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The Battle of Wadi Musa was a battle fought between the Arab Army and the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. The battle began when General Djemal Pasha ordered his forces to secure the Hejaz Railway by "any and all means". The Ottoman Army at Ma'an was sent to deal with the North Arab Army. The Ottomans were ambushed by 700 Arab troops, inflicting heavy casualties and capturing 300 men. The remaining Ottoman forces retreated, leaving the railway uncaptured. The Battle of Caporetto in 1917 (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German). Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive. In addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio.[8]Foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. The Battle of Caporetto  カポレットの戦い

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>The Battle of Wadi Musa was a battle fought between the Arab Army and the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ⇒「ワジ・ムサの戦い」は、1916-1918年の「アラブ反乱」の間に、アラブ方面軍とオスマン帝国の間で行われた戦いであった。 >The battle began when General Djemal Pasha ordered his forces to secure the Hejaz Railway by "any and all means". The Ottoman Army at Ma'an was sent to deal with the North Arab Army. The Ottomans were ambushed by 700 Arab troops, inflicting heavy casualties and capturing 300 men. The remaining Ottoman forces retreated, leaving the railway uncaptured. ⇒ジェマル・パシャ将軍が、彼の軍団に「いかなる方法でもすべての方法でもよいから」、それによってヘジャズ鉄道を確保するよう命じた時に、戦いが始まった。マハンのトルコ方面軍は、北アラブ民族方面軍を扱うために派遣された。オスマントルコ軍は、700人のアラブ軍隊に待ち伏せされて甚大な死傷者数を被り、300人が捕縛された。生き残りのオスマントルコ軍は、鉄道を攻略しないまま退却した。 >The Battle of Caporetto in 1917 (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German). ⇒1917年の「カポレットの戦い」(「第12次イゾンツォの戦い」として知られ、中央同盟軍には「コバリードの戦い」または「カルフリートの戦い」として知られる)は、1917年10月24日から11月19日にかけて、第一次世界大戦におけるオーストリア-イタリア前線上のコバリード(当時オーストリア・リトラルの一部だったが、現在はスロベニアの北西にある)の町の近くで起こった。戦いの名は、この町のイタリア語名(ドイツ語ではKarfreit〔カルフリート〕としても知られる)に因んで名付けられた。 >Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. ⇒オーストリア-ハンガリー軍団は、ドイツ軍部隊による補強を受けてイタリア前線で対立するイタリア軍団を破壊し、圧勝することができた。戦いは、突撃隊とオスカー・フォン・フーチャによって一部開発された浸透戦術の有効性を実証した。またドイツ軍による毒ガスの使用が、イタリア第2方面軍崩壊の役割を演じた。 >In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. ⇒1917年8月に、パウル・フォン・ヒンデンブルクは、オーストリア-ハンガリー軍を戦争に引き留める決意をしたので、ドイツ軍は、彼ら(オーストリア-ハンガリー軍)がイタリア方面軍を破る手助けをする必要があった。エリッヒ・ルーデンドルフはこれに反対したが、却下された。9月に、帝国参謀からきた3人の老練兵が、化学者オットー・ハーンを案内に立てて、ガス攻撃に適当な場所を発見するためイゾンツォ前線に赴いた。彼らは、よい道路が山間の谷を西のベニス平原方向へ走り抜ける静かなカポレット地区を攻撃することを提案した。 >The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive. In addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio. Foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. ⇒オーストリア-ハンガリー方面軍のボロヴィッチ・グループは、スヴェトツァール・ボロヴィッチ指揮下に、攻勢の準備を整えていた。さらに、ドイツ軍のオットー・フォン・ベロー麾下に、オーストリア軍9個師団とドイツ軍6個師団をもって、新しい第14方面軍が編成された。イタリア軍は、不注意にも、天候情報の提供(の無線通信)によって彼らを助けてしまった。 悪天候によって2日間攻撃が延期されたけれども、10月24日は風が全然なく、前線上は霧がかかっていた。

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    The memoirs of General of Artillery Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein were published in 2001 in German language in Tbilisi, Georgia - Editor Dr. David Paitschadse, publishing house Samschoblo, ISBN 99928-26-62-2, online version can be found here The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. Though the battle proved to be a decisive blow to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and by extension the Central Powers, its full significance was not initially appreciated in Italy. Yet Erich Ludendorff, on hearing the news, is reported to have said he 'had the sensation of defeat for the first time'. It would later become clear that the battle was in fact the beginning of the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the exit of Russia from the war in 1917, Austria-Hungary was now able to devote significant forces to the Italian Front and to receive reinforcements from their German allies. The Austro-Hungarian emperor Karl had reached an agreement with the Germans to undertake a new offensive against Italy, a move supported by both the chief of the general staff Arthur Arz von Straußenburg and the commander of the South Tyrolean Army Group Conrad von Hötzendorf. In the autumn of 1917, the Germans and Austrians had defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto. After Caporetto, the Italians fell back to the Piave and were reinforced by six French infantry divisions and five British infantry divisions as well as sizeable air contingents.Italy's defeat at Caporetto led to General Luigi Cadorna's dismissal and General Armando Diaz replaced him as Chief of staff of the Italian Army. Diaz set up a strong defense line along the Piave. Up until this point in the war, the Italian army had been fighting alone against the Central Powers; with the defeat at Caporetto, France and Britain sent small reinforcements on the Italian front. These, besides accounting for less than a tenth of the Italian forces in theater, had however to be redirected for the major part to the Western Front as soon as the German Spring Offensive began in March 1918.The Austro-Hungarian Army had also recently undergone a change in command, and the new Austrian Chief of Staff, Arthur Arz von Straußenburg, wished to finish off the Italians. After Caporetto, the Austro-Hungarian offensive had put many Italian cities, including Venice and Verona, under the threat of the Central Powers. The Second Battle of the Piave River 第二次ピアーヴェ川の戦い

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    His tenure at the head of the army saw increasing German control over Austro-Hungarian forces and reduced independence of action, but also a number of notable victories in the spring and summer of 1917, including the clearing of Galicia and the Bukovina, as well as the breakthrough at Flitsch Tolmein and the great victory at Caporetto later in the year.Promoted to the rank of Generaloberst on 26 February 1918, and also raised to the nobility early the same year, Arz was ultimately responsible for planning the invasion of Italy which was to take place during the summer of 1918, with Russia now knocked out of the war and a good number of experienced forces at his disposal. While planning was underway, both Conrad and Boroević demanded to lead the offensive, and neither Arz nor the AOK was able to make a decisive decision. Instead a compromise suggested by the Emperor was adopted, with their forces divided and sent to attack Italian positions on the front from two different directions. .

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