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The Battle of Kraśnik started on August 23, 1914 in the province of Galicia and the adjacent areas across the border in the Russian Empire, in northern Austria (in present-day Poland), and ended two days later. The Austro-Hungarian First Army defeated the Russian Fourth Army. It was the first victory by Austria-Hungary in World War I. As a result, the First Army's commander, General Viktor Dankl, was (briefly) lauded as a national hero for his success. The battle was also the first of a series of engagements between Austria-Hungary and Russia all along the Galicia front. The battle took place soon after the commencement of hostilities on the Eastern Front. In the East, late August and early September 1914 were characterized by a series of small-scale engagements between the Central Powers, Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the Allies, Serbia and Russia. Both sides rushed to mobilize their armies and thrust them headlong toward their frontiers in order to secure their borders and advance upon enemy territory as early as possible. Most of the early clashes tended to result in Russian and Serbian victories. By August 23, Russian forces penetrated fifty miles into Prussia. Austria-Hungary had made minimal advances into Russian Poland by occupying Miechów, unopposed, on August 20. During this early period the First Army was given orders issued by Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff, Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, to head toward Lublin and Brest-Litovsk in Russian Poland in order to make contact with the enemy and reach the strategic Warsaw-Kiev railroad. The First Army moved along the eastern bank of Vistula River and was to cross the San River, in the far northwest corner of Austro-Hungarian Empire. The First Army was accompanied by the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army on its eastern flank. At the same time Russian commander Nikolai Ivanov had ordered the Russian Fourth and Fifth Armies to strike Austria-Hungary in the north. Dankl's First Army would make contact with Salza's Fourth Army at Kraśnik while the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army met the Russian Fifth in the Battle of Komarów. These maneuvers were to become part of a broader battle, the Battle of Galicia. Going into the battle of Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarian forces enjoyed two key advantages over their Russian opponents: superior numbers and a better strategic position. Dankl's First Army enjoyed a numerical advantage of ten and a half infantry and two cavalry divisions to Baron Salza's six and a half infantry and three and a half cavalry divisions. Chief of Staff Conrad's orders for the First Army further compounded Austro-Hungarian superiority by placing a larger than expected concentration of force further west than Ivanov and Russian Chief of Staff, General Alexeyev, had expected. The Battle of Kraśnik  クラシニクの戦い


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>The Battle of Kraśnik ~ hostilities on the Eastern Front. ⇒「クラシニクの戦い」は、1914年8月23日、ロシア帝国、オーストリア北部(現在のポーランド)の国境を越えて隣接する地域とガリツィア州とで始まり、2日後に終了した。オーストリア‐ハンガリー第1方面軍がロシア第4方面軍を破った。それは第一次世界大戦でのオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の最初の勝利であった。その結果、第1方面軍の指揮官であるヴィクトル・ダンクル将軍は、彼の成功により国民的英雄として称賛された。この戦いは、ガリツィア戦線に沿ったオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍とロシア軍間の一連の戦闘における最初の交戦でもあった。戦いは、東部戦線における戦闘の開始後すぐに行われた。 >In the East, late August ~ unopposed, on August 20. ⇒東部では、1914年8月下旬から9月上旬にかけて、オーストリア‐ハンガリーとドイツの中央同盟国軍と、セルビアとロシアの連合国軍の間に小規模な一連の交戦模様があった。双方とも、自らの国境を確保し、できる限り早く敵の領土に前進するために軍隊を動員し、国境に向かって真っ向から突き進んだ。初期の衝突のほとんどは、ロシア軍とセルビア軍に勝利をもたらす傾向があった。8月23日ごろ、ロシア軍はプロイセンに50マイル侵入した。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍は、8月20日、対抗勢力のいないミーショフを占領することにより、ロシア領ポーランドへの最小限の進出を行った。 >During this early period ~ Austria-Hungary in the north. ⇒第1方面軍は、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の参謀長であるフランツ・グラフ・コンラッド・フォン・ヘッツェンドルフから、この初期の間に敵と接触して戦略的なワルシャワ‐キエフ鉄道に到達するためにロシア領ポーランドのルブリンとブレスト‐リトフスクに向かう命令を与えられたのである。第1方面軍は、ヴィスツラ川の東岸に沿って移動し、オーストリア‐ハンガリー帝国の北西隅にあるサン川を渡ることになった。第1方面軍は、東側面にオーストリア‐ハンガリー第4方面軍を伴っていた。時を同じくして、ロシア軍司令官ニコライ・イワノフは、ロシアの第4、第5方面軍に北部でオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍を攻撃するよう命じた。 >Dankl's First Army would ~ General Alexeyev, had expected. ⇒ダンクルの第1方面軍は、クラシニクでサルツァの第4方面軍と接触し、一方オーストリア‐ハンガリー第4方面軍は「コマロフの戦い」でロシアの第5方面軍に出会った。これらの機動作戦をもって、「ガリツィアの戦い」というより広範な戦いの一部とすることにしたのである。クラシニクの戦いに入ると、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍はロシアの敵勢力に対して2つの重要な利点を享受した。すなわちそれは、数的優位とより好立地の戦略的陣地であった。ダンクルの第1方面軍は、サルツァ男爵の6個半歩兵師団と3個半騎兵師団に比べて、10個半歩兵師団と2個騎兵師団という数値的優位性を享受していた。参謀総長コンラッドからの第1方面軍に対する命令は、ロシア軍(司令官)イワノフと参謀総長アレクセイエフ将軍が予想していたよりさらに西側に想定以上の軍勢を集中させることにより、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の優位性をさらに付加(合体)した。





