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和訳お願いします Owen and his collaborators repeated their fMRI experiment on 54 patients who had previously been classified as either vegetative or minimally conscious(a consistently respond to commands, but cannot communicate interactively). They found that five of these 54 patients responded to commands to imagine playing tennis or navigating thought a familiar house. Four of those five patients had classified as vegetative, but when clinicians repeated their assessment following the fMRI study, they found evidence that two of those four should instead have been classified as minimally conscious. One of the responsive patients, a 22-year-old man who had been diagnosed as vegetative for five years after a traffic accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, was selected for further study. Because it is difficult-if not impossible-to determine whether someone is thinking yes or no, the reseachers instead asked the patient to imagine playing tennis when the answer to imagine playing tennis when the answer to a question was yes, and to imagine walking through a house when the answer was no. Visualizing these two activities stimulates different parts of the brain that are easily distinguished using fMRI. They asked the patient a series of simple yes-or-no question pertaining to his personal history, such as Is your father's name Alexander? He answered five out of six question correctly. No brain activity was observed in response to the sixth question. The results suggest that fMRI could be useful in diagnosing unresponsive patients, says Owen. There are things that are just not going to manifest themselves in outward behavior , says Owen. This method can tell us which patients are aware, and it can tell us what they are capable of. For Naccache, it is the patient's ability to respond using the code suggested by Owen and his team that indicates he is truly conscious. When you are conscious, you have the ability to use an arbitrary code to communicate with somebody, he says. Parashkev Nachev, a neuroscientist at University College London who was not affiliated with the work, cautions that it is important not to over-interpret the results. The patient only answered a series of very basic questions, he notes, and the results in his view do not necessarily suggest that the patient is fully conscious or has the potential for recovery. There is no doubt that it does merit further research, he says, but I could not see using it as a clinical tool at this stage. As a next step, Owen and his colleagues intend to ask the patient a series of questions with unverifiable answers. For example, the technique could be used to ask whether they are experiencing any pain-a question that frequently troubles family members and hospital staff. But should a vegetative patient be asked whether they want to live or die? I think there's an enormous problem with that, says Owen. Just because a patient is able to respond with yes or no doesn't tell you if they have the necessary level of competence to answer difficult, ethically challenging questions about their destiny.

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医学論文で、植物状態と判断された人間に、意識があることについて述べた文章ですが あっちもこっちも、転記ミスだらけ・・・ うつしまちがえてるとこおおくて、前後の意味つながらないところが、上から10行で2か所 あります。よむきせず。

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  • 和訳お願いします 訂正版です

    和訳お願いします Owen and his collaborators repeated their fMRI experiments on 54 patients who had previously been classified as either vegetative or minimally conscious(a condition in which a patient may inconsistently respond to commands, but cannot communicate interactively). They found that five of these 54 patients responded to commands to imagine playing tennis or navigating though a familiar house. Four of those five patients had classified as vegetative, but when clinicians repeated their assessment following the fMRI study, they found evidence that two of those four should instead have been classified as minimally conscious. One of the responsive patients, a 22-year-old man who had been diagnosed as vegetative for five years after a traffic accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, was selected for further study. Because it is difficult-if not impossible-to determine whether someone is thinking yes or no, the reseachers instead asked the patient to imagine playing tennis when the answer to imagine playing tennis when the answer to a question was yes, and to imagine walking through a house when the answer was no. Visualizing these two activities stimulates different parts of the brain that are easily distinguished using fMRI. They asked the patient a series of simple yes-or-no question pertaining to his personal history, such as Is your father's name Alexander? He answered five out of six question correctly. No brain activity was observed in response to the sixth question. The results suggest that fMRI could be useful in diagnosing unresponsive patients, says Owen. There are things that are just not going to manifest themselves in outward behavior , says Owen. This method can tell us which patients are aware, and it can tell us what they are capable of. For Naccache, it is the patient's ability to respond using the code suggested by Owen and his team that indicates he is truly conscious. When you are conscious, you have the ability to use an arbitrary code to communicate with somebody, he says. Parashkev Nachev, a neuroscientist at University College London who was not affiliated with the work, cautions that it is important not to over-interpret the results. The patient only answered a series of very basic questions, he notes, and the results in his view do not necessarily suggest that the patient is fully conscious or has the potential for recovery. There is no doubt that it does merit further research, he says, but I could not see using it as a clinical tool at this stage. As a next step, Owen and his colleagues intend to ask the patient a series of questions with unverifiable answers. For example, the technique could be used to ask whether they are experiencing any pain-a question that frequently troubles family members and hospital staff. But should a vegetative patient be asked whether they want to live or die? I think there's an enormous problem with that, says Owen. Just because a patient is able to respond with yes or no doesn't tell you if they have the necessary level of competence to answer difficult, ethically challenging questions about their destiny.

