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The Septemberprogramm was based on suggestions from Germany's industrial, military, and political leadership. However, since Germany did not win the war, it was never put into effect. As historian Raffael Scheck concluded, "The government, finally, never committed itself to anything. It had ordered the September Programme as an informal hearing in order to learn about the opinion of the economic and military elites." In the east, on the other hand, Germany and her allies did demand and achieve significant territorial and economic concessions from Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and from Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest. The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It pushed the Russian First Army back across its entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany. Further progress was hampered by the arrival of the Russian Tenth Army on the Germans' left flank. The Russian offensive in East Prussia had started well enough, with General Paul von Rennenkampf's First Army (Army of the Neman) forcing the Germans westward from the border towards Königsberg. Meanwhile, the Russian Second Army invaded from the south, hoping to cut the Germans off in the area around the city. However, during their advance Yakov Zhilinsky, Chief of Staff of the Imperial Russian Army, made a strategic mistake by separating two large Russian armies and urging them to move rapidly over a marginally trafficable terrain in response to the requests of the French for an early offensive. As a result, the armies approached in a poorly coordinated manner, being isolated from each other by terrain obstacles, and before the logistical base could be established, the troops were worn down by a rapid march and had to face fresh German troops. The Germans developed a plan to rapidly move their forces to surround the Second Army as it moved northward over some particularly hilly terrain. The danger was that the First Army would turn to their aid, thereby flanking the German forces. However, the Russians broadcast their daily marching orders "in the clear" on the radio, and the Germans learned that the First Army was continuing to move away from the Second. Using railways in the area, the German forces maneuvered and eventually surrounded and destroyed the Second Army at the Battle of Tannenberg between 26 and 30 August 1914. As the battle unfolded and the danger to the Second Army became clear, the First Army finally responded by sending units to help. By the time the battle proper ended on 30 August the closest of Rennenkampf's units, his II Corps, was still over 45 miles (70 km) from the pocket. In order to get even this close, his units had to rush southward and were now spread out over a long line running southward from just east of Königsberg. The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes 第一次マズーリ湖攻勢

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>The Septemberprogramm was based ~ the economic and military elites."  In the east, ~ the Treaty of Bucharest. ⇒「9月の計画」は、ドイツの産業界、軍隊、および政治的指導部からの提案に基づいていた。しかし、ドイツは戦争に勝ったわけではないので、それは実施されなかった。歴史家ラファエル・シェックはこう結論付けた。曰く、「政府はついに、何もしないことを決心した。経済界と軍のエリートの意見について学ぶために、『9月の計画』を非公式の公聴会にかけるよう命じた」、と。  一方、東では、ドイツとその同盟国は、「ブレスト=リトフスク条約」でロシアから、そして「ブカレスト条約」でルーマニアから、重要な領土的および経済的譲歩を要求し、それを達成した。 >The First Battle ~ the area around the city. ⇒「第一次マズーリ湖攻勢」は、第一次世界大戦の初期段階の東部戦線におけるドイツ軍の攻勢であった。それはロシア第1方面軍をその全前線にわたって押し戻し、最終的にドイツから追放した。(しかし)さらなる進軍は、ドイツ軍の左側面に対するロシア第10方面軍の到着によって妨げられた。東プロイセンでのロシア軍攻勢は、ポール・フォン・レネンカンプフ第1方面軍(ネマン方面軍)をもって十全な形で始まり、ドイツ軍を国境から西のケーニヒスベルクに向かって押しやった。その間、南部からロシア第2方面軍がドイツ軍の切り離しを望んで都市の周辺地域に侵入した。 >However, during their advance ~ fresh German troops. ⇒しかし、帝国ロシア方面軍参謀長ヤコフ・ジリンスキーは、その進軍の間に、2個の大きなロシア方面軍を分離し、早期の攻撃に対するフランスの要求に応じようとして通行困難な地形を迅速に移動するよう督促して戦略的な過ちを犯した。その結果、軍隊は地形の障害物によって互いに隔離され孤立して、調整のとれない大勢方法で接近し、急速な行進で兵站基地を確立できないうちに軍隊は消耗し、新鮮なドイツ軍に直面しなければならなかった。 >The Germans developed ~ from just east of Königsberg. ⇒第2方面軍が特に起伏の多い地形を越えて北へ移動したとき、ドイツ軍が急遽軍勢を移動させて第2方面軍を囲む計画を展開した。ドイツ軍にとっての危険は、第1方面軍が彼ら第2方面軍の援助に目を向け、それによってドイツ軍団を側面包囲することであった。しかし、ロシア軍はラジオで彼らの毎日の行進命令を「平文で」放送していたので、ドイツ軍は第1方面軍が第2方面軍から遠ざかって移動し続けていることを知った。1914年8月26日から30日までの間、ドイツ軍はこの地域の鉄道を使って第2方面軍に機動戦をしかけ、包囲し、最終的に破壊した。戦闘が展開して第2方面軍にとっての危険が明らかになったとき、ついに第1方面軍が反応して救援の部隊を送った。戦闘が終了する頃の8月30日には、レネンカンプフの最も近い部隊の第II軍団はまだポケット(孤立地帯)から45マイル(70キロ)以上離れていた。さらに接近するために、彼の部隊は急いで南下しなければならなかったが、今やケーニヒスベルクの真東から南に走っている長い戦線上に広がってしまった。

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