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    Austria-Hungary had been warned by Russia that the Russian government would not tolerate Austria-Hungary crushing Serbia. However, with Germany supporting Austria-Hungary's actions, the Austro-Hungarian government hoped that Russia would not intervene and that the conflict with Serbia would be a regional conflict. Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia resulted in Russia declaring war on the country and Germany in turn declared war on Russia, setting off the beginning of the clash of alliances that resulted in the World War.

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    1 mountain brigade – the 8th Austro-Hungarian brigade reinforced with 2 battalions from the 71st Austro-Hungarian infantry division 1 cavalry brigade 2 infantry divisions In reserve: The 7th Austro-Hungarian cavalry division. The ratio of forces was as follows: Force categories     2nd Romanian Army     Gerok Group     Ratio of forces   Infantry battalions 56 28 2/1 Cavalry squadrons 14 36 1/2.6 Artillery pieces 228 142 1.6/1 In the summer of 1917, one of the largest concentrations of forces in the First World War was located in Romania: 9 armies, 80 infantry and 19 cavalry divisions, totalling 974 battalions, 550 squadrons and 923 artillery batteries. 800,000 combatants and 1,000,000 reservists were present.When the operation began the situation on the Mărăşti-Nămoloasa front was as follows: the 2nd Romanian Army was positioned between Arşiţa Mocanului hill and the commune of Răcoasa. The 9th Russian Army was on its right flank and the 7th Russian Army on its left flank. Each of the three divisions from the first-order vanguard of the 2nd Army covered some 12 km of the front. Facing the Romanians was the right flank of the First Austro-Hungarian Army; more specifically, these were elements of the Gerok Group. The main Austro-Hungarian forces were placed between Momâia hill and Arșița Mocanului hill. Again, each division covered 12 km of the front.The Romanian order for battle provided for the principal offensive to unfold in three phases. The first phase envisioned breaking through the enemy defenses between Încărcătoarea clearing and the village of Mărăşti with the aim of taking Teiuş hill. The 3rd Infantry Division and right-flank forces of the 6th Infantry Division were selected to break through, after which they were to hold the Încărcătoarea clearing–Câmpurile–Vizantea Mânăstirească–Găurile line.

