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Dr. Adrian Owen is a professor of neuroscience at Cambridge University. Dr. Owen’s team concentrates on the diagnosis and effect of brain injuries, and the development of treatments for such patients. He was not satisfied with the accepted methods of diagnosing comatose patients. Typically, when someone cannot respond to any questions or requests, they will be diagnosed as “vegetative.” However, a significant number of so-called vegetative patients are actually conscious, but completely unable to respond to questions. In a previous study, Dr. Owen put healthy volunteers into an fMRI scanner and asked them to imagine playing tennis. After mapping the area that becomes active when people imagine that activity, they put a vegetative patient into the scanner and asked her to imagine playing tennis. To the team’s great joy, the patient’s brain lit up just like that of the healthy volunteers. Since she could respond to their request to imagine playing tennis, she showed them that she was conscious ― all this despite being completely still, having her eyes closed and showing no signs of consciousness. Another patient was told to use a code to communicate with the research team. To signify “Yes,” he was to imagine playing tennis. To signify “No,” he was to imagine walking around in his house. He was asked yes-or-no questions about his personal history, and correctly answered, proving that despite his appearance he was conscious and could communicate. Next, the research team plans to ask unverifiable questions, in an attempt to communicate more deeply with these patients who can manipulate their brains, but not their bodies. よろしくお願いしますorz

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  • ddeana
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エイドリアン・オーウェン博士はケンブリッジ大学で神経科学の教授を務めています。 オーウェン博士のチームは脳損傷の診断とその影響、およびそういった病気を患っている患者の為の治療法の開発についての研究に専念しています。 彼は一般的に容認されていた植物状態の診断方法に満足していませんでした。 通常、質問や要求に応答できない場合、その人は「植物状態」と診断されます。 しかし植物状態といわれる患者のかなりの数が、実際には意識があっても完全に質問に応答することができないのです。 以前の研究で、オーウェン博士は健康体の人々を機能的磁気共鳴画像法(※1)スキャナーに通し、テニスをしていることを想像するよう要請しました。 人々が運動をイメージした時活発になる(脳の)部分をマッピング(※2)した後、一人の植物状態の女性患者をスキャナーに通し、テニスをしていることを想像するよう要求しました。 チームにとって大変な喜びだったのは、患者の脳が健康な脳と同様に色を示したことです。 テニスをしていることを想像するようにとの指示に応答できたことにより、完璧に寝たきりであり、目は閉じたままで意識や自覚といった兆候を示していなくとも、こうして彼女には意識があるのだということを明らかにしたのでした。 別の患者は研究チームとコードを使ってコミュニケーションをするよう指示されました。 彼がテニスをしていることを想像した場合は「はい」で表されました。 家の周りを歩いていることを想像した場合は「いいえ」で表されました。 彼自身の経歴について「イエス、ノー、クエスチョン」(※3)で質問され彼が正しく応答したことは、外観上の症状に関わらず彼に意識があり、人とやりとりすることが可能であることを証明したのでした。 次に研究チームは、体が動かなくとも脳が活動できるこうした患者とより深くコミュニケーションを取る為に、証明不可能な質問を使うべく計画しています。 ※1:どのような画像が見られるかは下記をご参照ください。 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/FMRI ※2:脳の働きを確認するなどの目的で行われる手法ですが、一般的にマッピングと呼ばれますので、そのまま使います。詳細は下記をご参照ください。 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%84%B3%E6%A9%9F%E8%83%BD%E3%83%9E%E3%83%83%E3%83%94%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B0 ※3:質問に「はい」か「いいえ」のどちらかだけで答える手法。

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質問者からのお礼

いつも言葉にはできないほど助かっています 本当にありがとうございますm(_ _)m

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  • 回答No.1

これは質問に対する回答ではありません。ですので規約違反を覚悟で返答します。あなたの将来を思ってのことですが、現在はこのような情けに逆恨みするような風潮もあることは承知しています。 丸投げではなく、要点を絞って質問すべきだと思います。あなたが高校生か大学生か分かりませんが、まったく手もつけられない課題などないはずです。どうしても分からない部分だけにしてください。これを和訳する労力がどれほどのものか想像できないでしょうが、文字にして文章を起こすことは大変です。 さらに良い質問は、「○○は××だと思うのですが、どうですか?」です。 「もしまったく分からないなら…」、の続きにはとても厳しい言葉をつなげなければなりません。そうではないことを期待しています。

