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Visibility increased except for frequent ground fog around dawn, which helped conceal British infantry during the attack, before clearing to expose German troop movements to British observation and attack. The British infantry succeeded in capturing most of their objectives and then holding them against German counter-attacks, inflicting many casualties on the local German defenders and Eingreif divisions sent to reinforce them by massed artillery and small-arms fire. German defences on the Gheluvelt Plateau, which had been retained or quickly recaptured in July and August were lost and the British began a run of success which lasted into early October. Strategic background The Kerensky Offensive by Russia in July had accelerated the disintegration of the Russian Army, increasing the prospect of substantial German reinforcements for the Western Front. The French attack at Verdun in August had inflicted a defeat on the German 5th Army similar in extent to the defeat of the 4th Army in the Battle of Messines in June but morale in the French army was still poor. In reports to the War Cabinet on 21 August and 2 September, Sir Douglas Haig repeated his view that the British campaign at Ypres was necessary to shield the other armies of the alliance, regardless of the slow geographical progress being made in the unusually wet weather of August. Tactical developments The German 4th Army had defeated British attempts to advance to the black and green (second and third) lines set for 31 July in the centre of the battlefield and on the Gheluvelt Plateau on the southern flank, during the frequent weather interruptions in August. These defensive successes had been costly and by mid-August, German satisfaction at their defensive achievements was accompanied by concern at the extent of casualties. The rain, constant bombardments and British air attacks had also put great strain on the German defence between British attacks.

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>Visibility increased except for frequent ground fog around dawn, which helped conceal British infantry during the attack, before clearing to expose German troop movements to British observation and attack. The British infantry succeeded in capturing most of their objectives and then holding them against German counter-attacks, inflicting many casualties on the local German defenders and Eingreif divisions sent to reinforce them by massed artillery and small-arms fire. German defences on the Gheluvelt Plateau, which had been retained or quickly recaptured in July and August were lost and the British began a run of success which lasted into early October. ⇒夜明けのころ頻繁に出る地面の霧を除いて、視界は増大した。その霧は、晴れる前は英国軍の攻撃の間に歩兵隊を隠すのに役立って、晴れるとドイツ軍の動きを英国軍の観察と攻撃にさらした。英国軍歩兵隊は、大半の標的を攻略して、それから、ドイツ軍の反撃に対してそれらを保持することに成功して、局地のドイツ軍守備隊、および、集めた大砲と小火器によって守備隊を補強するために派遣されたアイングリーフ師団に、多くの死傷者数を課した。ゲルヴェルト高原でのドイツ軍の防御は、7月・8月に保有され続けたか、でなければ迅速に取り戻されていたが、それが失わせしめて勢いに乗りかかった英国軍は、そのまま10月初めに突入した。 >Strategic background The Kerensky Offensive by Russia in July had accelerated the disintegration of the Russian Army, increasing the prospect of substantial German reinforcements for the Western Front. The French attack at Verdun in August had inflicted a defeat on the German 5th Army similar in extent to the defeat of the 4th Army in the Battle of Messines in June but morale in the French army was still poor. In reports to the War Cabinet on 21 August and 2 September, Sir Douglas Haig repeated his view that the British campaign at Ypres was necessary to shield the other armies of the alliance, regardless of the slow geographical progress being made in the unusually wet weather of August. ⇒戦略の背景 7月のロシア軍によるケレンスキー攻勢は、西部戦線向けのドイツ軍強化隊の見込みを増大させ、ロシア軍隊の崩壊を促進した。8月のヴェルダンにおけるフランス軍の攻撃により、6月の「メッシネス(メセン)の戦い」における第4方面軍の失敗の程度と同様の失敗がドイツ軍第5方面軍に与えられることはあったが、フランス方面軍の士気はまだ貧弱であった。ダグラス・ヘイグ卿は、8月21日と9月2日(の戦い)に関する戦争内閣への報告で、イープルでの英国軍の野戦は、8月の異常に湿った天候によって地理上の進行は遅れたが、それとは関係なく他の同盟国軍隊を保護することが必要であった、という彼の見方を繰り返し述べた。 >Tactical developments The German 4th Army had defeated British attempts to advance to the black and green (second and third) lines set for 31 July in the centre of the battlefield and on the Gheluvelt Plateau on the southern flank, during the frequent weather interruptions in August. These defensive successes had been costly and by mid-August, German satisfaction at their defensive achievements was accompanied by concern at the extent of casualties. The rain, constant bombardments and British air attacks had also put great strain on the German defence between British attacks. ⇒戦術の展開動向 ドイツ第4方面軍は、8月の頻繁な悪天候による中断の間に、南側面上の戦場の真中やゲルヴェルト高原で7月31日として設定された黒線部および緑線部(第2、第3)戦線へ進軍する英国軍の企てを破った。ただしこれらの防御の成功は高くつき、8月半ばまでには、彼らの防御上の業績に対するドイツ軍の満足には死傷者数拡大の懸念が付随していた。ドイツ軍の防御陣はまた、英国軍からの攻撃の間じゅう、雨、絶え間のない砲撃、および英国軍の空襲によって大変な緊張を強いられた。

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    The Battle of Pilckem Ridge, 31 July – 2 August 1917, was the opening attack of the Third Battle of Ypres in the First World War. The British Fifth Army, Second Army and the French First Army on the northern flank, attacked the German 4th Army which defended the Western Front from Lille, to the Ypres Salient in Belgium and on to the North Sea coast. On 31 July, the Anglo-French armies captured Pilckem (Flemish: Pilkem) Ridge and areas either side, the French attack being a great success. After several weeks of changeable weather, heavy rain fell during the afternoon of 31 July. British observers in the XIX Corps area in the centre, lost sight of the troops that had advanced to the main objective at the green line and three reserve brigades pressing on towards the red line. The weather changed just as German regiments from specialist counter-attack Eingreif divisions intervened. The reserve brigades were forced back through the green line to the intermediate black line, which the British artillery-observers could still see and the German counter-attack was stopped by massed artillery and small-arms fire. The attack had mixed results; a substantial amount of ground was captured by the British and French, except on the Gheluvelt Plateau on the right flank, where only the blue line (first objective) and part of the black line (second objective) were captured. A large number of casualties were inflicted on the German defenders, 5,626 German prisoners were taken and the German Eingreif divisions managed to recapture some ground from the Ypres–Roulers railway, northwards to St. Julien. For the next few days, both sides made local attacks to improve their positions, much hampered by the wet weather. The rains had a serious effect on operations in August, causing more problems for the British and French, who were advancing into the area devastated by artillery fire and partly flooded by the unseasonable rain. A local British attack on the Gheluvelt Plateau was postponed because of the weather until 10 August and the second big general attack due on 4 August, could not begin until 16 August. Pilckem Ridge ピルケム高地

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