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    The cavalry, always the most honored branch of the army in Austria, was top notch, and the commanders Auffenberg relegated command to were very capable of deploying them to full effectiveness. Three of the Five Generals under his command were General der Kavallerie. The Infantry were also dependable, led by the professional soldiers brought into the military before the outbreak of the war. It was a dependable army and would prove so in the course of the first months of the war. Von Plehve's forces were superior in numbers. In fact all along the front the Russians were in numerical superiority, this made the position on Auffenberg's flanks dangerous. Plehve had the trusty Russian Cossacks, recruited from loyal monarchist families in the Urals and well trained, they could hold their own easily against their counterparts across the front. The infantry, however, was a weak point. While the Austro-Hungarians were properly supplied and trained, even Russian peacetime formations had supply problems from the beginning of mobilization. The Russian strength was in their numbers. The Austro-Hungarians moved forward in good order on 26 August and smashed into the Russian lines. Von Plehve's right flank was already shaken by the defeat of the Russian Fourth Army at the Battle of Kraśnik a few days earlier, and despite his typical quick action, he could do nothing to oppose a superior enemy. By the 31st, the Austro-Hungarians had taken approximately 20,000 prisoners, a huge amount for the first month of the war. These prisoners were some of Russia's best soldiers, despite their inferior supply they were loyal. The conscripts that would fill the ranks of Russia's armed forces in the coming years of war would be lacking in proper training and far less willing to fight and by the time of the Kerensky Offensive in 1917 loyal soldiers were few and far between on the Russian line. The first two battles (Kraśnik and Komarow) of Conrad's invasion of Poland had been crushing successes, and it seemed as though the Russian might not be able to prevent a crisis in Poland and conduct their invasion of East Prussia simultaneously, particularly with the conclusion of the Battle of Tannenberg a few days later. Russia lost 20,000 of its better soldiers. The two Austro-Hungarian armies were poised to move farther into Poland, and the Austro-Hungarians received a huge boost to morale. Despite the remaining lack of security in the east the triple victory of Kraśnik-Komarow-Tannenberg and the successful advance in France gave the Germans and Austro-Hungarians their greatest hope of a victorious Schlieffen Plan. However, this would be proved false hope in a matter of days - not only due to the German defeat at the Battle of the Marne.

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    The First Battle of Cobadin, also known as the First Battle of the Rasova - Cobadin - Tuzla Line was a battle fought from 17 to 19 of September 1916 between the Bulgarian Third Army and the Romanian-Russian Army of the Dobrogea. The battle ended in Entente tactical victory and forced the Central Powers to hold their offensive and assume a defensive stance till the middle of October. The right flank of the Allied forces was supported by the Romanian Navy's Danube Flotilla, consisting mainly of four Brătianu-class river monitors. These warships blocked with mines the river sectors of Silistra, Ostrov and Gura Borcea, protected the 8 September evacuation of Silistra, attacked the enemy land convoys and destroyed enemy batteries.

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    The Septemberprogramm was based on suggestions from Germany's industrial, military, and political leadership. However, since Germany did not win the war, it was never put into effect. As historian Raffael Scheck concluded, "The government, finally, never committed itself to anything. It had ordered the September Programme as an informal hearing in order to learn about the opinion of the economic and military elites." In the east, on the other hand, Germany and her allies did demand and achieve significant territorial and economic concessions from Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and from Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest. The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It pushed the Russian First Army back across its entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany. Further progress was hampered by the arrival of the Russian Tenth Army on the Germans' left flank. The Russian offensive in East Prussia had started well enough, with General Paul von Rennenkampf's First Army (Army of the Neman) forcing the Germans westward from the border towards Königsberg. Meanwhile, the Russian Second Army invaded from the south, hoping to cut the Germans off in the area around the city. However, during their advance Yakov Zhilinsky, Chief of Staff of the Imperial Russian Army, made a strategic mistake by separating two large Russian armies and urging them to move rapidly over a marginally trafficable terrain in response to the requests of the French for an early offensive. As a result, the armies approached in a poorly coordinated manner, being isolated from each other by terrain obstacles, and before the logistical base could be established, the troops were worn down by a rapid march and had to face fresh German troops. The Germans developed a plan to rapidly move their forces to surround the Second Army as it moved northward over some particularly hilly terrain. The danger was that the First Army would turn to their aid, thereby flanking the German forces. However, the Russians broadcast their daily marching orders "in the clear" on the radio, and the Germans learned that the First Army was continuing to move away from the Second. Using railways in the area, the German forces maneuvered and eventually surrounded and destroyed the Second Army at the Battle of Tannenberg between 26 and 30 August 1914. As the battle unfolded and the danger to the Second Army became clear, the First Army finally responded by sending units to help. By the time the battle proper ended on 30 August the closest of Rennenkampf's units, his II Corps, was still over 45 miles (70 km) from the pocket. In order to get even this close, his units had to rush southward and were now spread out over a long line running southward from just east of Königsberg. The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes 第一次マズーリ湖攻勢

