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Finally, the German defences, manned by the German 2nd Army (General Georg von der Marwitz), were relatively weak, having been subjected to continual raiding by the Australians in a process termed peaceful penetration. The Battle of Amiens, also known as the Third Battle of Picardy (French: 3ème Bataille de Picardie), was the opening phase of the Allied offensive which began on 8 August 1918, later known as the Hundred Days Offensive, that ultimately led to the end of the First World War. Allied forces advanced over 11 kilometres (7 mi) on the first day, one of the greatest advances of the war, with Henry Rawlinson's British Fourth Army playing the decisive role. The battle is also notable for its effects on both sides' morale and the large number of surrendering German forces. This led Erich Ludendorff to describe the first day of the battle as "the black day of the German Army". Amiens was one of the first major battles involving armoured warfare and marked the end of trench warfare on the Western Front; fighting becoming mobile once again until the armistice was signed on 11 November 1918. On 21 March 1918, the German Army had launched Operation Michael, the first in a series of attacks planned to drive the Allies back along the length of the Western Front. With the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with revolutionary-controlled Russia, the Germans were able to transfer hundreds of thousands of men to the Western Front, giving them a significant, if temporary, advantage in manpower and materiel. These offensives were intended to translate this advantage into victory. Operation Michael was intended to defeat the right wing of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), but a lack of success before Arras ensured the ultimate failure of the offensive. A final effort was aimed at the town of Amiens, a vital railway junction, but the advance had been halted at Villers-Bretonneux by British and Australian troops on 4 April. Subsequent German offensives—Operation Georgette (9–11 April), Operation Blücher-Yorck (27 May), Operation Gneisenau (9 June) and Operation Marne-Rheims (15–17 July)—all made advances elsewhere on the Western Front, but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. By the end of the Marne-Rheims offensive, the German manpower advantage had been spent and their supplies and troops were exhausted. The Battle of Amiens アミアンの戦い

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>Finally, the German defences, manned by the German 2nd Army (General Georg von der Marwitz), were relatively weak, having been subjected to continual raiding by the Australians in a process termed peaceful penetration. ⇒最後に、ドイツ軍第2方面軍(ゲオルグ・フォン・デル・マルヴィッツ将軍)によって配置されたドイツ防衛隊は相対的に軟弱で、平和的侵攻と呼ばれる戦闘過程でオーストラリア軍から絶え間ない襲撃を受けていた。 >The Battle of Amiens, also known as the Third Battle of Picardy (French: 3ème Bataille de Picardie), was the opening phase of the Allied offensive which began on 8 August 1918, later known as the Hundred Days Offensive, that ultimately led to the end of the First World War. Allied forces advanced over 11 kilometres (7 mi) on the first day, one of the greatest advances of the war, with Henry Rawlinson's British Fourth Army playing the decisive role. ⇒「第3次ピカルディの戦い」としても知られる「アミアンの戦い」は、1918年8月8日に始まり、後に「百日攻勢」として知られる連合国軍の攻撃の開始段階であり、最終的には第一次世界大戦の終焉につながった。連合国軍団は、最初の日に11キロ(7マイル)以上前進したが、それはこの戦争の最大の進軍の一つで、ヘンリー・ローリンソンの英国軍第4方面軍が決定的な役割を果たした。 >The battle is also notable for its effects on both sides' morale and the large number of surrendering German forces. This led Erich Ludendorff to describe the first day of the battle as "the black day of the German Army". Amiens was one of the first major battles involving armoured warfare and marked the end of trench warfare on the Western Front; fighting becoming mobile once again until the armistice was signed on 11 November 1918. ⇒この戦いは、両軍兵士の士気と、降伏するドイツ軍の多数化に対する影響でも注目に値する。これにより、エリック・ルーデンドルフは戦闘初日を「ドイツ軍の暗黒の日」と表現した。アミアン戦は、機甲部隊戦を含む最初の主要戦闘の一つであり、西部戦線における塹壕戦の終わりを告げた。戦闘は再度流動的となり、その状態が1918年11月21日に平和条約が調印されるまで続いた。 >On 21 March 1918, the German Army had launched Operation Michael, the first in a series of attacks planned to drive the Allies back along the length of the Western Front. With the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with revolutionary-controlled Russia, the Germans were able to transfer hundreds of thousands of men to the Western Front, giving them a significant, if temporary, advantage in manpower and materiel. ⇒1918年3月21日、ドイツ軍は西部戦線の延長線に沿って連合国軍を追い返す計画における一連の攻撃中で初めてとなる「ミヒャエル作戦行動」を開始した。ロシアの革命統制を伴う「ブレスト=リトフスク条約」に署名したドイツ軍は、何十万人もの兵士を西部前線に移送することができたので、一時的ではあれ人的資源の重大な利点となった。 >These offensives were intended to translate this advantage into victory. Operation Michael was intended to defeat the right wing of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), but a lack of success before Arras ensured the ultimate failure of the offensive. A final effort was aimed at the town of Amiens, a vital railway junction, but the advance had been halted at Villers-Bretonneux by British and Australian troops on 4 April. ⇒これらの攻勢は、この利点を勝利につなげることを目的としていた。「ミヒャエル作戦行動」は、英国遠征軍(BEF)の右翼を倒すことを意図していたが、アラス戦の前に成功しなかったことで、最終的な攻撃失敗が確実になってしまった。最終的な奮闘では、重要な鉄道交差点たるアミアンの街を対象としていたが、4月4日に英国およびオーストラリア軍隊によってヴィエール=ブレトノーで前進が食い止められた。 >Subsequent German offensives—Operation Georgette (9–11 April), Operation Blücher-Yorck (27 May), Operation Gneisenau (9 June) and Operation Marne-Rheims (15–17 July)—all made advances elsewhere on the Western Front, but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough.  By the end of the Marne-Rheims offensive, the German manpower advantage had been spent and their supplies and troops were exhausted. ⇒その後のドイツ軍の攻勢 ― ジョルジェット作戦(4月9日-11日)、ブルッヒャー=ヨーク作戦(5月27日)、グネイセノー作戦(6月9日)、マルヌ=ランス作戦(7月15-17日)など ― は、すべて決定的な突破を達成することができなかった。  マルヌ=ランス攻撃が終わるまでにドイツ軍の人的優位性が消耗し、彼らの供給品と軍隊が底を突いた。

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