  • 和訳をお願します

    Dr. Adrian Owen is a professor of neuroscience at Cambridge University. Dr. Owen’s team concentrates on the diagnosis and effect of brain injuries, and the development of treatments for such patients. He was not satisfied with the accepted methods of diagnosing comatose patients. Typically, when someone cannot respond to any questions or requests, they will be diagnosed as “vegetative.” However, a significant number of so-called vegetative patients are actually conscious, but completely unable to respond to questions. In a previous study, Dr. Owen put healthy volunteers into an fMRI scanner and asked them to imagine playing tennis. After mapping the area that becomes active when people imagine that activity, they put a vegetative patient into the scanner and asked her to imagine playing tennis. To the team’s great joy, the patient’s brain lit up just like that of the healthy volunteers. Since she could respond to their request to imagine playing tennis, she showed them that she was conscious ― all this despite being completely still, having her eyes closed and showing no signs of consciousness. Another patient was told to use a code to communicate with the research team. To signify “Yes,” he was to imagine playing tennis. To signify “No,” he was to imagine walking around in his house. He was asked yes-or-no questions about his personal history, and correctly answered, proving that despite his appearance he was conscious and could communicate. Next, the research team plans to ask unverifiable questions, in an attempt to communicate more deeply with these patients who can manipulate their brains, but not their bodies. よろしくお願いしますorz

  • 和訳お願いします

    和訳お願いします Brain imaging has allowed a man who was previously considered unconscious to answer a series of yes-or-no question. The study, published this week in New England Journal of Medicine, challenges clinicians' definition of consciousness and provides an unprecedented opportunity to communicate with those who show no outward signs of awareness. Patients are classified as unconscious, or being in a vegetative state, if they are unable to respond in any fashion to an extensive series of questions and requests. But if the patient is completely unable to move, an aware or communicative mind could go unrecognized by this method of assessment. The conundrum with the vegetative state is that it's a diagnosis made on lack of evidence, says neuroscientist Adrian Owen of the Medical Research Council's Cognition and Brian Sciences Unit in Cambridge, UK. Owen and his colleagues made headlines three years ago when they used a brain-scanning technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) to demonstrate that a woman in a vegetative state could respond to verbal commands. When researchers directed her to imagine playing a game of tennis or walking through her house, the fMRI scan revealed that she activated the same areas of her brain as healthy subjects who were asked to do the same. The findings sparked a debate over whether or not the woman was actually conscious(see Thoughts of woman in waking coma revealed).Some argued that Owen and his collaborators saw was nothing more than an automatic activation of those brain regions on hearing certain words. One such critic was Lionel Naccache, a neuroscientist at the Pitie-Salpetriere hospital in Paris, who urged caution before concluding that the woman was indeed conscious. This latest evidence of communication with a vegetative patients, however, has Naccache convinced. This is clear-cut evidence of consciousness he says.

  • 和訳をお願いします

    Dorina Papageorgiou, a neuroscientist who works on decoding speech from fMRI signals at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, says that the research is “cutting-edge work in the area of brain-computer interface speech output”. But brain signals for speech can also be decoded by electrodes positioned outside the brain, on the skull, or from fMRI, as in Papageorgiou’s work, and she believes that, for many patients, non-invasive methods would be a better bet than a brain electrode. Guenther and his colleagues say that they feel privileged to be involved in the project. “This was the first application where we see an individual improve his abilities based on something we theorized years ago,” he says. Their efforts are appreciated by the patient too. “When we first arrived to install this system he was obviously very excited ― you can tell from his involuntary movements, and he was trying to look at us the whole time,” Guenther says. As the man’s father told the team, “he really has a new lease on life”. The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Since all hypochondriacs (and, I’m afraid, people in general)have a propensity to jump to the worst rather than the best conclusions, this new breed of hypochondriac is apt to assume that he or she is seriously, even fatally , ill . How scary is that? Another related problem is that patients armed with web-based medical knowledge often dispute or refuse to accept the advice and diagnoses of medical professionals. This can make it very difficult for doctors to properly administer medical care. Some doctors, however, don’t mind their patient’s being so knowledgeable since it can help to improve doctor/patient communication. By the way, a 2008 study conducted by Microsoft found that more than half of the people surveyed admitted that online medical searches often interfere with their daily activities. All this makes me wonder if there isn’t such a thing as being too health-conscious.