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    In early July 1914, in the aftermath of the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Franz Ferdinand and the immediate likelihood of war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, Kaiser Wilhelm II and the German government informed the Austro-Hungarian government that Germany would uphold its alliance with Austria-Hungary and defend it from possible Russia intervention if a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia took place. When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany viewed the act as provocative.

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    Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July and on 1 August military operations began on the Polish border. Libau was bombarded by a German cruiser on 2 August and on 5 August Montenegro declared war on Austria-Hungary. On 6 August Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia and Serbia declared war on Germany; war began between Montenegro and Germany on 8 August. The Battle of Stallupönen (17 August) caused a minor check to the Russian invasion of East Prussia and on 12 August Britain and France declared war on Austria-Hungary, as Austrian forces crossed the Save and seized Shabatz. Next day Austrian forces crossed the Drina and began the first invasion of Serbia. The Battle of Cer (Battle of the Jadar, 17–21 August) began and the Battle of Gumbinnen in East Prussia took place from 19–20 August. On 21 August Austro-Hungarian forces withdrew from Serbia. The Battle of Tannenberg (26–30 August) began in East Prussia and then the Battle of Galicia (23 August – 11 September) the First Battle of Kraśnik was fought in Poland from 23–25 August. Shabatz was retaken by Serbian forces and the last Austrian troops retired across the Drina, ending the First Austrian Invasion of Serbia. The First Battle of Lemberg (26–30 August) began in Galicia and the Battle of Komarów (26 August – 2 September) and the Battle of Gnila Lipa (26–30 August) began in Poland. A naval action took place off the Aaland Islands and a German cruiser SMS Magdeburg ran aground and was intercepted by a Russian squadron.

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    An Austro-Hungarian coal barge was also shelled and damaged by Romanian artillery. Due to the deteriorating situation in Transylvania, General Averescu decided to cancel the offensive, ordering his troops back to the Romanian side of the river on October 3, after repairing the damaged parts of the bridge. Two Austro-Hungarian barges were blown up and destroyed by Romanian forces on the night of that same day. The Austro-Hungarian flotilla finally left the scene in the early hours of 4 October, after being informed that the Romanian river monitors were approaching the area. The Danube remained a barrier to military operations until half of Mackensen's army crossed it in late November, 1916.

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    The Montenegrin Campaign of World War I, which was fought in January 1916, was a part of the Serbian Campaign, in which Austria Hungary defeated and occupied the Kingdom of Montenegro, an ally of Serbia. By January 1916, the Serbian Army had been defeated by an Austrian-Hungarian, German and Bulgarian invasion. The remnants of the Serbian army had withdrawn through Montenegro and Albania, and were being evacuated by allied ships since 12 December, first to Italy and later to Corfu. The k.u.k. High command in Teschen, decided to use the success in Serbia to knock Montenegro out of the war.

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    The Battle of Flers–Courcelette (15–22 September 1916) was fought during the Battle of the Somme in France, by the French Sixth Army and the British Fourth Army and Reserve Army, against the German 1st Army, during the First World War. The Anglo-French attack of 15 September began the third period of the Battle of the Somme but by its conclusion on 22 September, the strategic objective of a decisive victory had not been achieved.