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The Battle of Kraśnik started on August 23, 1914 in the province of Galicia and the adjacent areas across the border in the Russian Empire, in northern Austria (in present-day Poland), and ended two days later. The Austro-Hungarian First Army defeated the Russian Fourth Army. It was the first victory by Austria-Hungary in World War I. As a result, the First Army's commander, General Viktor Dankl, was (briefly) lauded as a national hero for his success. The battle was also the first of a series of engagements between Austria-Hungary and Russia all along the Galicia front. The battle took place soon after the commencement of hostilities on the Eastern Front. In the East, late August and early September 1914 were characterized by a series of small-scale engagements between the Central Powers, Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the Allies, Serbia and Russia. Both sides rushed to mobilize their armies and thrust them headlong toward their frontiers in order to secure their borders and advance upon enemy territory as early as possible. Most of the early clashes tended to result in Russian and Serbian victories. By August 23, Russian forces penetrated fifty miles into Prussia. Austria-Hungary had made minimal advances into Russian Poland by occupying Miechów, unopposed, on August 20. During this early period the First Army was given orders issued by Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff, Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, to head toward Lublin and Brest-Litovsk in Russian Poland in order to make contact with the enemy and reach the strategic Warsaw-Kiev railroad. The First Army moved along the eastern bank of Vistula River and was to cross the San River, in the far northwest corner of Austro-Hungarian Empire. The First Army was accompanied by the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army on its eastern flank. At the same time Russian commander Nikolai Ivanov had ordered the Russian Fourth and Fifth Armies to strike Austria-Hungary in the north. Dankl's First Army would make contact with Salza's Fourth Army at Kraśnik while the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army met the Russian Fifth in the Battle of Komarów. These maneuvers were to become part of a broader battle, the Battle of Galicia. Going into the battle of Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarian forces enjoyed two key advantages over their Russian opponents: superior numbers and a better strategic position. Dankl's First Army enjoyed a numerical advantage of ten and a half infantry and two cavalry divisions to Baron Salza's six and a half infantry and three and a half cavalry divisions. Chief of Staff Conrad's orders for the First Army further compounded Austro-Hungarian superiority by placing a larger than expected concentration of force further west than Ivanov and Russian Chief of Staff, General Alexeyev, had expected. The Battle of Kraśnik  クラシニクの戦い

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>The Battle of Kraśnik ~ hostilities on the Eastern Front. ⇒「クラシニクの戦い」は、1914年8月23日、ロシア帝国、オーストリア北部(現在のポーランド)の国境を越えて隣接する地域とガリツィア州とで始まり、2日後に終了した。オーストリア‐ハンガリー第1方面軍がロシア第4方面軍を破った。それは第一次世界大戦でのオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の最初の勝利であった。その結果、第1方面軍の指揮官であるヴィクトル・ダンクル将軍は、彼の成功により国民的英雄として称賛された。この戦いは、ガリツィア戦線に沿ったオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍とロシア軍間の一連の戦闘における最初の交戦でもあった。戦いは、東部戦線における戦闘の開始後すぐに行われた。 >In the East, late August ~ unopposed, on August 20. ⇒東部では、1914年8月下旬から9月上旬にかけて、オーストリア‐ハンガリーとドイツの中央同盟国軍と、セルビアとロシアの連合国軍の間に小規模な一連の交戦模様があった。双方とも、自らの国境を確保し、できる限り早く敵の領土に前進するために軍隊を動員し、国境に向かって真っ向から突き進んだ。初期の衝突のほとんどは、ロシア軍とセルビア軍に勝利をもたらす傾向があった。8月23日ごろ、ロシア軍はプロイセンに50マイル侵入した。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍は、8月20日、対抗勢力のいないミーショフを占領することにより、ロシア領ポーランドへの最小限の進出を行った。 >During this early period ~ Austria-Hungary in the north. ⇒第1方面軍は、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の参謀長であるフランツ・グラフ・コンラッド・フォン・ヘッツェンドルフから、この初期の間に敵と接触して戦略的なワルシャワ‐キエフ鉄道に到達するためにロシア領ポーランドのルブリンとブレスト‐リトフスクに向かう命令を与えられたのである。第1方面軍は、ヴィスツラ川の東岸に沿って移動し、オーストリア‐ハンガリー帝国の北西隅にあるサン川を渡ることになった。第1方面軍は、東側面にオーストリア‐ハンガリー第4方面軍を伴っていた。時を同じくして、ロシア軍司令官ニコライ・イワノフは、ロシアの第4、第5方面軍に北部でオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍を攻撃するよう命じた。 >Dankl's First Army would ~ General Alexeyev, had expected. ⇒ダンクルの第1方面軍は、クラシニクでサルツァの第4方面軍と接触し、一方オーストリア‐ハンガリー第4方面軍は「コマロフの戦い」でロシアの第5方面軍に出会った。これらの機動作戦をもって、「ガリツィアの戦い」というより広範な戦いの一部とすることにしたのである。クラシニクの戦いに入ると、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍はロシアの敵勢力に対して2つの重要な利点を享受した。すなわちそれは、数的優位とより好立地の戦略的陣地であった。ダンクルの第1方面軍は、サルツァ男爵の6個半歩兵師団と3個半騎兵師団に比べて、10個半歩兵師団と2個騎兵師団という数値的優位性を享受していた。参謀総長コンラッドからの第1方面軍に対する命令は、ロシア軍(司令官)イワノフと参謀総長アレクセイエフ将軍が予想していたよりさらに西側に想定以上の軍勢を集中させることにより、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の優位性をさらに付加(合体)した。

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