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  • 和訳お願いします

    和訳お願いします Owen and his collaborators repeated their fMRI experiment on 54 patients who had previously been classified as either vegetative or minimally conscious(a consistently respond to commands, but cannot communicate interactively). They found that five of these 54 patients responded to commands to imagine playing tennis or navigating thought a familiar house. Four of those five patients had classified as vegetative, but when clinicians repeated their assessment following the fMRI study, they found evidence that two of those four should instead have been classified as minimally conscious. One of the responsive patients, a 22-year-old man who had been diagnosed as vegetative for five years after a traffic accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, was selected for further study. Because it is difficult-if not impossible-to determine whether someone is thinking yes or no, the reseachers instead asked the patient to imagine playing tennis when the answer to imagine playing tennis when the answer to a question was yes, and to imagine walking through a house when the answer was no. Visualizing these two activities stimulates different parts of the brain that are easily distinguished using fMRI. They asked the patient a series of simple yes-or-no question pertaining to his personal history, such as Is your father's name Alexander? He answered five out of six question correctly. No brain activity was observed in response to the sixth question. The results suggest that fMRI could be useful in diagnosing unresponsive patients, says Owen. There are things that are just not going to manifest themselves in outward behavior , says Owen. This method can tell us which patients are aware, and it can tell us what they are capable of. For Naccache, it is the patient's ability to respond using the code suggested by Owen and his team that indicates he is truly conscious. When you are conscious, you have the ability to use an arbitrary code to communicate with somebody, he says. Parashkev Nachev, a neuroscientist at University College London who was not affiliated with the work, cautions that it is important not to over-interpret the results. The patient only answered a series of very basic questions, he notes, and the results in his view do not necessarily suggest that the patient is fully conscious or has the potential for recovery. There is no doubt that it does merit further research, he says, but I could not see using it as a clinical tool at this stage. As a next step, Owen and his colleagues intend to ask the patient a series of questions with unverifiable answers. For example, the technique could be used to ask whether they are experiencing any pain-a question that frequently troubles family members and hospital staff. But should a vegetative patient be asked whether they want to live or die? I think there's an enormous problem with that, says Owen. Just because a patient is able to respond with yes or no doesn't tell you if they have the necessary level of competence to answer difficult, ethically challenging questions about their destiny.

  • 和訳お願いします 訂正版です

    和訳お願いします Owen and his collaborators repeated their fMRI experiments on 54 patients who had previously been classified as either vegetative or minimally conscious(a condition in which a patient may inconsistently respond to commands, but cannot communicate interactively). They found that five of these 54 patients responded to commands to imagine playing tennis or navigating though a familiar house. Four of those five patients had classified as vegetative, but when clinicians repeated their assessment following the fMRI study, they found evidence that two of those four should instead have been classified as minimally conscious. One of the responsive patients, a 22-year-old man who had been diagnosed as vegetative for five years after a traffic accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, was selected for further study. Because it is difficult-if not impossible-to determine whether someone is thinking yes or no, the reseachers instead asked the patient to imagine playing tennis when the answer to imagine playing tennis when the answer to a question was yes, and to imagine walking through a house when the answer was no. Visualizing these two activities stimulates different parts of the brain that are easily distinguished using fMRI. They asked the patient a series of simple yes-or-no question pertaining to his personal history, such as Is your father's name Alexander? He answered five out of six question correctly. No brain activity was observed in response to the sixth question. The results suggest that fMRI could be useful in diagnosing unresponsive patients, says Owen. There are things that are just not going to manifest themselves in outward behavior , says Owen. This method can tell us which patients are aware, and it can tell us what they are capable of. For Naccache, it is the patient's ability to respond using the code suggested by Owen and his team that indicates he is truly conscious. When you are conscious, you have the ability to use an arbitrary code to communicate with somebody, he says. Parashkev Nachev, a neuroscientist at University College London who was not affiliated with the work, cautions that it is important not to over-interpret the results. The patient only answered a series of very basic questions, he notes, and the results in his view do not necessarily suggest that the patient is fully conscious or has the potential for recovery. There is no doubt that it does merit further research, he says, but I could not see using it as a clinical tool at this stage. As a next step, Owen and his colleagues intend to ask the patient a series of questions with unverifiable answers. For example, the technique could be used to ask whether they are experiencing any pain-a question that frequently troubles family members and hospital staff. But should a vegetative patient be asked whether they want to live or die? I think there's an enormous problem with that, says Owen. Just because a patient is able to respond with yes or no doesn't tell you if they have the necessary level of competence to answer difficult, ethically challenging questions about their destiny.

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    和訳お願いします Brain imaging has allowed a man who was previously considered unconscious to answer a series of yes-or-no question. The study, published this week in New England Journal of Medicine, challenges clinicians' definition of consciousness and provides an unprecedented opportunity to communicate with those who show no outward signs of awareness. Patients are classified as unconscious, or being in a vegetative state, if they are unable to respond in any fashion to an extensive series of questions and requests. But if the patient is completely unable to move, an aware or communicative mind could go unrecognized by this method of assessment. The conundrum with the vegetative state is that it's a diagnosis made on lack of evidence, says neuroscientist Adrian Owen of the Medical Research Council's Cognition and Brian Sciences Unit in Cambridge, UK. Owen and his colleagues made headlines three years ago when they used a brain-scanning technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) to demonstrate that a woman in a vegetative state could respond to verbal commands. When researchers directed her to imagine playing a game of tennis or walking through her house, the fMRI scan revealed that she activated the same areas of her brain as healthy subjects who were asked to do the same. The findings sparked a debate over whether or not the woman was actually conscious(see Thoughts of woman in waking coma revealed).Some argued that Owen and his collaborators saw was nothing more than an automatic activation of those brain regions on hearing certain words. One such critic was Lionel Naccache, a neuroscientist at the Pitie-Salpetriere hospital in Paris, who urged caution before concluding that the woman was indeed conscious. This latest evidence of communication with a vegetative patients, however, has Naccache convinced. This is clear-cut evidence of consciousness he says.

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