  • 和訳をお願いします

    The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. また、1つ目の文のso that patients can ~のcanのかかる動詞はなんなんですか?

  • 和訳をお願いします

    The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. また、1つ目の文のso that patients can ~のcanのかかる動詞はなんなんですか? よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳お願いします。

    “Fundamentally,” he says, “what we are focused on is bringing people back to life from death or near-death, and reinventing or revolutionising the way we approach that.” Becker's key discovery is that cells don't die during that five-minute window. The real damage comes when the heart restarts and oxygen floods the tissues, a process known as reperfusion. “It's pretty well accepted that at the point at which the usual human being gets pronounced dead, all their cells are alive. It's a very eerie question: if all their cells are alive, what is death?” says Becker. Besides, if all the patient's cells are alive, why can't the patient recover and walk out of the hospital? “With our current therapies we can't do it.” One option, says Becker, is cooling the patient―by a few degrees, not to cryonic extremes―to buy time, an idea he says has been around for thousands of year. In studies, dogs and mice cooled before reperfusion have recovered better. “We believe it prevents reperfusion injury.” Cooling, he adds, is much quicker if you cool the blood directly, either by injecting a slurry of micro-ice particles or by using a bypass machine. Imagine, he says, a soldier in the Iraq war, bleeding to death while you watch. “If you could zap, perfuse him, put him on a plane, wing him to a major hospital and fix him all up―that's not at all crazy.” よろしくお願いします。

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    Now in this necessarily ejective method of enquiry, what is the kind of activities that we are entitled to regard as indicative of mind ? I certainly do not so regard the flowing of a river or the blowing of a wind. Why ? First, because the subjects are too remote in kind from my own organism to admit of my drawing any reasonable analogy between them and it; and, secondly, because the activities which they present are invariably of the same kind under the same circumstances : they therefore offer no evidence of that which I deem the distinctive character of my own mind as such — Consciousness. In other words, two conditions require to he satisfied before we even begin to imagine that observable activities are indicative of mind ; the activities must be dis played by a living organism, and they must be of a kind to suggest the presence of consciousness. What then is to be taken as the criterion of consciousness ? Subjectively, no criterion is either needful or possible ; for to me, individually, nothing can be more ultimate than my own consciousness, and, therefore, my consciousness cannot admit of any criterion having a claim to a higher certainty. But, ejectively, some such criterion is required, and as my consciousness cannot come within the territory of a foreign consciousness, I can only appreciate the latter through the agency of ambassadors — these ambassadors being, as I have now so frequently said, the observable activities of an organism. The next question, therefore, is, What activities of an organism are to be taken as indicative of consciousness ? The answer that comes most readily is, — All activities that are indicative of Choice; wherever wo see a living organism apparently exerting inten tional choice, we may infer that it is conscious choice, and, therefore, that the organism has a mind. But physiology shows that this answer will not do ; for, while not disputing whether there is any mind without the power of conscious choice, physiology, as we shall see in the next chapter, is very firm in denying that all apparent choice is due to mind.

  • 和訳お願いします><

    The stereotypes associated with old people are particularly unpleasant. They are often regarded as sick, stupid, or even dirty. Because a minority of old people become confused, or suffer from mental disorders such as Alzhimer's disease, it is assumed that any old person is likely to become mentally incapacitated -although, in fact, the evidence is very different. Because of this, the positive contributions which older people can make to social events and processes are often overlooked, or simply ignored. Recently, a number of organizations and individuals have begun to challenge these stereotypes about ageing, and there is some indication that attitudes are beginning to change. But there is still a long way to go. Insight The negative view that we have of old people is like other stereotypes, having a small grain of truth in some cases but a lot of exceptions. Interestingly , although old people also share this negative stereotype, they almost always see themselves as one of the exceptions. So who is left to fit the stereotype? RETIREMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY Some people who reach reach retiring age, though, still hold to the old negative ideas about retirement. Sometimes they feel that society has simply thrown them away, even though they are as fit as ever. But sometimes they interpret any aches and pains as being evidence that they are becoming old and useless, so they stop doing activities which would help them to keep fit. Anyone will grow infirm if they do nothing all day but sit in the house and watch TV- muscles need exercise to keep toned, and a healthy retirement means an active one. Also, feeling socially useless is a major source of stress and helplessness. Without another source of self-esteem, such as a hobby or voluntary work, people can become extremely depressed, and appear to give up on active living.