大よそ最初の数分間で3,643人の死傷者が出た。ジェームズ・エドモンズは、『世界大戦史』の中で、「〔10月13日から14日までの〕戦闘は、一般的な状況を改善せず、歩兵の無用な虐殺をもたらしただけだった」と書いている。 >In the summer of 1915 ~ artillery forward into range. ⇒1915年の夏、ドイツ軍はエーリッヒ・フォン・ファルケンハイン元帥の命で前方部塹壕、通信塹壕、および強化地点の増強工事を続けた。彼は1月25日にも前方塹壕の背後にさらなる防御線の建設を命じていた。第6方面軍の司令官であるルプレヒト皇太子と一部の西部戦線の将軍らは、戦うのではなく撤退するようにドイツ軍を誘ってしまうとして、この政策に反対していた。連合国軍の砲兵隊によって幅広の前方塹壕を破壊され得ることが証明された「フェストゥベールの戦い」の経験の後、反対派は放棄され、作業は可能な限り迅速に遂行された。5月初旬、ファルケンハインは、砲撃の射程内に攻撃隊が前進して一時停止するように、西部戦線全体の背後に2,000~3,000ヤード(1.1~1.7マイル; 1.8~2.7 km)の第2防御陣地を建設するよう命じた。 >Plans to exploit the Franco-British ~ made in Champagne. ⇒9月14日にシャンティイで開催されたジョフルとフレンチの会談で、ドイツ軍の3分の1がロシア戦線にいる間、西部戦線で英仏軍の優位性を開発する計画が合意された。英国の新しい方面軍が到着し始め、5月と6月の攻勢以来、重機関銃の数が増加し、攻撃地点に資材を集中させることで、ドイツ軍よりもさらに大きな数的優位性を得ることができた。これでドイツ軍守備軍への前例のない予備砲撃が可能となり、より多くの連合国軍歩兵隊による攻撃が決定的になることだろう。シャンパーニュとアルトワからナミュールに向けての同時攻撃を行うことにして、おもな攻撃はシャンパーニュで行うものとした。 >The attack by the French ~ and La Bassée canal.[3] ⇒5月と6月の、フランス第10方面軍によるヴィミー・リッジへの攻撃が失敗したことで、ドイツ第6方面軍が高台を支配し、フランス軍はその下に砲兵隊と歩兵隊を集めざるを得なくなった。アルトワでドゥエーに向けて仏英軍が攻勢に出ること、すなわち、フォッシュ将軍の調整によってフランス第10方面軍と英国第1方面軍がアラス-ラ・バセ運河の間の20マイル(32 km)の前線で行われることが合意された〔3〕。 >The British First Army ~ pin down German reserves. ⇒英国第1方面軍は、6マイル(9.7 km)の前線に6個師団と3個の予備軍を配置し、グルネ-ラ・バセ運河の間を攻撃するものとされた。騎兵隊とインド騎兵隊がドイツの崩壊を利用する準備をしておくことになっていた。仏英方面軍がトゥルネー、バランシエンヌ、ル・ケノワに向かって攻撃し、残りの仏英軍はドイツ軍の予備隊を釘付けにするために補助攻撃を行うことになった。

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